|Saint Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc)|
Painting, c. 1485. Artist's interpretation; the only portrait for which she is known to have sat has not survived. (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, Paris, AE II 2490)
|Born||c. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city 1412, Domrémy, France|
|Died||May 30, 1431, Rouen, France|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Beatified||April 18, 1909, Notre Dame Cathedral by Pius X|
|Canonized||May 16, 1920, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome by Benedict XV|
|Patronage||France; martyrs; captives; militants; people ridiculed for their piety; prisoners; rape victims (though she was not raped); soldiers; Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service; Women's Army Corps|
Joan of Arc, or Jeanne d'Arc in French, (c. Domrémy-la-Pucelle is a village and commune of the Vosges département, in Lorraine, France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting NotreDameFlyingButtressjpg|right|thumb|250px|Notre Dame de Paris Flying Buttress]] Notre Dame de Paris is a Gothic Cathedral on the eastern half of the Saint Pius X ( Latin: Pius PP X) ( June 2, 1835 &mdash August 20, 1914) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pope Benedict XV ( Latin: Benedictus PP XV) (Benedetto XV ( November 21 1854 &ndash January 22 1922 born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Christianity has used symbols from its very beginnings Each Saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life In the Catholic Church a consecrated virgin is a woman who has dedicated herself to a life of Virginity or perpetual Chastity in the service of The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 1412 – May 30, 1431) also known as "the Maid of Orleans", was a 15th century virgin saint and national heroine of France. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity A hero (from Greek grc ἥρως hērōs) in Greek mythology and Folklore, was originally a Demigod, the offspring of a mortal and This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A peasant girl born in Eastern France, Joan led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War, claiming divine guidance, and was indirectly responsible for the coronation of King Charles VII. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461 called the Victorious (le Victorieux or the Well-Served (le Bien-Servi was King of France from 1422 She was captured by the English and tried by an ecclesiastical court led by Bishop Pierre Cauchon, an English partisan; the court convicted her of heresy and she was burned at the stake by the English when she was nineteen years old. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the Pierre Cauchon (b 1371 in Rheims, d December 1442 in Rouen) Bishop of Beauvais. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox Twenty-four years later, the Holy See reviewed the decision of the ecclesiastical court, found her innocent, and declared her a martyr. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom She was beatified in 1909 and later canonized in 1920. Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar 
Joan asserted that she had visions from God that told her to recover her homeland from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior The uncrowned King Charles VII sent her to the siege at Orléans as part of a relief mission. Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461 called the Victorious (le Victorieux or the Well-Served (le Bien-Servi was King of France from 1422 The Siege of Orléans (1428 &ndash 1429 marked a turning point in the Hundred Years' War between France and England. She gained prominence when she overcame the dismissive attitude of veteran commanders and lifted the siege in only nine days. Several more swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims and settled the disputed succession to the throne. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern
The renewed French confidence outlasted her own brief career. She refused to leave the field when she was wounded during an attempt to recapture Paris that autumn. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Hampered by court intrigues, she led only minor companies from then onward and fell prisoner at a skirmish near Compiègne the following spring. Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a Sous-préfecture. A politically motivated trial convicted her of heresy. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox The English regent John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford had her burnt at the stake in Rouen. John of Lancaster 1st Duke of Bedford ( 20 June 1389 – 14 September 1435) also known as John Plantagenet, was the third surviving Execution by burning has a long history as a method of Punishment for Crimes such as Treason, Heresy and Witchcraft Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital She had been the heroine of her country at 17 and died when only 19 years old. Some 24 years later, Pope Callixtus III reopened the case, and a new finding overturned the original conviction. Pope Calixtus III ( December 31, 1378 &ndash August 6, 1458) né Alfonso de Borja, was Pope from April Her piety to the end impressed the retrial court. She was beatified in the 20th century, and Pope Benedict XV canonized her on May 16, 1920. Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church Pope Benedict XV ( Latin: Benedictus PP XV) (Benedetto XV ( November 21 1854 &ndash January 22 1922 born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar 
Joan of Arc has remained an important figure throughout Western culture. From Napoleon to the present, French politicians of all leanings have invoked her memory. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Major writers and composers who have created works about her include Shakespeare, Voltaire, Schiller, Verdi, Tchaikovsky, Twain, and Shaw. William Shakespeare ( baptised François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller krɪstɔf friːtʁɪç fɔn ʃɪləʁ/ʃɪlɐ (10 November 1759 9 May 1805 was a German Poet, Philosopher Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Depictions of her continue in film, television, song, and dance. Joan of Arc has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries
The historian Kelly DeVries describes the period preceding her appearance with, "If anything could have discouraged her, the state of France in 1429 should have. Kelly DeVries is an American Historian specialising in the warfare of the Middle Ages. " The Hundred Years' War had begun in 1337 as a succession dispute to the French throne with intermittent periods of relative peace. The Hundred Years' War (Guerre de Cent Ans was a prolonged conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne vacant with the extinction of the senior The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, and the English use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. A chevauchée ( French for "promenade" or "horse charge" depending on context was a method in Medieval warfare for weakening the enemy The French population had not recovered from the Black Death of the previous century and its merchants were cut off from foreign markets. Medieval Demography is the study of human Demography in Europe during the Middle Ages. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia At the outset of her career, the English had almost achieved their goal of a dual monarchy under English control and the French army had won no major victory for a generation. In DeVries's words, "the kingdom of France was not even a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype. "
The French king at the time of Joan's birth, Charles VI, suffered bouts of insanity and was often unable to rule. Charles VI (3 December 1368 &ndash 21 October 1422 called the Well-loved (le Bien-Aimé and the Mad (French le Fol or le Fou) was the The king's brother Duke Louis of Orléans and the king's cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children. Louis of Valois ( March 13 1372 &ndash November 23 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death John the Fearless (Jean sans Peur also John II Duke of Burgundy, known as John of Valois and John of Burgundy ( May 28 1371 Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which This dispute escalated to accusations of an extramarital affair with Queen Isabeau of Bavaria and the kidnappings of the royal children. Isabeau de Bavière (also Isabella of Bavaria-Ingolstadt; c 1370 &ndash September 24, 1435) was a Queen Consort of France (1385-1422 The matter climaxed when the Duke of Burgundy ordered the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407.
The factions loyal to these two men became known as the Armagnacs and the Burgundians. This article is about the historical party during the Hundred Years' War See also Civil war between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians The Burgundian party was a political allegiance in France that formed during the reign of The English king, Henry V, took advantage of this turmoil to invade France, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt in 1415, and capturing northern French towns. Henry V (16 September 1386 &ndash 31 August 1422 was one of the most significant English warrior kings of the 15th century The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War.  The future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin as heir to the throne at the age of 14, after all four of his older brothers died. Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461 called the Victorious (le Victorieux or the Well-Served (le Bien-Servi was King of France from 1422 The Dauphin of France (Dauphin de France—strictly Dauphin of Viennois ( Dauphin de Viennois)—was the title given to the Heir apparent of the  His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with Burgundy in 1419. This ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans murdered John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection. The new Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles and entered into an alliance with the English. Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon also Philip III Duke of Burgundy ( July 31, 1396 &ndash June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy Large sections of France were conquered. 
In 1420, Queen Isabeau of Bavaria concluded the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the French royal succession to Henry V and his heirs in preference to her son Charles. The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that Henry V of England would inherit the throne of France upon the death of King Charles VI of France. This agreement revived rumors about her supposed affair with the late duke of Orléans and raised fresh suspicions that the Dauphin was a royal bastard rather than the son of the king.  Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry VI (6 December 1421 &ndash 21 May 1471 was King of England 1422–1461 (though with a Regent until 1437 and then 1470–1471 and a claimant to the kingdom Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, acted as regent. A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor 
By the beginning of 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under foreign control. The English ruled Paris, while the Burgundians controlled Reims. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern The latter city was important as the traditional site of French coronations and consecrations, especially since neither claimant to the throne of France had yet been crowned. The English had laid siege to Orléans, which was the only remaining loyal French city north of the Loire. The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World from Marathon to Waterloo is a Book written by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy and published in 1851 Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the Its strategic location along the river made it the last obstacle to an assault on the remainder of the French heartland. In the words of one modern historian, "On the fate of Orléans hung that of the entire kingdom. " No one was optimistic that the city could long withstand the siege. 
Joan of Arc's parents' names were Jacques d'Arc and Isabelle Romée in Domrémy, a village which was then in the duchy of Bar (and later annexed to the province of Lorraine and renamed Domrémy-la-Pucelle). Jacques d'Arc (1380 - 1440 was the father of Joan of Arc. He was a farmer in the village of Domremy in Lorraine Domrémy-la-Pucelle is a village and commune of the Vosges département, in Lorraine, France. Bar was an historic duchy and county of the Holy Roman Empire later incorporated into France  Her parents owned about 50 acres (0. 2 square kilometers) of land and her father supplemented his farming work with a minor position as a village official, collecting taxes and heading the local watch.  They lived in an isolated patch of northeastern territory that remained loyal to the French crown despite being surrounded by Burgundian lands. Several local raids occurred during her childhood and on one occasion her village was burned.
Joan said she was about 19 at her trial, so she was born about 1412; she later testified that she experienced her first vision around 1424 at the age of 12 years when she was out alone in a field and heard voices. She had said she cried when they left as they were so beautiful. She would report that Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret told her to drive out the English and bring the Dauphin to Reims for his coronation. Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an Saint Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine ( Greek) is a Christian Saint Margaret,also known as Margaret of Antioch (in Pisidia) virgin and Martyr, is celebrated by the Roman Catholic and Anglican 
At the age of 16, she asked a kinsman, Durand Lassois, to bring her to nearby Vaucouleurs where she petitioned the garrison commander, Count Robert de Baudricourt, for permission to visit the royal French court at Chinon. Vaucouleurs is a historic town and commune in France, in the département of Meuse. Robert de Baudricourt (ca 1400-1454 Seigneur de Baudricourt Blaise Buxy and Sorcy was a minor figure of 15th century French nobility. Chinon is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. Baudricourt's sarcastic response did not deter her.  She returned the following January and gained support from two men of standing: Jean de Metz and Bertrand de Poulengy.  Under their auspices, she gained a second interview where she made a remarkable prediction about a military reversal near Orléans. The Battle of the Herrings was a military action near the town of Rouvray in France, just north of Orléans, which took place on February 12 
Robert de Baudricourt granted her an escort to visit Chinon after news from the front confirmed her prediction. Chinon is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. She made the journey through hostile Burgundian territory in male disguise.  Upon arriving at the royal court she impressed Charles VII during a private conference. Charles VII may refer to Charles VII of Sweden (1161–1167 Charles VII of France, "the Victorious" (1403–1461 He then ordered background inquiries and a theological examination at Poitiers to verify her morality. Poitiers is a town on the Clain River in west central France. During this time Charles's mother-in-law Yolande of Aragon was financing a relief expedition to Orléans. Yolande of Aragon, ( 11 August 1384, Saragosa, Aragon &ndash 14 November[[ 442]] was a daughter of John I of Aragon This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation. Joan petitioned for permission to travel with the army and wear the equipment of a knight. She depended on donated items for her armour, horse, sword, banner, and entourage. Her armor was said to be white. Historian Stephen W. Richey explains her attraction as the only source of hope for a regime that was near collapse:
|“||After years of one humiliating defeat after another, both the military and civil leadership of France were demoralized and discredited. When the Dauphin Charles granted Joan’s urgent request to be equipped for war and placed at the head of his army, his decision must have been based in large part on the knowledge that every orthodox, every rational, option had been tried and had failed. Only a regime in the final straits of desperation would pay any heed to an illiterate farm girl who claimed that the voice of God was instructing her to take charge of her country’s army and lead it to victory. ||”|
|"King of England, and you, duke of Bedford, who call yourself regent of the kingdom of France. . . settle your debt to the king of Heaven; return to the Maiden, who is envoy of the king of Heaven, the keys to all the good towns you took and violated in France. "|
|Her Letter to the English, March–April 1429; Quicherat I, p. 240, trans. Wikipedia.|
She arrived at the siege of Orléans on April 29, 1429, but Jean d'Orléans, the acting head of the Orléans ducal family, initially excluded her from war councils and failed to inform her when the army engaged the enemy. The Siege of Orléans (1428 &ndash 1429 marked a turning point in the Hundred Years' War between France and England. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. John of Orléans Count of Dunois ( French Jean d'Orléans comte de Dunois, also known as John of Orléans and Bastard of Orléans) ( November This article is about the French city of Orléans for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation.  This did not prevent her from being present at most councils and battles. The extent of her actual military leadership is a subject of historical debate. Traditional historians such as Édouard Perroy conclude that she was a standard bearer whose primary effect was on morale.  This type of analysis usually relies on the condemnation trial testimony, where she stated that she preferred her standard to her sword. Recent scholarship that focuses on the nullification trial testimony asserts that her fellow officers esteemed her as a skilled tactician and a successful strategist. Stephen W. Richey's opinion is one example: "She proceeded to lead the army in an astounding series of victories that reversed the tide of the war. " In either case, historians agree that the army enjoyed remarkable success during her brief career. 
She defied the cautious strategy that had characterized French leadership. During the five months of siege before her arrival, the defenders of Orléans had attempted only one aggressive move and that had ended in disaster. On May 4 the French attacked and captured the outlying fortress of Saint Loup, which she followed on May 5 with a march to a second fortress called Saint Jean le Blanc. Finding it deserted, this became a bloodless victory. The next day she opposed Jean d'Orleans at a war council where she demanded another assault on the enemy. D'Orleans ordered the city gates locked to prevent another battle, but she summoned the townsmen and common soldiers and forced the mayor to unlock a gate. With the aid of only one captain she rode out and captured the fortress of Saint Augustins. That evening she learned she had been excluded from a war council where the leaders had decided to wait for reinforcements before acting again. Disregarding this decision, she insisted on assaulting the main English stronghold called "les Tourelles" on May 7.  Contemporaries acknowledged her as the heroine of the engagement after she sustained an arrow wound to her neck but returned wounded to lead the final charge. 
|". . . the Maiden lets you know that here, in eight days, she has chased the English out of all the places they held on the river Loire by attack or other means: they are dead or prisoners or discouraged in battle. Believe what you have heard about the earl of Suffolk, the lord la Pole and his brother, the lord Talbot, the lord Scales, and Sir Fastolf; many more knights and captains than these are defeated. "|
|Her Letter to the citizens of Tournai, June 25, 1429; Quicherat V, pp. Tournai (in Dutch Doornik, in Latin: Tornacum) is a Walloon City and municipality of Belgium Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians 125–126, trans. Wikipedia.|
The sudden victory at Orléans led to many proposals for offensive action. The English expected an attempt to recapture Paris or an attack on Normandy. In the aftermath of the unexpected victory, she persuaded Charles VII to grant her co-command of the army with Duke John II of Alençon and gained royal permission for her plan to recapture nearby bridges along the Loire as a prelude to an advance on Reims and a coronation. John II of Alençon ( March 2, 1409, Château d' Argentan &ndash September 8, 1476, Paris) was the son of John I of Hers was a bold proposal because Reims was roughly twice as far away as Paris and deep in enemy territory. 
The army recovered Jargeau on June 12, Meung-sur-Loire on June 15, then Beaugency on June 17. The Battle of Jargeau took place on June 11 - 12 1429 It was Joan of Arc's first offensive battle The Battle of Meung-sur-Loire took place on 15 June, 1429. It was one of Joan of Arc's battles following relief of the siege at Orléans The Battle of Beaugency took place on 16 - 17 June, 1429. It was one of Joan of Arc's Battles Shortly after relieving the siege at The Duke of Alençon agreed to all of Joan's decisions. Other commanders including Jean d'Orléans had been impressed with her performance at Orléans and became her supporters. Alençon credited her for saving his life at Jargeau, where she warned him of an imminent artillery attack.  During the same battle she withstood a blow from a stone cannonball to her helmet as she climbed a scaling ladder. An expected English relief force arrived in the area on June 18 under the command of Sir John Fastolf. Sir John Fastolf (died 5 November 1459) was an English Soldier during the Hundred Years War, who has enjoyed a more lasting reputation The battle at Patay might be compared to Agincourt in reverse. The Battle of Patay ( 18 June 1429) was a major battle in the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France The Battle of Agincourt was an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years' War. The French vanguard attacked before the English archers could finish defensive preparations. The English longbow, also called the Welsh longbow, was a powerful type of medieval Longbow (a tall bow for Archery) about 6 ft A rout ensued that devastated the main body of the English army and killed or captured most of its commanders. Fastolf escaped with a small band of soldiers and became the scapegoat for the English humiliation. The French suffered minimal losses. 
The French army set out for Reims from Gien-sur-Loire on June 29 and accepted the conditional surrender of the Burgundian-held city of Auxerre on July 3. Auxerre (pronounced) is a commune in the Bourgogne region of north-central France, between Paris and Dijon. Every other town in their path returned to French allegiance without resistance. Troyes, the site of the treaty that had tried to disinherit Charles VII, capitulated after a bloodless four-day siege. Troyes (tʁwa is a commune, the préfecture (capital of the northeastern Aube département in France and is  The army was in short supply of food by the time it reached Troyes. Edward Lucie-Smith cites this as an example of why she was more lucky than skilled: a wandering friar named Brother Richard had been preaching about the end of the world at Troyes and had convinced local residents to plant beans, a crop with an early harvest. The hungry army arrived as the beans ripened. 
|"Prince of Burgundy, I pray of you — I beg and humbly supplicate — that you make no more war with the holy kingdom of France. Withdraw your people swiftly from certain places and fortresses of this holy kingdom, and on behalf of the gentle king of France I say he is ready to make peace with you, by his honor. "|
|"Her Letter to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, July 17, 1429; Quicherat V, pp. Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians 126–127, trans. Wikipedia.|
Reims opened its gates on July 16. The coronation took place the following morning. Although Joan and the duke of Alençon urged a prompt march on Paris, the royal court pursued a negotiated truce with the duke of Burgundy. Duke Philip the Good broke the agreement, using it as a stalling tactic to reinforce the defense of Paris.  The French army marched through towns near Paris during the interim and accepted more peaceful surrenders. The Duke of Bedford headed an English force and confronted the French army in a standoff on August 15. The French assault at Paris ensued on September 8. Despite a crossbow bolt wound to the leg, Joan continued directing the troops until the day's fighting ended. The following morning she received a royal order to withdraw. Most historians blame French grand chamberlain Georges de la Trémoille for the political blunders that followed the coronation. Georges de la Trémoille (c 1382 - 6 May 1446) was count of de Guînes from 1398 to 1446 and Grand Chamberlain of France to King Charles 
After minor action at La-Charité-sur-Loire in November and December, Joan went to Compiègne the following April to defend against an English and Burgundian siege. Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a Sous-préfecture. The Siege of Compiègne (1430 was Joan of Arc's final military action A skirmish on May 23, 1430 led to her capture. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne When she ordered a retreat, she assumed the place of honor as the last to leave the field. Burgundians surrounded the rear guard. 
|"It is true that the king has made a truce with the duke of Burgundy for fifteen days and that the duke is to turn over the city of Paris at the end of fifteen days. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Yet you should not marvel if I do not enter that city so quickly. I am not content with these truces and do not know if I will keep them, but if I hold them it will only be to guard the king's honor: no matter how much they abuse the royal blood, I will keep and maintain the royal army in case they make no peace at the end of those fifteen days. "|
|"Her Letter to the citizens of Reims, August 5, 1429; Quicherat I, p. Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; riːmz in English and /ʁɛ̃s/ in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. 246, trans. Wikipedia.|
It was customary for a captive's family to ransom a prisoner of war. unfortunately, Joan and her family lacked the financial resources. Many historians condemn King Charles VII for failing to intervene. Charles VII may refer to Charles VII of Sweden (1161–1167 Charles VII of France, "the Victorious" (1403–1461 She attempted several escapes, on one occasion jumping from her 70 foot (21 m) tower in Vermandois to the soft earth of a dry moat, after which she was moved to the Burgundian town of Arras. Vermandois was a French county that appears in the Merovingian period The English government eventually purchased her from Duke Philip of Burgundy. Bishop Pierre Cauchon of Beauvais, an English partisan, assumed a prominent role in these negotiations and her later trial. Pierre Cauchon (b 1371 in Rheims, d December 1442 in Rouen) Bishop of Beauvais. Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, Préfecture (capital of the Oise département. 
The trial for heresy was politically motivated. The Trial of Joan of Arc, which took place before an English -backed church court in Rouen, France in the first half of the year 1431 was by general The Duke of Bedford claimed the throne of France for his nephew Henry VI. She had been responsible for the rival coronation so to condemn her was to undermine her king's legitimacy. Legal proceedings commenced on January 9, 1431 at Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital  The procedure was irregular on a number of points. In 1456, Pope Callixtus III declared her innocent of the heresy charges brought against her.
To summarize some major problems, the jurisdiction of judge Bishop Cauchon was a legal fiction.  He owed his appointment to his partisan support of the English government that financed the entire trial. Clerical notary Nicolas Bailly, commissioned to collect testimony against Joan, could find no adverse evidence.  Without such evidence the court lacked grounds to initiate a trial. Opening a trial anyway, the court also violated ecclesiastical law in denying her right to a legal advisor. Upon the opening of the first public examination Joan complained that those present were all partisans against her and asked for "ecclesiastics of the French side" to be invited. 
The trial record demonstrates her remarkable intellect. The transcript's most famous exchange is an exercise in subtlety. "Asked if she knew she was in God's grace, she answered: 'If I am not, may God put me there; and if I am, may God so keep me. '" The question is a scholarly trap. Church doctrine held that no one could be certain of being in God's grace. If she had answered yes, then she would have convicted herself of heresy. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox If she had answered no, then she would have confessed her own guilt. Notary Boisguillaume would later testify that at the moment the court heard this reply, "Those who were interrogating her were stupefied. " In the twentieth century George Bernard Shaw would find this dialogue so compelling that sections of his play Saint Joan are literal translations of the trial record. George Bernard Shaw ( (26 July 1856 &ndash 2 November 1950 was an Irish Playwright. Saint Joan is a 1923 play by Irishman George Bernard Shaw written shortly after the Roman Catholic Church canonized Joan of Arc. 
Several court functionaries later testified that significant portions of the transcript were altered in her disfavor. Many clerics served under compulsion, including the inquisitor, Jean LeMaitre, and a few even received death threats from the English. Under Inquisitorial guidelines, Joan should have been confined to an ecclesiastical prison under the supervision of female guards (i. The term Inquisition can refer to any one of several institutions charged with trying and convicting heretics within the Roman Catholic Church and Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the e. , nuns). Instead, the English kept her in a secular prison guarded by their own soldiers. Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Bishop Cauchon denied Joan's appeals to the Council of Basel and the pope, which should have stopped his proceeding. The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church 
The twelve articles of accusation that summarize the court's finding contradict the already doctored court record.  The illiterate defendant signed an abjuration document she did not understand under threat of immediate execution. Abjuration is the solemn repudiation abandonment or renunciation by or upon Oath, often the renunciation of Citizenship or some other Right or Privilege The court substituted a different abjuration in the official record. 
Heresy was a capital crime only for a repeat offense. Heresy is an introduced change to some system of belief especially a religion that conflicts with the previously established canon of that belief Joan agreed to wear women's clothes when she abjured. A few days later she was sexually assaulted in prison. Sexual assault is any Assault of a sexual nature on another person  She resumed male attire either as a defense against molestation or, in the testimony of Jean Massieu, because her dress had been stolen and she was left with nothing else to wear. 
Eyewitnesses described the scene of the execution by burning on May 30, 1431. Execution by burning has a long history as a method of Punishment for Crimes such as Treason, Heresy and Witchcraft Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Tied to a tall pillar in the Vieux-Marche in Rouen, she asked two of the clergy, Fr Martin Ladvenu and Fr Isambart de la Pierre, to hold a crucifix before her. A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one fixed to a cross" is a cross with a representation of Jesus ' body or corpus A peasant also constructed a small cross which she put in the front of her dress. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half After she expired, the English raked back the coals to expose her charred body so that no one could claim she had escaped alive, then burned the body twice more to reduce it to ashes and prevent any collection of relics. They cast her remains into the Seine. The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie  The executioner, Geoffroy Therage, later stated that he ". . . greatly feared to be damned. "
A posthumous retrial opened after the war ended. Pope Callixtus III authorized this proceeding, also known as the "nullification trial", at the request of Inquisitor-General Jean Brehal and Joan's mother Isabelle Romée. Pope Calixtus III ( December 31, 1378 &ndash August 6, 1458) né Alfonso de Borja, was Pope from April The aim of the trial was to investigate whether the trial of condemnation and its verdict had been handled justly and according to canon law. Investigations started with an inquest by clergyman Guillaume Bouille. Brehal conducted an investigation in 1452. A formal appeal followed in November, 1455. The appellate process included clergy from throughout Europe and observed standard court procedure. A panel of theologians analyzed testimony from 115 witnesses. Brehal drew up his final summary in June, 1456, which describes Joan as a martyr and implicates the late Pierre Cauchon with heresy for having convicted an innocent woman in pursuit of a secular vendetta. The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. The court declared her innocence on July 7, 1456. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death 
Joan of Arc wore men's clothing between her departure from Vaucouleurs and her abjuration at Rouen.  This raised theological questions in her own era and raised other questions in the twentieth century. The technical reason for her execution was a biblical clothing law.  The nullification trial reversed the conviction in part because the condemnation proceeding had failed to consider the doctrinal exceptions to that stricture.
Doctrinally speaking, she was safe to disguise herself as a page during a journey through enemy territory and she was safe to wear armor during battle. The Chronique de la Pucelle states that it deterred molestation while she was camped in the field. Clergy who testified at her rehabilitation trial affirmed that she continued to wear male clothing in prison to deter molestation and rape. Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is the forcing of undesired sexual acts by one person upon another Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person  Preservation of chastity was another justifiable reason for crossdressing: her apparel would have slowed an assailant, and men would be less likely to think of her as a sex object in any case. Chastity is Sexual behavior of a man or woman acceptable to the ethical norms and guidelines of a culture civilization or Religion. 
She referred the court to the Poitiers inquiry when questioned on the matter during her condemnation trial. The Poitiers record no longer survives but circumstances indicate the Poitiers clerics approved her practice. In other words, she had a mission to do a man's work so it was fitting that she dress the part.  She also kept her hair cut short through her military campaigns and while in prison. Her supporters, such as the theologian Jean Gerson, defended her hairstyle, as did Inquisitor Brehal during the Rehabilitation trial. 
Joan of Arc's religious visions have interested many people. The consensus among scholars is that her faith was sincere. She identified Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine, and Saint Michael as the source of her revelations although there is some ambiguity as to which of several identically named saints she intended. Saint Margaret,also known as Margaret of Antioch (in Pisidia) virgin and Martyr, is celebrated by the Roman Catholic and Anglican Saint Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine ( Greek) is a Christian Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an Revelation is the act of revealing or disclosing (see etymology or in the theological perception making something obvious and clearly understood through active or passive communication Some Catholics regard her visions as divine inspiration.
Analysis of her visions is problematic since the main source of information on this topic is the condemnation trial transcript in which she defied customary courtroom procedure about a witness's oath and specifically refused to answer every question about her visions. She complained that a standard witness oath would conflict with an oath she had previously sworn to maintain confidentiality about meetings with her king. It remains unknown to what extent the surviving record may represent the fabrications of corrupt court officials or her own possible fabrications to protect state secrets.  Some historians sidestep speculation about the visions by asserting that her belief in her calling is more relevant than questions about the visions' ultimate origin.  Documents from her own era and historians prior to the twentieth century generally assume that she was both healthy and sane. A number of more recent scholars attempted to explain her visions in psychiatric or neurological terms. Potential diagnoses have included epilepsy, migraine, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. Epilepsy is a common chronic Neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Migraine is a neurological Syndrome characterized by altered bodily experiences painful headaches and nausea Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn  None of the putative diagnoses have gained consensus support because, although hallucination and religious enthusiasm can be symptomatic of various syndromes, other characteristic symptoms conflict with other known facts of Joan's life. A hallucination, in the broadest sense is a Perception in the absence of a stimulus. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Two experts who analyze a temporal lobe tuberculoma hypothesis in the medical journal Neuropsychobiology express their misgivings this way:
"It is difficult to draw final conclusions, but it would seem unlikely that widespread tuberculosis, a serious disease, was present in this 'patient' whose life-style and activities would surely have been impossible had such a serious disease been present. "
Historian Régine Pernoud was sometimes sarcastic about speculative medical interpretations. In response to another such theory alleging that she suffered from bovine tuberculosis as a result of drinking unpasteurized milk, Pernoud wrote that if drinking unpasteurized milk can produce such potential benefits for the nation, then the French government should stop mandating the pasteurization of milk. Pasteurization is the process of heating Liquids for the purpose of destroying bacteria, Protozoa, Molds and Yeasts The process was  Ralph Hoffman, professor of psychology at Yale University, points out that visionary and creative states including "hearing voices" are not necessarily signs of mental illness and names her religious inspiration as a possible exception although he offers no speculation as to alternative causes. 
Among the specific challenges that potential diagnoses such as schizophrenia face is the slim likelihood that any person with such a disorder could gain favor in the court of King Charles VII. Schizophrenia ( from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν "to split" and phrēn His own father, Charles VI, was popularly known as "Charles the Mad," and much of the political and military decline that France had suffered during his reign could be attributed to the power vacuum that his episodes of insanity had produced. The previous king had believed he was made of glass, a delusion no courtier had mistaken for a religious awakening. Fears that King Charles VII would manifest the same insanity may have factored into the attempt to disinherit him at Troyes. This stigma was so persistent that contemporaries of the next generation would attribute to inherited madness the breakdown that England's King Henry VI was to suffer in 1453: Henry VI was nephew to Charles VII and grandson to Charles VI. Henry VI may refer to Henry VI Holy Roman Emperor (1165–1197 Upon her arrival at Chinon the royal counselor Jacques Gélu cautioned,
|“||One should not lightly alter any policy because of conversation with a girl, a peasant. . . so susceptible to illusions; one should not make oneself ridiculous in the sight of foreign nations. . . .||”|
Besides the physical rigor of her military career, which would seem to exclude many medical hypotheses, Joan of Arc displayed none of the cognitive impairment that can accompany some major mental illnesses when symptoms are present. She remained astute to the end of her life and rehabilitation trial testimony frequently marvels at her astuteness:
|“||Often they [the judges] turned from one question to another, changing about, but, notwithstanding this, she answered prudently, and evinced a wonderful memory. ||”|
Her subtle replies under interrogation even forced the court to stop holding public sessions.  If her visions had some medical or psychiatric origin then she would have been an exceptional case.
The Hundred Years' War continued for 22 years after her death. Joan of Arc facts and trivia covers topics of specialized interest that pertain to the life and legacy of Joan of Arc. Joan of Arc has inspired artistic and cultural works for nearly six centuries This article refers to the Canonization process for Joan of Arc, and to her as a Catholic saint Charles VII succeeded in retaining legitimacy as king of France in spite of a rival coronation held for Henry VI in December 1431 on the boy's tenth birthday. Before England could rebuild its military leadership and longbow corps lost during 1429, the country lost its alliance with Burgundy at the Treaty of Arras in 1435. The Congress of Arras was a diplomatic congregation established in Arras in 1435 between representatives of England, France, and Burgundy The duke of Bedford died the same year and Henry VI became the youngest king of England to rule without a regent and his weak leadership were probably the most important factors in ending the conflict. Kelly DeVries argues that Joan of Arc's aggressive use of artillery and frontal assaults influenced French tactics for the rest of the war. 
Joan of Arc became a semi-legendary figure for the next four centuries. The main sources of information about her were chronicles. Five original manuscripts of her condemnation trial surfaced in old archives during the 19th century. Soon historians also located the complete records of her rehabilitation trial, which contained sworn testimony from 115 witnesses, and the original French notes for the Latin condemnation trial transcript. Various contemporary letters also emerged, three of which carry the signature "Jehanne" in the unsteady hand of a person learning to write.  This unusual wealth of primary source material is one reason DeVries declares, "No person of the Middle Ages, male or female, has been the subject of more study". 
Joan of Arc came from an obscure village and rose to prominence, when she was barely more than a child, and she did so as an uneducated peasant. The French and English kings had justified the ongoing war through competing interpretations of the thousand-year-old Salic law. Salic law ( Lat Lex Salica) was an important body of traditional Law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the Early Middle Ages The conflict had been an inheritance feud between monarchs. She gave meaning to appeals such as that of squire Jean de Metz when he asked, "Must the king be driven from the kingdom; and are we to be English?" In the words of Stephen Richey, "She turned what had been a dry dynastic squabble that left the common people unmoved except for their own suffering into a passionately popular war of national liberation. " Richey also expresses the breadth of her subsequent appeal:
"The people who came after her in the five centuries since her death tried to make everything of her: demonic fanatic, spiritual mystic, naive and tragically ill-used tool of the powerful, creator and icon of modern popular nationalism, adored heroine, saint. She insisted, even when threatened with torture and faced with death by fire, that she was guided by voices from God. Voices or no voices, her achievements leave anyone who knows her story shaking his head in amazed wonder. "
In 1452, during the postwar investigation into her execution, the Church declared that a religious play in her honor at Orléans would qualify as a pilgrimage meriting an indulgence. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance An indulgence, in Roman Catholic Theology, is the full or partial Remission of temporal punishment due for Sins which have already been forgiven She became a symbol of the Catholic League during the 16th century. The Catholic League of France, sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern Roman Catholics as the Holy League, was formed by Duke Henry of Guise in Monsignor Félix Dupanloup, Bishop of Orléans from 1849 to 1878, led the effort for Joan's beatification, but did not live to see it come about. Félix Antoine Philibert Dupanloup ( January 3, 1802 &ndash October 11, 1878) was a French ecclesiastic Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church
Joan of Arc's beatification finally came about in the year 1909 - directly following upon the passage of the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, at the time considered a major blow to the Catholic Church's position in French society. The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State ( French: Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Églises et de l'État) was passed by Her canonization followed on May 16, 1920. This article refers to the Canonization process for Joan of Arc, and to her as a Catholic saint Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Her feast day is May 30. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following As Saint Joan of Arc, she has become one of the most popular saints of the Roman Catholic Church. 
Joan of Arc was not a feminist. She operated within a religious tradition that believed an exceptional person from any level of society might receive a divine calling. She expelled women from the French army and may have struck one stubborn camp follower with the flat of a sword.  Nonetheless, some of her most significant aid came from women. King Charles VII's mother-in-law, Yolande of Aragon, confirmed Joan's virginity and financed her departure to Orléans. Joan of Luxembourg, aunt to the count of Luxembourg who held custody of her after Compiègne, alleviated her conditions of captivity and may have delayed her sale to the English. Finally, Anne of Burgundy, the duchess of Bedford and wife to the regent of England, declared Joan a virgin during pretrial inquiries. Anne of Burgundy (Anne de Bourgogne 1404 &ndash November 14 1432) was the daughter of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy (1404-1419 and his wife  For technical reasons this prevented the court from charging her with witchcraft. Ultimately this provided part of the basis for her vindication and sainthood. From Christine de Pizan to the present, women have looked to her as a positive example of a brave and active female. Christine de Pizan ( also seen as de Pisan) (1363–c1434 was a writer of the Medieval era who strongly challenged Misogyny and stereotypes that 
Joan of Arc has been a political symbol in France since the time of Napoleon. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Liberals emphasized her humble origins. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism, Laissez-faire liberalism, Market liberalism or in much of the world Early conservatives stressed her support of the monarchy. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Later conservatives recalled her nationalism. During World War II, both the Vichy Regime and the French Resistance used her image: Vichy propaganda remembered her campaign against the English with posters that showed British warplanes bombing Rouen and the ominous caption: "They Always Return to the Scene of Their Crimes. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 The French Resistance is the collective name used for the French Resistance movements which fought against the Nazi German Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital " The resistance emphasized her fight against foreign occupation and her origins in the province of Lorraine, which had fallen under Nazi control. Moselle is a ''département'' in the east of France named after the Moselle River. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
Three separate vessels of the French Navy have been named after her, including a helicopter carrier currently in active service. The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm Missions In peace time Jeanne d'Arc is a teaching and training vessel for the naval officers' application academy and at the same time possesses an aerial group of 2 At present the controversial French far-right political party Front National holds rallies at her statues, reproduces her likeness in party publications, and uses a tricolor flame partly symbolic of her martyrdom as its emblem. The far-right tradition in France founds its origins as the distinction of left and right in politics itself to the 1789 French Revolution. The National Front ( FN, Front national is a French Far right, Nationalist Political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie This party's opponents sometimes satirize its appropriation of her image.  The French civic holiday in her honor is the second Sunday of May.
Traditional Roman Catholics, in France and elsewhere, also use her as a symbol of inspiration, often comparing the 1988 excommunication of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre (founder of the Society of St. Pius X and a dissident against the Vatican II reforms) to her excommunication. Traditionalist Catholics are Roman Catholics, or people who identify as Roman Catholics who believe that there should be a restoration of many or all of the liturgical Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Marcel-François Lefebvre ( November 29 1905 – March 25 1991) better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French The Society of St Pius X ( SSPX) is an international Traditionalist Catholic organisation whose official Latin name is Fraternitas Sacerdotalis
In 1867, a jar was found in a Paris pharmacy with the inscription "Remains found under the stake of Joan of Arc, virgin of Orleans". They consisted of a charred human rib, carbonized wood, a piece of linen and a cat femur — explained as the practice of throwing black cats onto the pyre of witches. The Catholic Church recognized them and they are now in a Chinon museum. In 2006, Philippe Charlier, a forensic scientist at Raymond Poincaré Hospital (Garches) was authorized to study the relics. Garches is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. Carbon-14 tests and spectrometry were performed, and the results show that the remains come from an Egyptian mummy from the sixth to the third century BC. Radiocarbon dating is a Radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring Radioisotope Carbon-14 (14C to determine the age of Spectroscopy was originally the study of the interaction between Radiation and Matter as a function of Wavelength (λ This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme The charred appearance comes from the embalming substances, not from combustion. Apparently the mummy was part of the ingredients of Medieval pharmacopeia and it was relabelled in a time of French nationalism. Pharmacopoeia (literally the art of the drug compounder in its modern technical sense is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound
"The visions, or their veracity, are not in themselves important for this study. What is important, in fact what is key to Joan's history as a military leader, is that she (author's emphasis) believed that they came from God," p. 35.
|NAME||Joan of Arc|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Jeanne d'Arc (French)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||National heroine of France|
|DATE OF BIRTH||circa 1412|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Domrémy-la-Pucelle, France|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 30, 1431|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Rouen, France|
Domrémy-la-Pucelle is a village and commune of the Vosges département, in Lorraine, France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Rouen (ʁwɑ̃ in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.