Jewish Bolshevism, Judeo-Bolshevism, Judeo-Communism, or in Polish, Żydokomuna, is a pejorative antisemitic expression based on the notion that Jews are responsible for Bolshevism and Communism. Żydokomuna ( Polish for "Judeo-Communism" or "Judeo-Bolshevism" is a Pejorative term that has been used to express an Antisemitic Words and phrases are pejorative if they imply disapproval or contempt Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
The expression was the title of a pamphlet, The Jewish Bolshevism, and became current after the October Revolution (1917) in Russia, and spread worldwide in the 1920s with the publication and circulation of the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The Jewish Bolshevism, is a 31- or 32-page antisemitic Pamphlet published in London in 1922 and 1923 by the Britons Publishing The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ( Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Library of Congress 's Uniform Title; "Протоколы It made an issue out of the Jewishness of Bolsheviks (most notably Leon Trotsky) during and after the revolution. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Daniel Pipes says that "primarily through the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, the Whites spread these charges to an international audience. Daniel Pipes (born September 9 1949 is a American historian and political commentator who particularly focuses on the Middle East and Islam. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ( Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Library of Congress 's Uniform Title; "Протоколы The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard " James Webb writes: "[i]t is rare to find an anti-Semitic source after 1917 which does not stand in debt to the White Russian analysis of the Revolution. James Webb ( January 13, 1946 - May 9, 1980) was a Scottish historian and biographer "
The label "Judeo-Bolshevism" was used in Nazi Germany to equate Jews with communists, implying that the communist movement served Jewish interests and/or that all Jews were communists. A label is a piece of Paper, Polymer, Cloth, Metal, or other material affixed to a container or article on which is Printed Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based  Nowadays, the term is used on numerous antisemitic sites.
Jews had been a persecuted minority in the Russian Empire. Cantonists ( Russian language: Кантонисты, the term adapted from Prussia for "recruiting district" were sons of Russian conscripts who The May Laws were anti-Jewish regulations enacted on May 15 (May 3 O A pogrom is a form of Riot directed against a particular group whether ethnic religious or other and characterized by destruction of their Homes Businesses "Beilis trial" "Beilis affair" redirect here Menahem Mendel Beilis spelled '''Beiliss'''''Blood Accusation They had endured a form of physical segregation in the Pale of Settlement, as well as sporadic persecutions supported by Tsarist governments. The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости cherta osedlosti) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, along its western border in which More than two millions Russian Jews emigrated (in the period from 1881 to 1920, more than two million Jews left the Russian Empire).  On the eve of the February Revolution, the Bolshevik party had about 10,000 members, of which 364 were ethnic Jews. The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. 
In 1924, the US Senate issued a report, titled Conditions in Russia, in which it reproduced the census results which the Soviet government had published in Pravda. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population Pravda (Правда "The Truth" was a leading Newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Those results showed that the majority of Bolsheviks were Russian, with Ukrainians in second place. Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Nevertheless, no prominent expressions, such as "Russian Bolshevism," or "Ukrainian Bolshevism" had emerged.
A high percentage of ethnic Jews in comparison to the percentage of the total population took an active part in Bolshevik movement and revolutionary leadership before the revolution and for years after, see details below. Most of these Jews were hostile to traditional Jewish culture and Jewish political parties, and were eager to prove their loyalty to the Communist Party's atheism and proletarian internationalism, and committed to stamp out any sign of "Jewish cultural particularism". Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena above all it is the Culture of secular communities of Jewish people but it can also include Atheism International Socialism redirects here For the journal of the same name see International Socialism (journal Proletarian internationalism is a
Of the nine members of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party in April 1917, three were of Jewish decent (Kamenev, Zinoviev and Sverdlov). ( Russian: Лев Борисович Каменев born Rosenfeld, Розенфельд ( – August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik Zinoviev, Zinovyev, Zinovieff (Зиновьев or Zinovieva (feminine Зиновьева is a Russian surname and may refer to Yakov Mikhaylovich Sverdlov ( Russian Я́ков Миха́йлович Свердло́в known under pseudonyms "Andrei" "Mikhalych" "Max" Of the twelve committee members (Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Sverdlov, Yakovleva, Oppokov, Zinoviev, Kamenev) who, during a historic meeting on October 10, 1917, agreed for the necessity of armed revolution (leading to the October Revolution), six were Jewish (Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Uritsky, Sverdlov, and Sokolnikov, although Kamenev and Zinoviev opposed the revolution). The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky (Моисей Соломонович Урицкий 1873&ndash August 30 1918) was a Bolshevik Revolutionary leader Grigory Yakovlevich Sokolnikov ( - May 21, 1939) born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant, was an Old Bolshevik and a Soviet politician 
Out of Lenin's 15 Peoples' Commissars (Narkoms) in 1919, six were Jewish (Trotsky, Uritsky, Isaac Steinberg, I. Council of Ministers of the USSR (Совет Министров СССР tr Isaac Nachman Steinberg (Исаак Нахман Штейнберг יצחק־נחמן שטײנבערג ( July 13, 1888 - January 2 1957) was A. Teodorovich, Semyon Dimanstein and Sokolnikov). Semyon Dimanstein (Шимон (Семен Маркович Диманштейн (1886(uncertain- August 1938 was a Soviet state activist Among the 23 Narkoms between 1923–1930, there were twelve Russians, five Jews, two Georgians (Stalin and Ordzhonikidze), one Pole, one Moldavian, one Latvian, and one Ukrainian. Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party The situation had clearly evolved, within a relatively short time, to the advantage of the Russian majority. In the 1930s, there was one person of Jewish descent in the Politburo (Lazar Kaganovich).
In 1922, of the 44,148 members of the Bolshevik party that had joined before 1917 (the Old Guard, as Lenin referred to them) 7. Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к is an unofficial designation for a member of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917, most of 1% were Jewish (65% were Russian).
The number of Jews in top administrative positions began to decline soon after 1917. It continued to shrink heavily in the 1930s when Stalin had his old comrades Kamenev and Zinoviev executed while in prison, after a rigged trial in 1936. Kamenev and Zinoviev had previously been expelled, in 1926 and 1927, from the top positions they shared with Stalin in the Soviet ruling elite. Leon Trotsky had concurrently been expelled from the Soviet Union in 1927 and was then assassinated in Mexico City in 1940, by Soviet agent Ramón Mercader. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico Jaume Ramón Mercader del Río Hernández ( February 7 1914 &ndash October 18 1978) was a Catalan Communist who became Thus by the year 1940, and after his rapprochement with Hitler's Germany, Stalin had eliminated virtually all Jews from very high level government positions inside the Soviet Union.
Walter Laqueur states in his book The Changing Face of Antisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day:
To what extent did the presence of many Jews among the Communist leadership contribute to antisemitism? It certainly played an important role in antisemitic propaganda, and it is certainly true that during the 1920s Jews were heavily overrepresented in the ranks of party and state officials. Walter Zeev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian and political commentator With the rise of Stalin, Jews were removed from key positions and very often "liquidated. " The fact that other minorities were also disproportionately highly represented did not greatly matter - there was no tradition of anti-Latvianism in Russia, nor were Latvians found in the very top positions. Nor did it matter that Jews were equally strongly represented among other anti-Communist parties of the left such as the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries, or that the anti-Stalinist opposition was to a considerable extent of Jewish extraction. 
"Antisemites. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion ( Protocols of the wise men of Zion, Library of Congress 's Uniform Title; "Протоколы Vladimir L'vovich Burtsev (Владимир Львович Бурцев November 17 1862 &ndash August 21 1942) was a revolutionary activist . . refused to acknowledge the important and indisputable fact that the Jews who participated in the Socialist and Anarchist movements around the world, including the Russian Jews in particular, were renegades of the Jewish nation who had no connection with Jewish history nor with Jewish religion nor with Jewish masses, but were rather exclusively internationalists, promoting the ideas shared by Socialists of other ethnicities, and were hostile to the Jewish nation in general. "
Jews were among the members of the Soviet secret police. The Soviet Union had a succession of Secret police agencies over the course of its existence Of the 12 members of the Cheka Counter-revolutionary department in 1918, 6 were Jewish. The Cheka ( ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya,) was the first of a succession of Soviet State security Of the 42 Cheka prosecutors in September, 1918, at the height of Red Terror, a mere 8 were Jewish. The Red Terror in Soviet Russia was the campaign of mass arrests and Executions conducted by the Bolshevik government The rest were 14 Latvians, 13 Russians and 7 Poles. Only 3. 7% of the rank-and-file Cheka agents were Jewish at that time.
In the mid-1930s, under the leadership of Genrikh Yagoda, the Jewish presence in the secret police was allegedly 39% and only 30 % Russian. Genrikh Grigor'evich Yagoda (Генрих Григорьевич Ягода born Yenokh (Enoch Gershonovich Ieguda ( Енох Гершонович Иегуда 1891 The immediate predecessors to Yagoda in that same position were also Jewish: Iosif Unschlicht and Meier Trilisser. Józef Unszlicht ( Iosif Unshlikht, nicknames Jurowski Leon ( in Mława - July 28, 1938) a Jewish Communist ( Bolshevik Mikhail Abramovich Trilisser-Moskvin (Мейер Абрамович Трилиссер Jewish born Meier Abramovich Trilisser 1 April 1883, Astrakhan  Genrikh Yagoda's secret police oversaw the execution of both Zinoviev and Kamenev, but fell victim to Stalin's next round of purges: Yagoda was replaced by Nikolai Yezhov, who was not of Jewish descent, in September 1936, then Yezhov too was arrested and executed in March 1937. Biography His character Yezhov was born in Saint Petersburg according to his official Soviet biography though he stated he was born in Mariiampole Lithuania Under Yezhov, the number of Jews fell precipitously (to just 6 people) while the number of ethnic Russians among the leadership of the secret police, NKVD rose to 102 people (67 %) and the purges, at Stalin's instigation, entered their bloodiest period (1937–1938) (see Great Purge). The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat Great Purge (Большая чистка transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of Political repression and Persecution
Rosenberg's obiter dicta about Russia and Communism are found in the Mythos and in countless brochures and booklets: Bolshevism is the revolt of the Jewish and Mongolian races against the Germans (Aryan) element in Russia; it is the revolt of the steppe, the hatred of the nomads of everything great, heroic, racially healthy; all big things in Russian history had been achieved by Germans or those of German blood, but the revolution of 1917 had exterminated the Aryan element. Walter Zeev Laqueur (born 26 May 1921) is an American historian and political commentator Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics The Baltic Germans (Deutschbalten or Baltendeutsche) were mostly ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today (12 January 1893 16 October 1946 was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. An obiter dictum (plural obiter dicta, often referred to simply as dicta) Latin for a statement "said by the way" is a The Myth of the Twentieth Century ( Der Mythus des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts) is a book by Alfred Rosenberg The term " Mongoloid " is a variation of the word "Mongol" meaning "Mongol-like" The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets Aryan is an English word derived from the Sanskrit " Ārya " meaning "noble" or "honorable" In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them . . . , nor did the Jewish-Soviet Government represent the Russian people. To the Nazi ideologists, all leading Soviet statesmen were Jews: Lenin and Trotsky, Lunacharsky and Rakovsky, Kuibyshev and Krasin, Beria and Manuilsky among them. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Christian Rakovsky ( – September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet Samara (Сама́ра ( Kuybyshev (ru Ку́йбышев from 1935 to 1990 is one of the largest cities in Russia. History The ship was built at the Helsinki New Shipyard in Helsinki, Finland in 1976. Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (ლავრენტი პავლეს ძე ბერია Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Dmitry Manuilsky, or D Z Manuilsky (1883 – 1959 was an important Bolshevik. Whoever was not a Jew was a Chinese. Rosenberg developed an elaborate theory about the leading role of Chinese silk merchants in the Russian revolution. While other observers of the Soviet scene engaged in political speculation and social analysis, the Nazis' Russian experts were preoccupied with another kind of scientific investigation which hardly left them time for anything else. They tracked down the 'real' (Jewish) names of all Soviet leaders; Lunacharsky, for instance, became Mondschein - for who did not know that 'luna' was 'moon' in Latin? This, by and large, was the level of Nazi Sovietology. LUNA was a computer product line of OMRON Tateishi Electric from the late 1980s and the beginning of 1990s Kremlinology is the study and analysis of Soviet (and today Russian) politics and policies based on efforts to understand the inner workings of an extremely opaque—Laqueur, Ibid. , pp. 21-22
Laqueur asserts that the identification of Bolshevism with Jewry was perhaps the only truly original contribution which Nazism made to the study of Bolshevism or Communism. 
In Nazi Germany, this term expressed the common perception that Communism was a Jewish-inspired and Jewish-led movement seeking world domination from its very origin: Karl Marx. Nazi propaganda is the term that describes the psychologically powerful Propaganda within Nazi Germany, much of which was centered around Jews consistently Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The term was popularized in print by German journalist Dietrich Eckhart, who authored the pamphlet "Der Bolschewismus von Moses bis Lenin" in the early 1920s, thereby tying Moses and Lenin as both Communists and Jews. Dietrich Eckart ( 23 March 1868 - 26 December 1923) was a German politician one of the important early members of the National Socialist Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ Alfred Rosenberg's 1923 edition of the Protocols "gave a forgery a huge boost". (12 January 1893 16 October 1946 was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party.  This was followed by Hitler's highly inflammatory statement in Mein Kampf (1924): "In Russian Bolshevism we must see Jewry's twentieth century effort to take world dominion unto itself. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately "
According to Michael Kellogg, the author of The Russian Roots of Nazism. White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945:
In his groundbreaking 1939 book, L’Apocalypse de notre temps: Les dessous de la propagande allemande d’après des documents inédits (The Apocalypse of Our Times: The Hidden Side of German Propaganda According to Unpublished Documents), Henri Rollin stressed that "Hitlerism" represented a form of "anti-Soviet counter-revolution" which employed the "myth of a mysterious Jewish-Masonic-Bolshevik plot. " Rollin investigated the National Socialist belief, which was taken primarily from White émigré views, that a vast Jewish-Masonic conspiracy had provoked World War Ⅰ, toppled the Russian, German, and Austro-Hungarian Empires, and unleashed Bolshevism after undermining the existing order through the insidious spread of liberal ideas. German forces promptly destroyed Rollin’s work in 1940 after they occupied France, and the book has remained in obscurity ever since. 
The American ambassador to Russia, David Francis, wrote in January 1918 that most of the Bolshevik leaders were Jewish.  A report by British Intelligence, "A Monthly Review of the Progress of Revolutionary Movements Abroad", states in the first paragraph that international Communism is controlled by Jews.  Capt. Montgomery Schuyler, a military intelligence officer in Russia, reported regularly to the chief of staff of U.S. Army Intelligence, who relayed the reports to the US president. The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. In one of these reports, declassified in 1958, Schuyler states: "It is probably unwise to say this loudly in the United States, but the Bolshevik movement is and has been since its beginning, guided and controlled by Russian Jews of the greasiest type. . . " In another report on June 9, 1919, Schuyler wrote the following, which the historical record shows to be mostly inaccurate:
A table made up in 1918, by Robert Wilton, correspondent of the London Times in Russia, shows at that time there were 384 commissars including 2 Negroes, 13 Russians, 15 Chinamen, 22 Armenians and more than 300 Jews. Robert Wilton was a Right-wing British Journalist and a pro- Zionist, although he did criticize Russian Jews for their support of Bolshevism and The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. Negro is a term referring to people of Black African ancestry China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Of the latter number, 264 had come from the United States since the downfall of the Imperial Government. 
In an article in the Illustrated Sunday Herald on February 8 1920, Winston Churchill asserted::
There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international and for the most part atheistic Jews. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874 It is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews. 
Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle. ". 
Such attitudes were not uncommon in the UK at the time of the allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched in 1918 during the Russian Civil War and World War I The British court of inquiry, appointed to investigate the Arab 1920 Palestine riots, associated Zionism with Bolshevism and identified Ze'ev Jabotinsky with a Labor Zionist party Poale Zion, which the court called "a definite Bolshevist institution. The 1920 Palestine riots, or Nabi Musa riots, were violent Arab disturbances against the Jews in Jerusalem. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the Ze'ev Jabotinsky MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי Зеэв Жаботинский born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky on 18 October 1880 Labor Zionism ( Labour Zionism, ציונות סוציאליסטית tsionut sotsialistit) can be described as the major stream of the Left wing of the Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning "Workers of Zion" was a Movement of Marxist Zionist Jewish " In reality he was a right-wing leader.  In the early 1920s, a leading British antisemite, Henry Hamilton Beamish, announced that "Bolshevism was Judaism. Henry Hamilton Beamish ( June 2, 1873 &ndash March 27, 1948) was a leading British antisemite and the founder of The The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut "
The allegation was revived in a December 28, 2006 interview by Iranian Presidential Advisor Mohammad Ali Ramin who was appointed secretary-general of the new "World Foundation for Holocaust Studies" established at the International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust:
"The Bolshevik Soviet government in Lenin's time, and later, in Stalin's - both of whom were Jewish, though they presented themselves as Marxists and atheists. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Mohammad-Ali Ramin (born 1954 in Dezful, Iran) is an Iranian - German political analyst The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust was a two-day conference that opened on December 11, 2006, in Tehran, Iran . . - was one of the forces that, until the Second World War, cooperated with Hitler in promoting the idea of establishing the State of Israel. "