|Aliyah to Israel and settlement|
|Prior to the founding of Israel|
|After the founding of Israel|
Jewish history • Jewish diaspora • History of the Jews in the Land of Israel • Yishuv • History of Zionism (Timeline) • Revival of Hebrew language • Religious Zionism • Haredim and Zionism • Anti-Zionism
The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion or mass departure of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Islamic countries. Aliyah ( refers to Jewish Immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948 the State of Israel) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Ever since the Jews were exiled from the Land of Israel, during all generations many Jews aspired to return to their ancestral homeland History of Zionism The Return to Zion (שיבת ציון Shivat Tzion, or שבי ציון, Shavei Tzion, lit The First Aliyah (also The Farmers' Aliyah) was the first modern widespread wave of Zionist Aliyah. The Second Aliyah was arguably the most important and influential Aliyah. Prior to and during the period of World War I, the area of Palestine was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. The third Aliyah refers to the third wave of the Jewish immigration to Israel from Europe who came inspired by Zionist motives between the years 1919 The Fourth Aliyah refers to the fourth wave of the Jewish immigration to Israel from Europe and Asia whom came based on Zionist motives between The Fifth Aliyah refers to the fifth wave of the Jewish immigration to Israel from Europe and Asia between the years 1929 and 1939 Aliyah Bet (Hebrew 'עלייה ב meaning " Aliyah 'B'" ( bet being the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet was the code name given to Illegal immigration Berihah, or "Brichah" ( was the organized effort that helped Jews escape post- Holocaust Europe to Palestine. Operation Magic Carpet is a widely-known nickname for Operation On Wings of Eagles, an operation between June 1949 and September 1950 that brought From 1950 to 1952, Operation Ezra and Nehemiah airlifted 120-130000 Iraqi Jews to Israel via Iran and Cyprus. The Polish 1968 political crisis (also known in Polish as 'March 1968' or 'March events' Marzec 1968 or wydarzenia marcowe) describes the major Student and intellectual In the 1970s a big immigration wave of Soviet Union Jews came to Israel. The Jewish Aliyah from Ethiopia began during the mid-1970s during which the majority of the Jewish Ethiopians immigrated to Israel. The big immigration wave of Jews from the Commonwealth of Independent States to Israel during the 1990s actually started during the late 1980s with the opening of Following the 1994 AMIA bombing in Buenos Aires, and in the wake of the 1999–2002 Argentine political and economic crisis, many Argentine Jews emigrated to Jewish history is the History of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. The Jewish diaspora ( Hebrew: Tefutzah, "scattered" or Galut גלות "exile" Yiddish: tfutses) the presence The History of the Jews in the Land of Israel begins with the ancient Israelites (also known as Hebrews) who settled in the Land of Israel. Yishuv (ישוב literally "settlement" or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv הישוב or the full term הישוב היהודי בארץ ישראל Hayishuv Hayehudi Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization Although the Zionist movement was created by Theodor Herzl in 1897 the history of Zionism can be seen as beginning Timeline of Jewish history This is a partial timeline of Zionism in the modern era since the end of the 18th century The revival of the Hebrew language was a process that took place in Europe and Israel at the end of the 19th century and Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement (a branch of which is also called Mizrachi) is an ideology that combines Zionism and religious The relationship between Haredim and Zionism has always been a difficult one Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism, an international political movement and ideology that supports a Homeland for the Jewish People in the land known Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahim, ( also referred to as Edot HaMizrach (Communities of the East are Jews descended The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The migration started in the late 19th century, but accelerated after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. According to official Arab statistics, 856,000 Jews left their homes in Arab countries from 1948 until the early 1970s. Some 680,000 resettled in Israel. Their descendants, and those of Iranian and Turkish Jews, now number 3. 06 million of Israel's 5. 4 to 5. 8 million Jewish citizens.  They left behind property valued today at more than $300 billion.  Jewish-owned real-estate left behind in Arab lands has been estimated at 100,000 square kilometers (four times the size of the State of Israel). 
While violence and discrimination against Jews in Arab countries started to increase before 1948, it escalated significantly starting in 1948 despite the fact that Jews were indigenous and for the most part held Arab citizenship. Sometimes the process was state sanctioned; at other times it was the consequence of anti-Jewish resentment by non-Jews. Harassment, persecution and the confiscation of property followed. Secondly and in response to mistreatment of Jews in these countries, a Zionist drive for Jewish immigration from Arab lands to Israel intensified. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the The great majority of Jews in Arab lands eventually emigrated to the modern State of Israel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
The process grew apace as Arab nations under French, British and Italian colonial rule or protection gained independence. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Further, anti-Jewish sentiment within the Arab-majority states was exacerbated by the Arab-Israeli wars. Within a few years after the Six Day War (1967) there were only remnants of Jewish communities left in most Arab lands. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Jews in Arab lands were reduced from more than 800,000 in 1948 to perhaps 16,000 in 1991. 
Some claim that the Jewish exodus from Arab lands is a historical parallel to the Palestinian exodus during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, while others reject this comparison as simplistic. The 1948 Palestinian exodus (الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) referred to by Palestinians as al Naqba (النكبة  One Palestinian sociologist has commented that the loss of Jewish property in Arab lands fulfills the conditions of a sulha, or reconciliation, since Jews as well as Palestinians have experienced a catastrophe, and that publicizing this knowledge would pave the way to a true peace process. The 1948 Palestinian exodus (الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) referred to by Palestinians as al Naqba (النكبة 
Jewish settlement all over the Fertile Crescent, which is now divided into several Arab states, is well attested since the Babylonian captivity. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility The history of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group goes back many centuries This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the facts of Antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group This is a list of resources analyzing Antisemitism in the alphabetical order of author's name A number of writers and researchers such as Walter Laqueur, Paul Berman, and Mark Strauss have argued that there is rising acceptance of Antisemitism Jewish exodus from Arab lands|Islam and Antisemitism|Anti Jewish Arabism Oxymoronic, as Although Christian antisemitism is considered to have started around the 12th century its roots are attributed by some scholars to anti-Jewish attitudes and polemic beginning See also Islam and Judaism Islam and antisemitism looks at the teaching of Islam relating to Jews and Judaism and the attitudes of the A number of Jewish organizations Christian organizations Muslim organizations and academics consider the Nation of Islam to be antisemitic New antisemitism is the concept that a new form of Antisemitism is on the rise in the 21st century emanating simultaneously from the left, the Right, and Racial antisemitism is the belief that Antisemitism, hatred or Prejudice toward Jews is justified and justifiable on racial and not religious grounds Origins of religious antisemitism Father Edward Flannery in his The Anguish of the Jews Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism, traces the first clear examples Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of Antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. Evidence of antisemitic incidents on university campuses across North America Europe and Australia since 2000 has been recorded by a number of sources This is a list of countries where Antisemitic sentiment has been experienced An antisemitic canard is a deliberately false story inciting Antisemitism. Jewish Deicide is an Antisemitic canard that placed the Responsibility for the death of Jesus on the Jewish people as a whole Blood libels against Jews are false accusations that Jews use Human blood in certain aspects of their Religious rituals and holidays Although Human sacrifice is the act of Homicide (the Killing of one or several Human beings in the context of a Religious ritual ( ritual killing For the logical fallacy see Poisoning the well. Well-poisoning is the act of malicious manipulation of potable water resources in Host Desecration is a form of Sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish Żydokomuna, is a Pejorative Antisemitic expression Usury (ˈjuːʒəri comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, "interest" or "excessive interest" from the Latin usura "interest" The Dreyfus Affair a Political scandal which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s Zionist Occupation Government (abbreviated as ZOG) is an Antisemitic Conspiracy theory according to which Jews secretly control a country Holocaust denial is the claim that the Genocide of Jews during World War II —usually referred to as The Holocaust —did not occur in the On the Jews and Their Lies (Von den Jüden und iren Lügen in modern spelling de ''Von den Juden und ihren Lügen'' is a 65000-word treatise written by German Reformation The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ( Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Library of Congress 's Uniform Title; "Протоколы The International Jew is a four volume set of Booklets or Pamphlets originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. The Culture of Critique series comprises Kevin B MacDonald 's principal writings on Judaism and Jewish culture: A People That Shall See also Antisemitism, History of antisemitism, New antisemitism The persecution of Jews has occurred many times in Jewish history. In the course of history Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Antisemitism numerous times Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as cultural minorities due to their non-Christian beliefs in a Renaissance Christian environment A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses For the modern Jewish skullcap see Kippah. The Jewish hat also known as the Jewish cap, Judenhut ( German) Judensau ( German for "Jews' sow" is a derogatory and dehumanizing image of Jews in obscene contact with a large sow (female Pig) which The yellow badge (or yellow patch) also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments in order The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости cherta osedlosti) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, along its western border in which The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism, The Anti-Defamation League ( ADL) is an Interest group founded in 1913 by B'nai B'rith in the United States whose stated aim is "to stop The Community Security Trust ( CST) is a British charity established in 1994 to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in the UK The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA is a Vienna -based agency of the European Union inaugurated on 1 March 2007 The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a research institute at Tel Aviv University in Israel. The Wiener Library is the world's oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies The Southern Poverty Law Center ( SPLC) is an American Non-profit legal organization internationally known for its tolerance education programs its legal The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC) with headquarters in Los Angeles Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union (abbreviated UCSJ) is an umbrella organization of Jewish Human rights groups working in Eastern The Swedish Committee Against Antisemitism (Svenska Kommittén Mot Antisemitism SKMA) is a Sweden -based non-profit organization founded in 1983, that Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish Aside the regions of Israel and Judea Jews have lived in the Middle East at least since the Babylonian Captivity ( 597 BCE, about 2600 years The Fertile Crescent is a Crescent -shaped region in the Middle East, originally incorporating the Levant and Ancient Mesopotamia, and often The Babylonian captivity, Babylonian exile, is the name typically given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to After the conquest of these lands by Arab Muslims in the 7th century, Jews, along with Christians and Zoroastrians, were accorded the legal status of dhimmi. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish As such, they were entitled to limited rights, tolerance, and protection, on the condition they pay a special poll tax (the 'jizya'). Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic In return for the tax, dhimmis were exempted from military service. Dhimmi status brought with its several restrictions, the application and severity of which varied by time and place: residency in segregated quarters, obligation to wear distinctive clothing, public subservience to Muslims, prohibitions against proselytizing and marrying Muslim women (according to Islam, a Muslim woman can only marry a Muslim man), and limited access to the legal systems. Notwithstanding these provisions, Jews could at times attain high positions in government, notably as viziers and physicians. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Jewish communities, like Christian ones, were typically constituted as semi-autonomous entities managed by their own laws and leadership, who bore responsibility for the community towards the Muslim rulers. Taxes and fines levied on them were collective in nature. However, a level of political autonomy and civil courts for resolving community disputes was not rare.
Mass murders of Jews and deaths due to political instability did however occur in North Africa throughout the centuries and especially in Morocco, Libya and Algeria where eventually Jews were forced to live in ghettos. This is a list of events named "massacre". The term suggests Mass murder and its usage may be controversial Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's A mellah ( Arabic ملاح probably from the word ملح Arabic for "salt" is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an  Decrees ordering the destruction of synagogues were enacted at various times in the Middle Ages in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Yemen. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Instances exist of Jews being forced to convert to Islam or face death in Yemen, Morocco and Baghdad. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous 
This situation, wherein Jews both enjoyed cultural and economical prosperity at times, but were then widely persecuted at other times was summarised by G. E. von Grunebaum as follows:
It would not be difficult to put together the names of a very sizeable number of Jewish subjects or citizens of the Islamic area who have attained to high rank, to power, to great financial influence, to significant and recognized intellectual attainment; and the same could be done for Christians. But it would again not be difficult to compile a lengthy list of persecutions, arbitrary confiscations, attempted forced conversions, or pogroms. 
In 1945, there were between 758,000 and 866,000 Jews (see table below) living in communities throughout the Arab world. Today, there are fewer than 7,000. In some Arab states, such as Libya (which was once around 3% Jewish), the Jewish community no longer exists; in other Arab countries, only a few hundred Jews remain. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab
|Country or territory||1948 Jewish|
|Jewish % of total|
|Bahrain||550-600||0. 5%||36||around 30 people. See .|
|Egypt||75,000-80,000||0. 4%||~100||Less than a hundred remain. See|
|Iraq||135,000-140,000||2. 6%||~200||20 in Baghdad and fewer than 100 remain. See .|
|Lebanon||5,000-100,000||0. 4-2%||< 100||around 40 in Beirut. See |
|Morocco||250,000-265,000||2. 8%||5,230||less than 7,000. See |
|Qatar||?||?||?||a few Jews are reported. See |
|Syria||15,000-30,000||0. 4-0. 9%||~100||fewer than 30 remain. See |
|Tunisia||50,000-105,000||1. 4-3. 0%||~1,000||in 2004 estimated 1,500 remain. See |
|Yemen||45,000-55,000||1. 0%||~200||a few hundred remain. See |
|Total||758,000 - 881,000||<6,500||<8,600+|
|Country or territory||1948 Jewish|
|Iran||70,000-120,000, 100,000, 140,000–150,000||11,000-40,000||less than 40,000 remain. See .|
After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the exodus of approximately 711,000 (UN estimate) Arab refugees (see the Palestinian Exodus), the creation of the state of Israel, and the independence of Arab countries from European control, conditions for Jews in the Arab world deteriorated. The 1948 Palestinian exodus (الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) referred to by Palestinians as al Naqba (النكبة For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Over the next few decades, most would leave the Arab world. Their departure and its motivations are covered country by country below.
Soon after the declaration of the establishment of Israel in 1948, over 45,000 Jews had emigrated from Arab countries to mandatory Palestine. Although some of the Jews emigrated because of the influence of Zionism that proclaimed the right of the Jewish people to return to their homeland, most Jews came to Israel as a result of persecution by Arab countries. Gilbert (1999) maintains that Israeli officials were instrumental in facilitating population transfers from Muslim countries, known in Israel as the gathering of the exiles, because there was a shortage of manpower in Israel after 1948.
There are controversial claims about the methods employed by Israeli officials. Gilbert (1999) and Hirst (1977) write that Israeli agents planted bombs in synagogues and Jewish businesses in an attempt to stimulate emigration to Israel, but that view is rejected by others. Historian Moshe Gat contends that, in the most famous case in Iraq, the claim that the bombings were carried out by Zionists is contrary to the evidence, and in any event the impetus for the Jewish-Iraqi exodus was the imminent expiration of the denaturalisation law, not the bombing.  According to Norman Stillman, "[n]either side, however, has provided truly convincing evidence, and for any detached observer the point must remain moot. Norman Arthur Stillman, also Noam (נועם in Hebrew b 1945 is the Schusterman-Josey Professor and Chair of Judaic History at the University of Oklahoma "
The United Nations Resolution on the partition of Palestine in November 1947 and the declaration of the State of Israel in 1948 led to anti-Jewish actions in Arab countries. At the same time, several Arab countries began to take a severe attitude against Jews who operated Zionist activities within Arab borders, further encouraging Jewish emigration to Israel.  Arab pogroms against Jews appeared to spread throughout the Arab world, and there were intensified riots in Yemen and Syria in particular. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية In Libya, Jews were deprived citizenship, and in Iraq, their property was seized. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab As a result, a large number of Jews were forced to emigrate and they were not allowed to take all their property. Between 1948 and 1951, tens of thousands of Jews from Iraq and Yemen arrived in Israel by the airlift operation arranged by the Israeli authorities and local communities. .
By 1951, about 30 percent of the population in Israel was accounted for by Jews from Arab countries and about 850,000 Jews emigrated from Arab countries between 1948 and 1952. During this time 586,269 Jews came to Israel from Arab countries, and 3,136,436 people live in Israel today including their offspring, which account for about 41 per cent of the total population. 
Almost all Jews in Algeria left upon independence in 1962. Jews and Judaism have a rather long history in Algeria. However following the brutal conflict of the 1990s there – in particular the rebel Armed Islamic Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Algeria's 140,000 Jews had French citizenship since 1870 (briefly revoked by Vichy France in 1940), and they mainly went to France, with some going to Israel. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
Following the brutal Algerian Civil War of 1990s there – in particular, the rebel Armed Islamic Group's 1994 declaration of war on all non-Muslims in the country – most of the thousand-odd Jews previously there, living mainly in Algiers and to a lesser extent Blida, Constantine, and Oran, emigrated. The Algerian Civil War was an armed conflict between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups which began in 1991 The Armed Islamic Group ( GIA, al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic الجماعة الإسلامية Algiers (الجزائر Algerian Arabic: Dzayer ( (From kabyle pronunciation Kabyle: Ledzayer, Alger) is the Capital and largest Blida ( البليدة) is a city in Algeria. It is the capital of Blida Province, and it is located about 45 km south-west of Algiers, Constantine ( Arabic: is the capital of Constantine Province in north-eastern Algeria. Oran ( Arabic:ar وهران pronounced Wahran; also transliterated as Ouahran, Spanish: Orán. The Algiers synagogue was abandoned after 1994. A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of These Jews themselves represented the remainder of only about 10,000 who had chosen to stay there in 1962
Only a small number of Algerian origin Jews moved from France to Israel.
Bahrain's tiny Jewish community, mostly the descendants of immigrants who entered the country in the early 1900s from Iraq, numbered 600 in 1948. History of the Jews in Bahrain. Bahraini Jews constitute one of the world's smallest Jewish communities The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf
In the wake of the November 29, 1947 U.N. Partition vote, demonstrations against the vote in the Arab world were called for December 2-5. A United Nations General Assembly Resolution is voted on by all member states of the United Nations in the General Assembly. The first two days of demonstrations in Bahrain saw rock throwing against Jews, but on December 5 mobs in the capital of Manama looted Jewish homes and shops, destroyed the synagogue, and beat any Jews they could find, and murdered one elderly woman. Manama ( Arabic: المنامة, Transliteration: Al-Manāmah) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain with 
Over the next few decades, most left for other countries, especially England; as of 2006 only 36 remained. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland 
Relations between Jews and Muslims are generally considered good, with Bahrain being the only state on the Arabian Peninsula where there is a specific Jewish community and the only Gulf state with a synagogue. One member of the community, Rouben Rouben, who sells electronics and appliances from his downtown showroom, said “95 percent of my customers are Bahrainis, and the government is our No. 1 corporate customer. I’ve never felt any kind of discrimination. ”
Members play a prominent role in civil society: Ebrahim Nono was appointed in 2002 a member of Bahrain's upper house of parliament, the Consultative Council, while a Jewish woman heads a human rights group, the Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society. The Consultative Council ( Majlis al-shura) is the name given to the Upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain The Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society, BHRWS ( جمعية مراقبة حقوق الإنسان البحرينية) is a Bahraini Human rights According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, the active Jewish community is "a source of pride for Bahraini officials". The Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA is an international News agency serving Jewish community Newspapers and media around the world 
In Bahrain's 2006 parliamentary election, some candidates have specifically sought out the Jewish vote; writer Munira Fakhro, Vice President of the Leftist National Democratic Action, standing in Isa Town told the local press: "There are 20- 30 Jews in my area and I would be working for their benefit and raise their standard of living. The National Assembly is Bicameral with the lower house the Chamber of Deputies, having 40 members elected in single-seat constituencies for a four year term Munira Fakhro, Bahraini academic and candidate in Bahrain's 2006 general election for the opposition Waad. The National Democratic Action Society - Wa'ad (جمعية العمل الوطني الديمقراطي - وعد is Bahrain's largest leftist political party Madinat 'Isa ( Isa Town) (مدينة عيسى is a middle class suburb in Bahrain in the north central part of the country "
Egypt was once home to one of the most dynamic Jewish communities in the Diaspora. Egyptian Jews constitute perhaps the oldest Jewish community outside Israel in the world Caliphs in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries CE exercised various repressive policies, culminating in the murder of Jews and the destruction of the Jewish quarter in Cairo in 1012. Jewish life was subject to ups and downs until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, when it deteriorated again. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Six recorded blood libels took place between 1870 and 1892. In 1948, approximately 75,000 Jews lived in Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. About 100 remain today, mostly in Cairo. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. In June 1948, a bomb exploded in Cairo's Karaite quarter, killing 22 Jews. In July 1948, Jewish shops and the Cairo Synagogue was attacked, killing 19 Jews.  Hundreds of Jews were arrested and had their property confiscated. The 1954, the Lavon Affair served as a pretext for further persecution of Egyptian Jews. The Lavon Affair refers to the scandal over a failed Israeli Covert operation in Egypt known as Operation Susannah, in which Israeli military In October 1956, when the Suez Crisis erupted, 1,000 Jews were arrested and 500 Jewish businesses were seized by the government. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh A statement branding the Jews "enemies of the state" was read out in the mosques of Cairo and Alexandria. Jewish bank accounts were confiscated and many Jews lost their jobs. Lawyers, engineers, doctors and teachers were not allowed to work in their professions. In 1967, Jews were detained and tortured, and Jewish homes were confiscated. 
In 1951, the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion was translated into Arabic and promoted as an authentic historical document, fueling anti-Semitic sentiments in Egypt. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ( Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Library of Congress 's Uniform Title; "Протоколы  In 1960, the Protocols were the subject of an article by Salah Dasuqi, military governor of Cairo, in al-Majallaaa, the official cultural journal.  In 1965, the Egyptian government released an English-language pamphlet titled Israel, the Enemy of Africa and distributed it throughout the English-speaking countries of Africa. The pamphlet used the Protocols and The International Jew as its sources and concluded that all the Jews were cheats, thieves, and murderers. The International Jew is a four volume set of Booklets or Pamphlets originally published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry 
In October 2002, a private Egyptian television company Dream TV produced a 41-part "historical drama" A Knight Without a Horse (Fars Bela Gewad), largely based on the Protocols, which ran on 17 Arabic-language satellite television channels, including government-owned Egypt Television (ETV), for a month, causing concerns in the West. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Satellite television is Television delivered by the means of Communications satellites as compared to conventional Terrestrial television and Cable  Egypt's Information Minister Safwat El-Sherif announced that the series "contains no antisemitic material". 
In 1948, there were approximately 150,000 Jews in Iraq. Iraqi Jews are Jews born in Iraq or of Iraqi heritage The history of the Jews in Iraq is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The community was concentrated in Baghdad, was well established and felt no urge to leave. However by 2003, there were only approximately 100 left of this previously thriving community.
In 1941, following Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, riots known as the Farhud broke out in Baghdad in which approximately As a result of Farhud, about 180 Jews were killed and about 240 were wounded, 586 Jewish-owned businesses were looted and 99 Jewish houses were destroyed. Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (رشيد عالي الكيلاني also spelled Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gillani or Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani, son of Sayyad Abdul The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries Farhud (translation from Arabic: " Pogrom " "violent dispossession" was a violent Pogrom against the Jews of Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous 
Like most Arab League states, Iraq initially forbade the emigration of its Jews after the 1948 war on the grounds that allowing them to go to Israel would strengthen that state. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية However, intense diplomatic pressure brought about a change of mind. At the same time, increasing government oppression of the Jews fueled by anti-Israeli sentiment, together with public expressions of anti-semitism, created an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty.
In March 1950, Iraq passed a law of one year duration allowing Jews to emigrate on condition of relinquishing their Iraqi citizenship. Iraq apparently believed it would rid itself of those Jews it regarded as the most troublesome, especially the Zionists, but retain the wealthy minority who played an important part in the Iraqi economy. Israel mounted an operation called "Ezra and Nehemiah" to bring as many of the Iraqi Jews as possible to Israel, and sent agents to Iraq to urge the Jews to register for immigration as soon as possible. From 1950 to 1952, Operation Ezra and Nehemiah airlifted 120-130000 Iraqi Jews to Israel via Iran and Cyprus.
The initial rate of registration accelerated after a bomb injured three Jews at a café. Two months before the expiry of the law, by which time about 85,000 Jews had registered, a bomb at the Masuda Shemtov Synagogue killed 3 or 5 Jews and injured many. A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of The law expired in March 1951, but was later extended after the Iraqi government froze and later appropriated the assets of departing Jews (including those already left). In 1951 the Iraqi Government passed legislation that made affiliation with Zionism a felony and ordered, "the expulsion of Jews who refused to sign a statement of anti-Zionism. "  During the next few months, all but a few thousand of the remaining Jews registered for emigration, spurred on by a sequence of bombings that caused few casualties but had great psychological impact. In total, about 120,000 Jews left Iraq.
In May and June 1951, the arms caches of the Zionist underground in Iraq, which had been supplied from Palestine/Israel since the Farhud of 1942, were discovered. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the Farhud (translation from Arabic: " Pogrom " "violent dispossession" was a violent Pogrom against the Jews of Baghdad Many Jews were arrested and two Zionist activists, Yusuf Basri and Ibrahim Salih, were tried and hanged for three of the bombings. A secret Israeli inquiry in 1960 reported that most of the witnesses believed that Jews had been responsible for the bombings, but found no evidence that they were ordered by Israel.  The issue remains unresolved: some Iraqi activists in Israel still regularly charge that Israel used violence to engineer the exodus, while Israeli officials of the time vehemently deny it. According to historian Moshe Gatt, few historians believe that Israel was actually behind the bombing campaign -- based on factors such as records indicating that Israel did not want such a rapid registration rate and that bomb throwing at Jewish targets was common before 1950, making the Istiqlal Party a more likely culprit than the Zionist underground. In any case, the remainder of Iraq's Jews left over the next few decades. and had mostly gone by 1970. In 1969 eleven Jews were hanged, nine of them on January 27 in the public squares of Baghdad and Basra. The 2,500 remnant of the community almost entirely fled shortly thereafter.
In 1948, there were approximately 5,000-100,000 Jews in Lebanon, with communities in Beirut, and in villages near Mount Lebanon, Deir al Qamar, Barouk, and Hasbayah. The Lebanese Jews are traditionally a Mizrahi community living in the present-day country of Lebanon, mostly in and around the city of Beirut. Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 Mount Lebanon ( Arabic: جبل لبنان as a geographic designation is the Lebanese mountain range known as the Western Mountain Range of Lebanon Deir el Qamar (in Arabic دير القمر meaning " Monastery of the Moon " is a village in south-central Lebanon, 5 kilometres outside Barouk (الباروك is a village in the Chouf District of Lebanon (1000-1250 While the French mandate saw a general improvement in conditions for Jews, the Vichy regime placed restrictions on them. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 The Jewish community actively supported Lebanese independence after World War II and had mixed attitudes toward Zionism.
Negative attitudes toward Jews increased after 1948, and, by 1967, most Lebanese Jews had emigrated - to the United States, Canada, France, and Israel. The remaining Jewish community was particularly hard hit by the civil wars in Lebanon, and, by 1967, most Jews had emigrated. In 1971, Albert Elia, the 69-year-old Secretary-General of the Lebanese Jewish community was kidnapped in Beirut by Syrian agents and imprisoned under torture in Damascus along with Syrian Jews who had attempted to flee the country. A personal appeal by the U. N. High Commissioner for Refugees, Prince Sadruddin Agha Khan to the late President Hafez al-Assad failed to secure Elia's release. In the 1980s, Hizballah kidnapped several Lebanese Jewish businessmen, and in the 2004 elections, only one Jew voted in the municipal elections. Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation By all accounts, there are fewer than 100 Jews left in Lebanon.
The area now known as Libya was the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BCE. Jews have lived in Libya since the 3rd century BC, when North Africa was under Roman rule Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab In 1948, about 38,000 Jews lived there. 
A series of pogroms started in Tripoli in November 1945; over a period of several days more than 130 Jews (including 36 children) were killed, hundreds were injured, 4,000 were left homeless, and 2,400 were reduced to poverty. Tripolis ( Arabic: طرابلس Ṭarābulus - also طرابلس الغرب Ṭarā-bu-lus al-Gharb Libyan vernacular: Five synagogues in Tripoli and four in provincial towns were destroyed, and over 1,000 Jewish residences and commercial buildings were plundered in Tripoli alone.  The pogroms continued in June 1948, when 15 Jews were killed and 280 Jewish homes destroyed. 
Between the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and Libyan independence in December 1951 over 30,000 Libyan Jews emigrated to Israel. In 1967, during the Six-Day War, the Jewish population of 4,000 was again subjected to pogroms in which 18 were killed, and many more injured. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt The Libyan government "urged the Jews to leave the country temporarily", permitting them each to take one suitcase and the equivalent of $50. In June and July over 4,000 traveled to Italy, where they were assisted by the Jewish Agency. 1,300 went on to Israel, 2,200 remained in Italy, and most of the rest went to the United Stated. A few scores remained in Libya. 
In 1970 the Libyan government issued new laws which confiscated all the assets of Libya's Jews, issuing in their stead 15 year bonds. However, when the bonds matured no compensation was paid. Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi justified this on the grounds that "the alignment of the Jews with Israel, the Arab nations' enemy, has forfeited their right to compensation. Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi "
Although the main synagogue in Tripoli was renovated in 1999, it has not reopened for services. The last Jew in Libya, Esmeralda Meghnagi died in February, 2002. Israel is home to about 140,000 Jews of Libyan descent, who maintain unique traditions.  
Jewish communities, in Islamic times often (though not always) living in ghettos known as mellah, have existed in Morocco for at least 2,000 years. Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community Before the founding of Israel in 1948, there were about 250000 Jews in the country but fewer PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A ghetto is described as a "portion of a city in which members of a minority group live especially because of social legal or economic pressure A mellah ( Arabic ملاح probably from the word ملح Arabic for "salt" is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Intermittent large scale massacres (such as that of 6,000 Jews in Fez in 1033, over 100,000 Jews in Fez and Marrakesh in 1146 and again in Marrakesh in 1232) were accompanied by systematic discrimination through the years. Fes or Fez ( Arabic: فاس, French Fès is the fourth largest City in Morocco, after Casablanca, Rabat Marrakesh or Marrakech ( Amazigh: Murakush, Arabic مراكش Murrakush) known as the "Red City" During the 13th through the 15th centuries Jews were appointed to a few prominent positions within the government, typically to implement decisions. A number of Jews, fleeing the expulsion from Spain and Portugal, settled in Morocco in the 15th century and afterwards, many moving on to the Ottoman Empire. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish
The imposition of a French protectorate in 1912 alleviated much of the discrimination. In Morocco the Vichy regime during World War II passed discriminatory laws against Jews; for example, Jews were no longer able to get any form of credit, Jews who had homes or businesses in European neighborhoods were expelled, and quotas were imposed limiting the percentage of Jews allowed to practice professions such as law and medicine to two percent. Vichy France, or the Vichy regime are the common terms used to describe the government of France from July 1940 to August 1944 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including  King Muhammad V expressed his personal distaste for these laws, and assured Moroccan Jewish leaders that he would never lay a hand "upon either their persons or property". Mohammed V ( August 10, 1909 &ndash February 26, 1961) (محمد الخامس was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to While there is no concrete evidence of him actually taking any actions to defend Morocco's Jews, it has been argued that he may have worked behind the scenes on their behalf. 
In June 1948, soon after Israel was established and in the midst of the first Arab-Israeli war, riots against Jews broke out in Oujda and Djerada, killing 44 Jews. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Oujda (وجدة is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants Jerada (جرادة is a town in northeastern Morocco, in the Beni Snassen Mountains. In 1948-9, 18,000 Jews left the country for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued (to Israel and elsewhere), but slowed to a few thousand a year. Through the early fifties, Zionist organizations encouraged emigration, particularly in the poorer south of the country, seeing Moroccan Jews as valuable contributors to the Jewish State:
. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the . . These Jews constitute the best and most suitable human element for settlement in Israel's absorption centers. There were many positive aspects which I found among them: first and foremost, they all know (their agricultural) tasks, and their transfer to agricultural work in Israel will not involve physical and mental difficulties. They are satisfied with few (material needs), which will enable them to confront their early economic problems.—Yehuda Grinker, The Emigration of Atlas Jews to Israel 
In 1956, Morocco attained independence. Jews occupied several political positions, including three parliamentary seats and the cabinet position of Minister of Posts and Telegraphs. However, that minister, Leon Benzaquen, did not survive the first cabinet reshuffling, and no Jews was appointed again to a cabinet position.  Although the relations with the Jewish community at the highest levels of government were cordial, these attitudes were not shared by the lower ranks of officialsdom, which exhibited attitudes that ranged from traditional contempt to outright hostility".  Morocco's increasing identification with the Arab world, and pressure on Jewish educational institutions to arabize and conform culturally added to the fears of Moroccan Jews.  Emigration to Israel jumped from 8,171 in 1954 to 24,994 in 1955, increasing further in 1956. Beginning in 1956, emigration to Israel was prohibited until 1961; during that time, however, clandestine emigration continued, and a further 18,000 Jews left Morocco. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. On January 10, 1961, a boat carrying Jews attempting to flee the country sank off the northern coast of the country; the negative publicity associated with this prompted King Muhammad V to again allow emigration, and over the three following years, more than 70,000 Moroccan Jews left the country. Mohammed V ( August 10, 1909 &ndash February 26, 1961) (محمد الخامس was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to  By 1967, only 50,000 Jews remained. 
The Six-Day War in 1967 led to increased Arab-Jewish tensions worldwide, including Morocco, and Jewish emigration continued. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt By the early 1970s the Jewish population was reduced to 25,000; however, most of this wave of emigration went to France, Belgium, Spain, and Canada, rather than Israel. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 
Despite their current small numbers, Jews continue to play a notable role in Morocco; the king retains a Jewish senior adviser, André Azoulay, and Jewish schools and synagogues receive government subsidies. André Azoulay (born 1941 in Essaouira) is a senior adviser to King Mohammed VI of Morocco. However, Jewish targets have sometimes been attacked (notably in Al-Qaeda's bombing of a Jewish community center in Casablanca, see Casablanca Attacks), and there is sporadic anti-Semitic rhetoric from radical Islamist groups. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The Casablanca (in Standard Arabic: الدار البيضاء ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ; Moroccan Arabic: dar beïda الدار البيضا The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of Suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. The late King Hassan II's invitations for Jews to return have not been taken up by the people who emigrated; in 1948, over 250,000-265,000 Jews lived in Morocco. King Hassan II (صاحب الجلالة الملك الحسن الثاني class By 2001 an estimated 5,230 remained. 
According to Esther Benbassa, the migration of Jews from the Maghreb countries was prompted by uncertainty about the future. The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset 
Rioters in Aleppo in 1947 burned the city's Jewish quarter and killed 75 people. Syrian Jews derive their origin from two groups those who inhabited Syria from early times and the Sephardim who fled to Syria after the expulsion of the Jews from  In 1948, there were approximately 30,000 Jews in Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The Syrian government placed severe restrictions on the Jewish community, including on emigration. Over the next decades, many Jews managed to escape, and the work of supporters, particularly Judy Feld Carr, in smuggling Jews out of Syria, and bringing their plight to the attention of the world, raised awareness of their situation. Judith Feld Carr CM, LLD (born 1939) is a Musician and Humanitarian, who resides in Toronto, Ontario, Following the Madrid Conference of 1991 the United States put pressure on the Syrian government to ease its restrictions on Jews, and on Passover in 1992, the government of Syria began granting exit visas to Jews on condition that they do not emigrate to Israel. The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. At that time, the country had several thousand Jews; today, under a hundred remain. The rest of the Jewish community have emigrated, mostly to the United States and Israel. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. There is a large and vibrant Syrian Jewish community in South Brooklyn, New York. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous In 2004, the Syrian government attempted to establish better relations with the emigrants, and a delegation of a dozen Jews of Syrian origin visited Syria in the spring of that year. 
Jews have lived in Tunisia for at least 2300 years. Tunisia has had a Jewish minority since Roman times. In 1948 the Jewish population was an estimated 105000 but by 1967 most Tunisian Jews had In the 13th century, Jews were expelled from their homes in Kairouan and were ultimately restricted to ghettos, known as hara. Kairouan ( Arabic القيروان (also known as Kirwan, Al Qayrawan) is a Muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca, Medina Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews. From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at least until 1869.
Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under direct Nazi control during World War II, was also the site of anti-Semitic activities such as prison camps, deportations, and other persecution. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
In 1948, approximately 105,000 Jews lived in Tunisia. Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. About 1,500 remain today, mostly in Djerba, Tunis, and Zarzis. Djerba (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جربة is with its 514 km² the largest Island off North Africa Tunis ( Arabic: تونس Tūnis) is the Capital of the Tunisian Republic and also the Tunis Zarzis (جرجيس is a coastal town in southeastern Tunisia, on the coast of Mediterranean Sea. Following Tunisia's independence from France in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish policies led to emigration, of which half went to Israel and the other half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration both to Israel and France accelerated. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. There were also attacks in 1982, 1985, and most recently in 2002 when a bomb in Djerba took 21 lives (most of them German tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack claimed by Al-Qaeda. Djerba (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جربة is with its 514 km² the largest Island off North Africa Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The (See Ghriba synagogue bombing). The Ghriba synagogue bombing was a deadly bombing carried out in Tunisia by the Al-Qaeda terrorist group on the El Ghriba synagogue.
The Tunisian government makes an active effort to protect its Jewish minority now and visibly supports its institutions.
If one includes Aden, there were about 63,000 Jews in Yemen in 1948. Yemenite Jews ( Hebrew: תֵּימָנִים, Standard   Temanim Tiberian   Têmānîm Aden (ˈeɪdən Arabic: عدن) is a city in Yemen, 170 kilometers east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Today, there are about 200 left. In 1947, riots killed at least 80 Jews in Aden. Increasingly hostile conditions led to the Israeli government's Operation Magic Carpet, the evacuation of 50,000 Jews from Yemen to Israel in 1949 and 1950. Operation Magic Carpet is a widely-known nickname for Operation On Wings of Eagles, an operation between June 1949 and September 1950 that brought Emigration continued until 1962, when the civil war in Yemen broke out. A small community remained unknown until 1976, but it appears that all infrastructure is lost now.
Jews in Yemen were long subject to a number of restrictions, ranging from attire, hairstyle, home ownership, marriage, etc. Under the "Orphan's Decree", many Jewish orphans below puberty were raised as Muslims. This practice began in the late 18th century, was suspended under Ottoman rule, then was revived in 1918. Most cases occurred in the 1920s, but sporadic cases occurred until the 1940s. In later years, the Yemenite government has taken some steps to protect the Jewish community in their country.
Hundreds of thousands of Jewish refugees were temporarily settled in the numerous tent cities called ma'abarot (transit camps) in Hebrew. The Ma'abarot (מעברות were Refugee camps in Israel in the 1950s The ma'abarot existed until 1963. Their population was gradually absorbed and integrated into the Israeli society, a substantial logistical achievement, without help from the United Nations' various refugee organizations. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
The pace and direction of this absorption was directed by three main factors:
UN Resolution 194 passed in 1948 resolves that "the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 was passed on December 11 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. " The Israeli government's support of the mass immigration and resettlement of Arab Jews allowed it to argue in the international arena that this, provided "natural justice"  via a population exchange — Arab immigrants for Palestinian refugees. On April 1, 2008, the U. S. Congress unanimously supported House Resolution 185, calling for the recognition of Jewish, Christian, and other refugees from Arab lands. The resolution continued to say that any agreement reached between Israelis and Palestinians, must include recognition of the Jewish refugees as well. The House also made it clear that the subject should be brought before the U. N. General Assembly again, to have them recognize the plight of the Arabic Jews.
|Part of Israeli-Palestinian conflict|
and Arab-Israeli conflict series
|Israeli-Palestinian peace process|
|History of the peace process|
Camp David Accords • Madrid Conference • Oslo Accords • Oslo II • Hebron Agreement • Wye River Memorandum • Sharm e-Sheikh memorandum • Camp David 2000 Summit • Taba Summit • Road map • Annapolis Conference
|Primary negotiation concerns|
Antisemitic incitements • Status of Jerusalem • Israeli settlements • Israeli West Bank barrier • Jewish state • Palestinian political violence • Palestinian refugees • Palestinian state • Places of worship
1 The Golan Heights are not part of Israeli-Palestinian track
There are a number of advocacy groups acting on behalf of Jewish refugees from Arab countries. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria The Gaza Strip (قطاع غزة, רצועת עזה Retzu'at 'Azza) is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea, bordering Egypt on the south-west Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR Israeli-Palestinian conflict The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip or Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement, or simply the Interim Agreement, also known as Oslo 2 (or Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as The Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, began January 7 and was concluded from January The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September 1995 brokered by the United States between The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister The Taba summit (also known as Taba Summit, Taba Talks, Taba Conference, Taba, or permanent status talks at Taba) were talks between The "road map" for peace is a Plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a " quartet " of international entities the For the revolutionary legislature of the Colony of Maryland see Annapolis Convention (1774-1776. Jewish exodus from Arab lands|Islam and Antisemitism|Anti Jewish Arabism Oxymoronic, as Israel has De facto control over all of Jerusalem. However there are many differing legal and diplomatic positions on Jerusalem. Israeli settlements are communities inhabited by Israelis in territory that was captured as a result of Jordanian attacks during the 1967 Six-Day War. West bank walljpg|thumb|Aerial view looking east from the Israeli side The terms " Jewish state " and " homeland of the Jewish people " are used to describe the State of Israel and refer to its status as a Nation-state Palestinian political violence or Palestinian terrorism refers to acts of violence committed for political reasons by Palestinians Palestinian groups that support Proposals for a Palestinian state (دولة فلسطين refer to the proposed establishment of an independent state for the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip, which is currently Mahmoud Abbas (محمود عباس (born March 26, 1935) also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن was elected President Dr Salam Fayyad (سلام فياض b 1952 is a Palestinian politician who on June 15, 2007, was appointed the Prime Minister of the Palestinian Ehud Olmert (אהוד אולמרט ɛˈhud ˈolmeʁt born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel and the former leader (שמעון פרס born Szymon Perski on August 2 1923, is the ninth President of the State of Israel. The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and International The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Beirut Summit (also known as the Arab Summit Conference) was a meeting of the Arab League in Beirut, Lebanon in March 2002 to The Elon Peace Plan (now "The Israeli Initiative", formerly "The Right Road to Peace") is a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict The Lieberman Plan proposed May 2004, also known in Israel as the "Populated-Area Exchange Plan" was proposed by Avigdor Lieberman, the leader of the This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine Hudna (هدنة is an Arabic term meaning " Truce " or " Armistice " as well as "calm" or "quiet" coming Israel's unilateral disengagement plan ( Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תוכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in The realignment plan (תוכנית ההתכנסות (originally dubbed the "convergence plan" was formulated and introduced to the Israeli public by prime minister Projects that work to foster peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs (including Palestinians fall into various categories The Valley of Peace initiative is an effort to promote economic cooperation between Israelis and Palestinians. Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous Some examples include:
In March 2008, "[f]or the first time ever, . . . a Jewish refugee from an Arab country" appeared before the United Nations Human Rights Council. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. Regina Bublil-Waldman, a Jewish Libyan refugee and founder of JIMENA, "appeared before the UN Human Rights Council wearing her grandmother's Libyan wedding dress. " Justice for Jews from Arab Countries presented a report to the UN Human Rights Council about oppression Jews faced in Arab countries that forced them to find amnesty elsewhere.