The Jim Crow laws, often referred to as a system or legal state as the Jim Crow or mainly Jim Crow, were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The United States of America —commonly referred to as the They mandated de jure segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans and members of other non-white racial groups. Separate But Equal is a 1991 American Television movie depicting the landmark Supreme Court Desegregation case In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.
Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms and restaurants for whites and blacks. These Jim Crow Laws were separate from the 1800-66 Black Codes, which had also restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. thumb| |Broken Liberty Istanbul Archaeology Museum Civil liberties are freedoms that protect the Individual from the Government. State-sponsored school segregation was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. Racial segregation in the United States is the Racial segregation of facilities services and opportunities such as housing education employment and transportation along The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited
The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of African Americans, which first surfaced in 1832. Jump Jim Crow is a song and dance from 1828 that was done in Blackface by white comedian Thomas Dartmouth (T A caricature is either a Portrait that exaggerates or distorts the essence of a person or thing to create an easily identifiable visual likeness or in literature a description African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa  Its origins may, however, precede this production.  The term had become an adjective by 1838, and the phrase Jim Crow Law first appeared in the Dictionary of American English in 1904. 
Even before its appearance in the dictionary, at least as early as the 1890s, the phrase "Jim Crow Law" had achieved common usage. 
During the Reconstruction period of 1865-1877 in the defeated South (the Confederacy), federal law protected the civil rights of "freedmen" — the liberated African slaves. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. Reconstruction ended in 1877, when the federal Army withdrew from the South,  followed, in each Southern state, by a white, Democratic Party Redeemer government that legislated Jim Crow laws segregating Black people from the state's population. For the marvel comics superhero group see Redeemers (comics. The " Redeemers " were a political coalition in the Southern United States during the
While the separation of African Americans from the general population was becoming legalized and formalized in the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s), it was also becoming customary. The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s Even in cases in which Jim Crow laws did not expressly forbid black people to participate in, for instance, sports or recreation or church services, the laws shaped a segregative culture.  In 1913, for instance, the acting Secretary of the Treasury—an appointee of the first Southern-born president of the postwar period—was heard to express his consternation at black and white women working together in one government office: "I feel sure that this must go against the grain of the white women. The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Is there any reason why the white women should not have only white women working across from them on the machines?"
In the Jim Crow context, the presidential election of 1912 was steeply slanted against the interests of Black Americans. The United States presidential election of 1912 was fought among three major candidates two of whom had previously won election to the office Poll taxes and literacy requirements banned many Americans from voting, yet, said requirements had loopholes exempting White Americans from these paying the poll tax or knowing how to read. A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a Tax of a uniform fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income For example, in Oklahoma, anyone qualified to vote before 1866, or who is related to someone qualified to vote before 1866, was exempted from the literacy requirement; the only Americans who could vote before 1866 were, of course, White Americans, so White Americans were exempted from the literacy requirement, while all Black Americans were segregated by law. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. 
President Woodrow Wilson, a Southern Democrat, furthered the segregation of Washington, despite much protest. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States.  Mr Wilson appointed Southern politicians who were segregationists, because of his sincere belief that racial segregation was in the best interest of Black Americans and White Americans alike.  At Gettysburg on 4 July 1913, the semi-centennial of Abraham Lincoln's declaration that "all men are created equal", Wilson addressed the crowd:
How complete the union has become and how dear to all of us, how unquestioned, how benign and majestic, as state after state has been added to this, our great family of free men!— 
A Washington Bee editorial wondered if the "reunion" of 1913 was a reunion of those who fought for "the extinction of slavery" or a reunion of those who fought to "perpetuate slavery and who are now employing every artifice and argument known to deceit" to present emancipation as a failed venture. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal The Gettysburg Address is a speech by US President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history.  One historian notes that, in this period, lynching had become "a social ritual", such that the "Peace Jubilee" at which Wilson presided at Gettysburg in 1913 "was a Jim Crow reunion, and white supremacy might be said to have been the silent, invisible master of ceremonies. Lynching is an Extrajudicial punishment meted out by a mob Lynching an enumerated Felony in some states in the United States, is defined by some "
The Civil Rights Act of 1875, introduced by Charles Sumner and Benjamin F. Butler, stipulated a guarantee that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations, such as inns, public transportation, theaters, and other places of recreation. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 ( was United States federal law proposed by Republican Senator Charles Sumner and Republican Congressman Benjamin F Charles Sumner (January 6 1811 &ndash March 11 1874 was an American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. This Act had little impact, and was later found by the Supreme Court to be largely unconstitutional, as Congress is not afforded control over private persons or corporations. Congress did not pass another civil rights law until 1957.
In 1890, Louisiana passed a law requiring separate accommodations for colored and white passengers on railroads. Louisiana law distinguished between "white," "black" and "colored" (that is, people of mixed white and black ancestry). The law already specified that blacks could not ride with white people, but colored people could ride with whites prior to 1890. A group of concerned black, colored and white citizens in New Orleans formed an association dedicated to rescinding the law. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana The group persuaded Homer Plessy, who was only one-eighth "Negro" and of fair complexion, to test it. Homer Plessy ( March 17, 1863 &ndash March 1, 1925) was the American Plaintiff in the United States Supreme Court
In 1892, Plessy purchased a first-class ticket from New Orleans on the East Louisiana Railway. Once he had boarded the train, he informed the train conductor of his racial lineage and took a seat in the whites-only car. He was directed to leave that car and sit instead in the "coloreds only" car. Plessy refused and was immediately arrested. The Citizens Committee of New Orleans fought the case all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States. A supreme court, also called a court of last resort or high court, is in some Jurisdictions the highest judicial body within that jurisdiction's They lost in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), in which the Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional. The finding contributed to 58 more years of legalized discrimination against black and colored people in the United States.
One explanation for the systematic exclusion of Black Americans from American society was that it was for their own protection. One early 20th century scholar suggests that allowing Blacks in White schools would mean "constantly subjecting them to adverse feeling and opinion", which might lead to "a morbid race consciousness". The twentieth century of the Common Era began on  This perspective takes anti-Black sentiment for granted, because bigotry was widespread in the South, where Black Americans seemed to embody and continually reaffirm the Confederacy's Civil War defeat: "With white supremacy challenged throughout the South, many whites sought to protect their former status by threatening African Americans who exercised their new rights. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South White supremacy is a racist ideology based on the assertion that White people are superior to other racial groups. "
After World War II, public attitudes turned against segregation. The Civil Rights movement was energized by a number of flashpoints in this period, including the brutalization of WWII veteran Isaac Woodard while he was still in uniform. Isaac Woodard Jr, often written Isaac Woodward, ( March 18, 1919 - September 23, As the Civil Rights movement gained momentum and used federal courts to attack Jim Crow, the white governments of many of the states of the Southeast countered with more numerous and strict segregation laws on the local level until the start of the 1960s.
The NAACP Legal Defense Committee (a group independent of the NAACP)—and its lawyer Thurgood Marshall—brought the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, before the Supreme Court. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations Thurgood Marshall ( July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American Jurist and the first African American Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier In the landmark 1954 decision, which had far-reaching social ramifications, the court unanimously overturned the 1896 Plessy decision. The Supreme Court found that legally mandated (de jure) public school segregation was unconstitutional. The practice was not brought to a final end until the 1970s.
The court ruling did not stop de facto, or residentially-based, school segregation, which continues today in many regions.
Associate Justice Frank Murphy introduced the word "racism" into the lexicon of U.S. Supreme Court opinions in Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), in which he charged that by upholding the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans during World War II the Court was sinking into "the ugly abyss of racism. Associate Justice or Associate Judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the Chief Justice. William Francis (Frank Murphy ( April 13, 1890 July 19, 1949) was a Politician and Jurist from Michigan. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Korematsu v United States, 323 US 214 (1944 was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past Court cases either in special series of books called reporters Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. are Americans of Japanese heritage Japanese Americans have historically been among the three largest Asian American communities but in recent decades have become the sixth largest group World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including " This was the first time that the word "racism" found its way into the lexicon of words used in Supreme Court opinion (he used it twice in a concurring opinion in Steele v. Louisville & Nashville R. Co. 323|192 (1944) issued that same day). Case citation is the system used in many countries to identify the decisions in past Court cases either in special series of books called reporters Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  He would use that word in five separate opinions, although the word "racism" disappeared with Murphy and from the court for almost two decades, not reappearing until the landmark decision of Loving v. Virginia, . Loving v Virginia,, was a landmark Civil rights case in which the United States Supreme Court declared Virginia 's Anti-miscegenation Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.
Indeed, the question of the alleged "color-blindness" of the constitution has become increasingly a source of controversy on the Supreme Court. Some observers believed the Court is moving from trying to prevent oppression of minorities, to protecting the status quo. 
In the 20th century, the Supreme Court began to overturn Jim Crow laws on constitutional grounds. In Buchanan v. Warley 245 US 60 (1917), the court held that a Kentucky law could not require residential segregation. Buchanan v Warley, 245 US 60 (1917 was a unanimous United States Supreme Court decision addressing Racial segregation in residential areas The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. The Supreme Court in 1946, in Irene Morgan v. Virginia ruled segregation in interstate transportation to be unconstitutional, in an application of the commerce clause of the Constitution. Irene Morgan ( April 9 1917 &ndash August 10 2007) later known as Irene Morgan Kirkaldy, was an important predecessor to Rosa Article 1 Section 8 Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign It was not until 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 347 US 483 that the court held that separate facilities were inherently unequal in the area of public schools, effectively overturning Plessy v. Ferguson, and outlawing Jim Crow in other areas of society as well. This landmark case consisted of complaints filed in the states of Delaware (Gebhart v. Belton); South Carolina (Briggs v. Elliott); Virginia (Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County); and Washington, D.C. (Spottswode Bolling v. C. Melvin Sharpe). Gebhardt v Belton, 33 Del Ch 144 87 A2d 862 (Del Ch 1952 ''aff'd'' 91 A Briggs et al v Elliott et al,, commonly Briggs v Elliott, was the first filed of the five cases combined into Brown v Davis v County School Board of Prince Edward County (Docket number Civ Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Bolling v Sharpe, 347 US 497 ( 1954) was an influential United States Supreme Court Landmark case dealing with civil rights concerning These decisions, along with other cases such as McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents 339 US 637 (1950), NAACP v. Alabama 357 US 449 (1958), and Boynton v. Virginia 364 US 454 (1960), slowly dismantled the state-sponsored segregation imposed by Jim Crow laws. McLaurin v Oklahoma State Regents, 339 US 637 ( 1950) was a United States Supreme Court case that reversed a lower court decision upholding National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v Alabama, 357 U Boynton v Virginia, 364 US 454 ( 1960) was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
In addition to Jim Crow laws, in which the state compelled segregation of the races, businesses, political parties, unions and other private parties created their own Jim Crow arrangements, barring blacks from buying homes in certain neighborhoods, from shopping or working in certain stores, from working at certain trades, etc. The Supreme Court outlawed some forms of private discrimination in Shelley v. Kraemer 334 US 1 (1948), in which it held that "restrictive covenants" that barred sale of homes to blacks or Jews or Asians were unconstitutional, on the grounds that they represented state-sponsored discrimination, in that they were only effective if the courts enforced them. Shelley v Kraemer, 334 US 1, ( 1948) is a United States Supreme Court decision involving the enforceability of Restrictive covenants PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Asian or Asiatic is a Demonym for people from Asia. However the use of the term varies by country and person often referring to people from a particular
The Supreme Court was unwilling, however, to attack other forms of private discrimination. It reasoned that private parties did not violate the Equal Protection clause of the Constitution when they discriminated, because they were not "state actors" covered by that clause. The Equal Protection Clause, part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, provides that "no state shall… deny to any person
In 1971, the Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld desegregation busing of students to achieve integration. Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 402 US 1 ( 1971) was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or busing) is the practice of attempting to integrate schools by assigning students to
Rosa Parks' 1955 act of civil disobedience, in which she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man, was a central event of the Civil Rights movement. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4 1913 – October 24 2005 was an African American Civil rights activist whom the U Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African Her action, and the demonstrations that it spawned, led to a series of legislative and court decisions that contributed to undermining the Jim Crow system.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott led by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., which followed Rosa Parks' action, was, however, not the first of its kind. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery Alabama, intended to oppose Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader Numerous boycotts and demonstrations against segregation had occurred throughout the 1930s and 1940s. These early demonstrations achieved positive results and helped spark political activism. K. Leroy Irvis of Pittsburgh's Urban League, for instance, led a demonstration against employment discrimination by Pittsburgh's department stores in 1947, launching his own influential political career. K Leroy Irvis ( December 27 1919 – March 16 2006) was the first African American to serve as a speaker of the house
In 1964, the U. S. Congress attacked the parallel system of private Jim Crow practices. It invoked the commerce clause to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed discrimination in public accommodations (privately owned restaurants, hotels, and stores, and in private schools and workplaces). Article 1 Section 8 Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, states that Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving This use of the commerce clause was upheld in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States 379 US 241 (1964). Heart of Atlanta Motel Inc v United States, 379 US 241 ( 1964) was a landmark United States Supreme Court case holding that the U 
Building a coalition of northern Democrats and Republicans, President Lyndon B. Johnson pushed Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which immediately annulled Jim Crow laws that segregated restaurants, hotels and theaters. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving These facilities (with rare exceptions) immediately dropped racial segregation. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 ended legally sanctioned barriers to voting for all federal, state and local elections. Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited It also provided for Federal oversight and monitoring of counties with historically low voter turnout, a sign of discriminatory barriers.
In January, 1964, President Lyndon Johnson met with civil rights leaders. On January 8, during his first State of the Union address, Johnson asked Congress to "let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army " On June 21, civil rights workers Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney, disappeared in Neshoba County, Mississippi. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Mississippi civil rights workers murders Michael Henry Schwerner ( November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964) was one of three CORE field Mississippi civil rights workers murders Andrew Goodman ( November 23, 1943 &ndash June 21, 1964) was one of three American Mississippi civil rights workers murders James Earl "JE" Chaney ( May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was one of three American Neshoba County is a County located in the US state of Mississippi. The three were volunteers aiding in the registration of African-American voters as part of the Mississippi Summer Project. Forty-four days later, the Federal Bureau of Investigation recovered their bodies, which had been buried in an earthen dam. The Neshoba County deputy sheriff, Cecil Price and 16 others, all Ku Klux Klan members, were indicted for the crimes; seven were convicted. Cecil Ray Price (born about 1937 - died May 6, 2001) was linked to the murders of three civil rights workers in 1964. Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are On July 2, President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving 
According to the United States Department of Justice, "By 1965 concerted efforts to break the grip of state disfranchisement had been under way for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall and in some areas had proved almost entirely ineffectual. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department The murder of voting-rights activists in Philadelphia, Mississippi, gained national attention, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism. Philadelphia is the County seat of Neshoba County, Mississippi, United States. Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, 1965, by state troopers on peaceful marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, en route to the state capitol in Montgomery, persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights legislation. The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the Political and emotional peak of the American civil rights Edmund Pettus Bridge, named for Edmund Winston Pettus, a Confederate Brigadier general, and eventual U Selma is a city in and the County seat of Dallas County, Alabama, United States, located on the banks of the Alabama River. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings began soon thereafter on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act. "
The Supreme Court of the United States held in the Civil Rights Cases 109 US 3 (1883) that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give the federal government the power to outlaw private discrimination, and then held in Plessy v. The Civil Rights Cases, 109 US 3 ( 1883) were a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court Ferguson 163 US 537 (1896) that Jim Crow laws were constitutional as long as they allowed for "separate but equal" facilities. In the years that followed, the court made this "separate but equal" requirement a hollow phrase by upholding discriminatory laws in the face of evidence of profound inequalities in practice.
Jim Crow laws were a product of the solidly Democratic South. Solid South refers to the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for nearly a century from 1877 the end of the Reconstruction Conservative white Southern Democrats, exploiting racial fear and attacking the corruption (real or perceived) of Reconstruction Republican governments, took over state governments in the South in the 1870s and dominated them for nearly 100 years, chiefly as a result of disfranchisement of most blacks through statute and constitutions. In 1956, southern resistance to the Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education resulted in a resolution called the Southern Manifesto. The Southern Manifesto was a document written in February-March 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public It was read into the Congressional Record and supported by 96 southern congressmen and senators, all but two of them southern Democrats.
The Jim Crow laws were a major factor in the Great Migration during the early part of the 20th century, because opportunities were so limited in the South that African Americans moved in great numbers to northern cities to seek a better life. See also Second Great Migration (African American The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African-Americans out of the
While African-American entertainers, musicians, and literary figures had broken into the white world of American art and culture after 1890, African-American athletes found obstacles confronting them at every turn. By 1900, white opposition to African-American boxers, baseball players, track athletes, and basketball players kept them segregated and limited in what they could do. But their prowess and abilities in all-African-American teams and sporting events could not be denied. Changing social attitudes and leadership by pioneers such as Jackie Robinson, who entered formerly all-white professional baseball in 1947 (albeit via playing first in Montréal, Quebec, Canada), aided in lowering the barriers. Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31 1919 – October 24 1972 was a Baseball player for the Brooklyn Dodgers. African-American participation in all the major sports began to increase rapidly in the 1950s and 1960s.
Ferris State University in Big Rapids, Michigan houses the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, an extensive collection of everyday items that promoted racial segregation or presented racial stereotypes of African Americans, for the purpose of academic research and education about their cultural influence. Ferris State University has a main campus in Big Rapids Michigan, in Mecosta County and a secondary campus in Grand Rapids Michigan, and smaller programs Big Rapids is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 10849 African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa 
The following examples of segregation are excerpts from examples of Jim Crow laws shown at the National Park Service website. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The examples include anti-miscegenation laws. Anti-miscegenation laws, also known as miscegenation laws, were laws that banned Interracial marriage and sometimes interracial sex between whites and members of other Although sometimes counted among the "Jim Crow laws" of the South, those laws also were passed by other states for many years. Anti-miscegenation laws were not repealed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 but were declared unconstitutional in the 1967 Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia. Loving v Virginia,, was a landmark Civil rights case in which the United States Supreme Court declared Virginia 's Anti-miscegenation
Twenty-seven Jim Crow laws were passed in the Lone Star state from 1866 to 1958. Some examples include:
This point-blank requirement for segregated schools was proclaimed in West Virginia's State Constitution as Article XII Section 8. In a remarkable show of the persistence of segregationist attitudes extending to the highest levels of state government, numerous attempts to remove this article from the constitution were defeated in the state legislature until it was finally repealed on Nov 8, 1994.
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