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Jetavana was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries in India. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The History of Buddhism spans the 6th century BCE to the present starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the The Schools of Buddhism. Buddhism is classified in various ways Buddhist texts can be categorized in a number of ways The Western terms "scripture" and "canonical" are applied to Buddhism in inconsistent ways by Western scholars It was the second monastery donated to Buddha, after the Veluvana in Rajagaha. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Jetavana is located just outside the old city of Savatthi. Srāvastī or Sāvatthī ( Hindi: श्रावस्ती a city of ancient India, was one of the six largest cities in India during Gautama Buddha Jetavana was the place where Buddha gave many teachings and discourses, more than in any other place. Mainly, this is because Buddha spent 19 (out of 45) rainy-seasons (also pansah or vassa) at Jetavana, more than in any other monastery. Vassa (from Pāli vasso, Sanskrit varṣaḥ, both "rain" พรรษา pansa or phansaa; ဝါဆိုး It is said that after the Migāramātupāsāda (a second monastery erected at Pubbarama, close to Savatthi) came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana and Migāramātupāsāda, often spending the day in one and the night in the other (SNA. Viśākhā, also referred to as Migara's mother ( Migāramāta) was one of the chief female lay disciples of the Buddha. i. 336).
When the Buddha accepted Anāthapindika's invitation to visit Sāvatthi the latter, seeking a suitable place for the Buddha's residence, discovered this park belonging to Jetakumāra (MA. Anathapindika ("feeder of the orphans or helpless" was the chief lay disciple of Gautama Buddha. i. 471 says it was in the south of Sāvatthi). When he asked to be allowed to buy it, Jeta's reply was: "Not even if you could cover the whole place with money. " Anāthapindika said that he would buy it at that price, and when Jeta answered that he had had no intention of making a bargain, the matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided that if the price mentioned were paid, Anāthapindika had the right of purchase. Anāthapindika had gold brought down in carts and covered Jetavana with pieces laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief at the Bharhut Tope; see Cunningham - the Stūpa of Bharhut, Pl. lvii. , pp. 84-6). The money brought in the first journey was found insufficient to cover one small spot near the gateway. So Anāthapindika sent his servants back for more, but Jeta, inspired by Anāthapindika's earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot. Anāthapindika agreed and Jeta erected there a gateway, with a room over it. Anāthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store rooms and service halls, halls with fireplaces, closets, cloisters, halls for exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open and roofed sheds, etc. (Vin. ii. 158f).
It is said (MA. i. 50; UdA. 56f) that Anāthapindika paid eighteen crores for the purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the construction of the gateway gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently an imposing structure; see J. ii. 216).
Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anāthapindika himself spent fifty-four crores in connection with the purchase of the park and the buildings erected in it.
The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only Anāthapindika himself, but his whole family took part: his son with five hundred other youths, his wife with five hundred other noble women, and his daughters Mahā Subhaddā and Cūla Subhaddā with five hundred other maidens. Anāthapindika was attended by five hundred bankers. The festivities in connection with the dedication lasted for nine months (J. i. 92ff).
The vihāra is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anāthapindikassa ārāma (Pali, meaning: in Jeta Grove, Anathapindika's Monastery). Pali ( ISO 15919 / ALA-LC: Pāḷi is a Middle Indo-Aryan language or Prakrit of India. The Commentaries (MA. ii. 50; UdA. 56f, etc. ) say that this was deliberate (at the Buddha's own suggestion pp. 81-131; Beal: op. cit. , ii. 5 and Rockhill: p. 49), in order that the names of both earlier and later owners might be recorded and that people might be reminded of two men, both very generous in the cause of the Religion, so that others might follow their example. The vihāra is sometimes referred to as Jetārāma (E. g. , Ap. i. 400).
Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana are mentioned in the books by special names, viz. , Mahāgandhakuti, Kaverimandalamāla, Kosambakuti and Candanamāla. SNA. ii. 403. Other buildings are also mentioned - e. g. , the Ambalakotthaka-āsanasālā (J. ii. 246). According to Tibetan sources the vihāra was built according to a plan sent by the devas of Tusita and contained sixty large halls and sixty small. The Dulva also gives details of the decorative scheme of the vihāra (Rockhill: op. cit. 48 and n. 2).
All these were built by Anāthapindika; there was another large building erected by Pasenadi and called the Salalaghara (DA. ii. 407). Over the gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers from entering (SA. i. 239). Just outside the monastery was a rājayatana-tree, the residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv. i. 52f; MT 105; but see DhA. i. 41, where the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana).
In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be called the Jetavanapokkharanī. (AA. i. 264; here the Buddha often bathed (J. i. 329ff. ). Is this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A. iii. 345? But see S. v. 220; it was near this pond that Devadatta was swallowed up in Avīci (J. iv. 158)).
The grounds themselves were thickly covered with trees, giving the appearance of a wooded grove (arañña) (Sp. iii. 532). On the outskirts of the monastery was a mango-grove (J. iii. 137). In front of the gateway was the Bodhi-tree planted by Anāthapindika, which came later to be called the Anandabodhi (J. iv. 228f). Not far from the gateway was a cave which became famous as the Kapallapūvapabbhāra on account of an incident connected with Macchariyakosiya (J. i. 348).
According to the Divyāvadāna (Dvy. 395f), the thūpas of Sāriputta and Moggallāna were in the grounds of Jetavana and existed until the time of Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p. 33ff) and Houien Thsang (Beal. ii. 7ff) give descriptions of other incidents connected with the Buddha, which took place in the neighbourhood of Jetavana - e. g. , the murder of Sundarikā, the calumny of Ciñcā, Devadatta's attempt to poison the Buddha, etc.
The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha's Gandhakuti in Jetavana is one of the four avijahitatthānāni; all Buddhas possess the same, though the size of the actual vihāra differs in the case of the various Buddhas. For Vipassī Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a monastery extending for a whole league, while for Sikhī, the setthi Sirivaddha made one covering three gavutas. The Sanghārāma built by Sotthiya for Vessabhū was half a league in extent, while that erected by Accuta for Kakusandha covered only one gāvuta. Konagamana's monastery, built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gāvuta, while Kassapa's built by Sumangala covered sixteen karīsas. Anāthapindika's monastery covered a space of eighteen karīsas (BuA. 2, 47; J. i. 94; DA. ii. 424).
According to a description given by Fa Hien (Giles, pp. 31, 33), the vihāra was originally in seven sections (storeys?) and was filled with all kinds of offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc. , and the lamps burnt from dusk to dawn.
One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners and canopies, and all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The vihāra was later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main entrances, one on the east, one on the west, and Fa Hsien found thūpas erected at all the places connected with the Buddha, each with its name inscribed.
Near Jetavana was evidently a monastery of the heretics where Ciñcāmānavikā spent her nights while hatching her conspiracy against the Buddha. (DhA. iii. 179; behind Jetavana was a spot where the Ajivakas practised their austerities (J. i. 493). Once the heretics bribed Pasenadi to let them make a rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the Buddha frustrated their plans (J. ii. 170)).
There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana used by the children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana to drink (DhA. iii. 492). The high road to Sāvatthi passed by the edge of Jetavana, and travellers would enter the park to rest and refresh themselves (J. ii. 203, 341; see also vi. 70, where two roads are mentioned).
The remains of Jetavana and Savatthi were locally known as Sahet-Mahet. Alexander Cunningham used the ancient (6th century AD) accounts of Chinese pilgrim-monks to determine that Sahet-Mahet actually referred to Jetavana and Savatthi. Sir Alexander Cunningham ( 23 January 1814 &ndash 28 November 1893) was a British Archaeologist and Army Srāvastī or Sāvatthī ( Hindi: श्रावस्ती a city of ancient India, was one of the six largest cities in India during Gautama Buddha
Jetavana is currently a historical park, with remains of many ancient buildings such as monasteries, huts (such as the Gandhakuti and the Kosambakuti) and stupas. A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist In Jetavana is also located the second-holiest tree of Buddhism: the Anandabodhi Tree. A visit to Savatthi and Jetavana is part of the Buddhist pilgrim route in North-India. The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and The most revered place in Jetavana is the Gandhakuti, where Buddha used to stay. Jetavana is located at the following coordinates: .
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana monastery.
Gandhakuti (Buddha's hut) in Jetavana.
Scene in Jetavana.
Scene in Jetavana, showing some small stupas.
Buddhist monks meditating under the Anandabodhi tree. A Bhikkhu ( Pāli) or Bhiksu ( Sanskrit) is a fully ordained male Buddhist Monastic.