|Polish Underground State|
History of Poland
Jewish Combat Organization
The Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB, Polish for the Jewish Combat Organization; called in Yiddish יידישע קאמף ארגאניזאציע) - a World War II resistance movement, which was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (although the ŻZW Jewish resistance organization claimed otherwise). Polish Underground State (Polskie Państwo Podziemne also known as Polish Secret State) refers to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September–October Rada Jedności Narodowej ( Council of National Unity, RJN) was the quasi-parliament of the Polish Underground State during World War II. Directorate of Civil Resistance ( Polish Kierownictwo Walki Cywilnej, short KWC) was one of the branches of the Polish Government Delegate’s The Polish Socialist Party ( Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS was one of the most important Polish Left-wing Political parties from its inception The People's Party ( Stronnictwo Ludowe, abbr SL was a Polish Political party, active from 1931 in the Second Polish Republic. Stronnictwo Narodowe ( SN, National Party was a Polish Political party formed in October 1928 after the transformation of Związek Ludowo-Narodowy Stronnictwo Pracy (Labor Party was a Polish Christian democracy Political party, active from 1937 in the Second Polish Republic and later part of the Obóz Zjednoczenia Narodowego (ˈɔbus zjɛdnɔˈtʃɛɲa narɔdɔˈvɛgɔ Polish for "Camp of National Unity" abbreviated " OZN " Stronnictwo Demokratyczne ( Democratic Party, SD) is a Polish centrist party established on April 15, 1939. Hashomer Hatzair (השומר הצעיר also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, translating as The Youth Guard) is a Socialist The Betar Movement (בית"ר also spelled Beitar) is a Revisionist Zionist youth movement founded in 1923 in The National Radical Camp (Obóz Narodowo Radykalny ONR was a Polish Extreme right Anti-semitic, Because of its involvement in Boycott The Polish Workers' Party ( Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR was a Communist party in Poland from 1942 to 1948 Służba Zwycięstwu Polski ( Service for Poland's Victory, or Polish Victory Service, abbreviated SZP) was the first Polish resistance movement in Związek Walki Zbrojnej ( ZWZ; Association of Armed Struggle or more commonly Union for Armed Struggle) was the name of the underground army formed Grey Ranks (Szare Szeregi was a codename for the underground Polish Scouting Association ( pl Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego) Państwowy Korpus Bezpieczeństwa ( Polish for National Security Corps, short PKB, sometimes also referred to as Kadra Bezpieczeństwa) was a Gwardia Ludowa WRN (GL WRN People's Guard of WRN was a part of the Polish resistance movement in World War II. Bataliony Chłopskie ( BCh, Polish Peasants' Battalions) was a Polish World War II Resistance movement and partisan Narodowa Organizacja Wojskowa (National Military Organization was one of the Polish resistance movements in World War II. Narodowe Siły Zbrojne ( English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was a faction of the Polish resistance movement in World War II, fighting the Obóz Polski Walczącej (OPW Camp of Fighting Poland or Fighting Poland Movement was a minor part of the Polish resistance movement in World War II. Konfederacja Narodu (Confederation of the Nation was one of the Polish resistance organizations in Occupied Poland during World War II. Żydowski Związek Wojskowy ( ŻZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground resistance organization operating during Organizacja Wojskowa Związek Jaszczurczy ( Military Organization Lizard Union, short for Związek Jaszczurczy, abbreviated OW ZJ) was an organization of This is an article about a communist Polish resistance organization Armia Ludowa ( AL, pronounced lu'dɔva English People's Army) was a partisan force set up by the Polish Workers' Party during Polish culture during World War II was brutally suppressed by the country's occupiers, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, both of whom were This article covers the topic of underground education in Poland (Tajne szkolnictwo or pl tajne komplety) during World War II The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Yiddish (yi [[wiktייִדיש ייִדיש]] yidish or yi [[wiktאידיש אידיש]] idish, literally "Jewish" is a nonterritorial High World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish Żydowski Związek Wojskowy ( ŻZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground resistance organization operating during The organization also took part in other resistance activities.
The seeds of the ŻOB were planted on 22 July 1942, when the German Nazis issued a decree regarding the fate of the Jews confined in the Warsaw Ghetto. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish Ghettos located in the territory of General Government during World War II, established by "All Jewish persons living in Warsaw, regardless of age and sex, [would] be resettled in the East. " Thus began massive deportations of the Jews, which lasted until 12 September 1942. Deportation, not to be confused with Extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a place or Country. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Overall some 300,000 Jews were expelled, many of whom were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp. Treblinka II was a German Extermination camp in occupied Poland during World War II. The deportations depleted the once thriving Warsaw Jewish community to 55,000-60,000 inhabitants. Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland.
The youth groups that were instrumental in forming the ŻOB had anticipated German intentions to annihilate Warsaw Jewry and began to shift from an educational and cultural focus to self-defense and eventual armed struggle. Jewish population refers to the number of Jews in the world Precise figures are difficult to calculate because the definition of " Who is a Jew " remains a Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc
Unlike the older generation, the youth groups took these reports seriously and had no illusions about the true intentions of the Germans. A document published three months before the start of the deportations by Hashomer Hatzair declared: "We know that Hitler's system of murder, slaughter and robbery leads steadily to a dead end and the destruction of the Jews. Hashomer Hatzair (השומר הצעיר also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, translating as The Youth Guard) is a Socialist "
Because of their ability to view the situation objectively, a number of the leftist Zionist youth groups like Hashomer Hatzair proposed the creation of a self-defense organization at a meeting of Warsaw Jewish leaders in March of 1942. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the Hashomer Hatzair (השומר הצעיר also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, translating as The Youth Guard) is a Socialist The proposal was rejected by the Bund who believed that a fighting organization would fail without the help of Polish resistance groups who were refusing to provide any support to such an organization. Others rejected the notion of armed resistance saying that there was no evidence of a threat of deportation. Moreover, they argued any armed resistance would provoke the Germans to retaliate against the whole Jewish community.
On 18 January 1943, the Nazis began a second wave of deportations. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first Jews the Germans rounded up included a number of ŻOB fighters who had intentionally crept into the column of deportees. Led by Mordechai Anielewicz they waited for the appropriate signal, then stepped out of formation, and fought the Nazis with small arms. Mordechaj (Mordecai Anielewicz (1919 – May 8, 1943) was the commander of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa ( English: Jewish Fighting The column scattered and news of the ŻOB action quickly spread throughout the ghetto. During this small deportation, the Nazis only managed to round up about 5,000 to 6,000 Jews.
The deportations lasted four days during which the Germans met other acts of resistance from the ŻOB. A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation When they left the ghetto on 22 January 1943, the remaining Jews regarded it as a victory, however Israel Gutman, a member of the ŻOB who subsequently became one of the leading authors on Jewish Warsaw wrote, It [was] not known [to the Jews] that the Germans had not intended to liquidate the entire ghetto by means of the January deportations. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Israel Gutman ( Hebrew: ישראל גוטמן (b 1923 Warsaw - is a Polish-born Israeli historian of the Holocaust. However, Gutman concludes that the [January] deportations. . . had a decisive influence on the ghetto's last months.
The final deportation began on the eve of Passover, 19 April 1943. Passover ( Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh, Yiddish Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The streets of the ghetto were vacant; most of the remaining 30,000 Jews were hiding in carefully prepared bunkers including their headquarters located in Ulica Mila 18, many of which had electricity and running water, however they offered no route of escape. A military bunker is a hardened shelter often buried partly or fully underground designed to protect the inhabitants from falling bombs or other attacks Ulica Miła 18 (or 18 Mila Street in English was the Headquarters Bunker (actually shelter of the Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB (Jewish
When the Germans marched into the ghetto, they met fierce armed resistance from fighters attacking from open windows in vacated apartments. The defenders of the ghetto utilized guerrilla warfare tactics and had the strategic advantage of not only surprise but also of being able to look down on their opponents. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc This advantage was lost when the Germans began systematically burning all of the buildings of the ghetto forcing the fighters to leave their positions and seek cover in the underground bunkers. The fires above consumed much of the available oxygen below ground, turning the bunkers into suffocating death traps.
By 16 May 1943, the German Police General Jürgen Stroop, who had been in charge of the final deportation, officially declared what he called the Grossaktion, finished. Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Jürgen Stroop, (born Josef Stroop, September 26, 1895 &ndash March 6, 1952) was a General of the SS and To celebrate he razed Warsaw's Great Synagogue. The Great Synagogue of Warsaw was the largest Synagogue of pre-war Warsaw and one of the largest in the world at the time The ghetto was destroyed and what remained of the uprising was suppressed.
Even after the destruction of the ghetto, small numbers of Jews could still be found in the underground bunkers, on both sides of the ghetto wall. In fact, during the last months of the ghetto some 20,000 Jews fled to the Aryan side. Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" Some Jews who escaped the final destruction of the ghetto, including youth group members and leaders Kazik Ratajzer, Zivia Lubetkin, Icchak Cukierman and Marek Edelman, would participate in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. Simcha Rotem (1924-present also known as Kazik, the name he used as a member of the Jewish Underground in Warsaw, he served as the head courier of the Jewish Zivia Lubetkin (1914–1976 (in Polish: Cywia Lubetkin) (in Hebrew: צביה לובטקין) also known by her Nom de guerre Icchak Cukierman (1915–1981 also known by his Nom de guerre " Antek " or by the anglicised spelling Yitzhak Zuckerman, was one of Marek Edelman (b December 31, 1922) is a Polish political and social activist Cardiologist, and last living leader of the Warsaw Ghetto The Warsaw Uprising ( Powstanie Warszawskie) was a World War II struggle by the Polish Home Army ( Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw
While many members and leaders of the youth groups perished in the Warsaw Ghetto, the Zionist youth movements themselves are still alive and thriving all over the world. See also Youth The following is a List of youth organizations; all organizations are international unless noted as associated with a specific country A Zionist Youth movement is an organization formed for Jewish children and adolescents for educational social and ideological development One can still find the leftist youth groups Hashomer Hatzair and Habonim Dror in countries like Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Israel, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Hashomer Hatzair (השומר הצעיר also transliterated Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair, translating as The Youth Guard) is a Socialist Habonim Dror (הבונים דרור Translation 'The Builders - Freedom' is a Secular Socialist-Zionist Youth movement formed by the merger The rightist youth group Betar enjoys a large following as well but mostly in Western Europe and the United States, and Bnei Akiva is the largest Religious Zionist youth movement in the world, with branches in many countries. The Betar Movement (בית"ר also spelled Beitar) is a Revisionist Zionist youth movement founded in 1923 in Bnei Akiva (בני עקיבא founded in the British Mandate of Palestine in 1929 is the largest religious Zionist Youth movement in the world today