|Jefferson National Expansion Memorial|
|IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)|
|Location||St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Area||192. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 83 acres (90. 96 federal)|
0. 78 km²
|Established||December 21, 1935|
|Visitors||2,944,976 (in 2005)|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
The Jefferson National Expansion Memorial is located in St. Louis, Missouri near the starting point of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation It was designated as a National Memorial by Executive Order 7523, on December 21, 1935, and is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS). National Memorial is a designation in the United States for a Protected area that commemorates a historic person or event executive order in the United States is a Directive issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation
The park was established to commemorate several historical events:
The memorial site consists of a 91-acre (37 ha) park along the Mississippi River on the site of the original city of St. The acre is a unit of Area in a number of different systems including the imperial and U Louis; the Old Courthouse, a former state and federal courthouse which saw the origins of the Dred Scott case; the 4,200 m² (45,000-sq. Dred Scott v Sandford —whether or not they were slaves—could never be Citizens of the United States, and that the United States Congress ft) Museum of Westward Expansion; and the Gateway Arch, an inverted steel catenary arch that has become the definitive icon of the city. In Physics and Geometry, the catenary is the theoretical Shape of a hanging flexible Chain or Cable when supported at its ends and An arch is a structure that spans a space while supporting weight (e
As the park entered the 21st century it is host to four million visitors each year, three quarters of whom enter the Arch or the Old Courthouse.
The Arch is known as the "Gateway to the West". Designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen and structural engineer Hannskarl Bandel, it stands 630 feet (192 m) tall, and is 630 feet (192 m) wide at its base. Eero Saarinen (eːro saːrinen (August 20 1910 Kirkkonummi, Finland – September 1 1961 Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States) was Hannskarl Bandel ( May 3, 1925 Dessau Germany - December 29, 1993 Aspen Colorado, United States was a German-American It is the tallest habitable structure in St. Louis (taller than One Metropolitan Square, the tallest building), and the second tallest in Missouri (behind One Kansas City Place in Kansas City), as well as the world's tallest monument. One Metropolitan Square, also known as Met Square, or Met 1, is a Skyscraper in downtown St One Kansas City Place is the tallest building in Missouri, located in Downtown, Kansas City, Missouri, USA. Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages
The cross-sections of its legs are equilateral triangles, narrowing from 54 feet (16. Properties The area of an equilateral triangle with sides of length a\\! 5 m) per side at the base to 17 feet (5. 2 m) at the top. Each wall consists of a stainless steel skin covering reinforced concrete from ground level to 300 feet (91 m), with carbon steel and rebar from 300 feet (91 m) to the peak. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Reinforced concrete is Concrete in which reinforcement bars (" Rebars quot or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is Steel where the main alloying constituent is Carbon. A rebar, or reinforcing bar, is a common Steel bar and is commonly used in Reinforced concrete and reinforced Masonry structures The interior of the Arch is hollow and contains a unique transport system leading to an observation deck at the top. The interior of the Arch also contains two emergency stairwells of 1076 steps each, in the event of a need to evacuate the Arch or if a problem develops with the tram system.
Visitors pass through security checkpoints at each entrance to the Arch, before being allowed access to the visitor center. Security was increased as result of a 1997 Congressional mandate to establish a Counter-Terrorism Program at the park. The NPS used the increased funding to purchase magnetometers and x-ray equipment for visitor screening and 25 CCTV cameras scattered throughout the grounds of the memorial. Closed-circuit television ( CCTV) is the use of Video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place limited set of monitors
Eero Saarinen died from a brain tumor four years before the Arch was completed; prior to his death he had decided to incorporate a power lift system to obviate the need to climb the 1000-plus stairs. A brain tumor is any intracranial Tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the Brain itself ( Neurons But the shape of the arch would have made a standard elevator impossible. After approaching several elevator companies who failed to come up with a viable method, Saarinen hired college dropout and parking-lot elevator designer Richard Bowser to do the job. An elevator or lift is a Transport device used to move people or goods vertically from one floor to another Skeptical city leaders gave Bowser only two weeks to submit a design, but he succeeded. By 1968 a unique tram system that combined an elevator cable lift system with gimbaled cars functionally similar to ferris wheel gondolas had been installed. A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis A Ferris wheel (also known as an observation wheel or big wheel) is a Nonbuilding structure consisting of an upright wheel with passenger gondolas attached
The tram is operated by the quasi-governmental Bi-State Development Agency under an agreement with the NPS. The Bi-State Development Agency is the formal name of an Interstate compact formed by Missouri and Illinois in 1949.
From the visitor center one may move to either base (one on the north end and the other on the south end) of the Arch and enter the tramway much as one would enter an ordinary elevator, through narrow double doors. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train The north queue area includes displays which interpret the design and construction of the Gateway Arch; the south queue area includes displays about the St. Louis riverfront during the mid-19th century.
Passing through the doors, passengers in groups of five enter an egg-shaped compartment containing five seats and a flat floor. Because of the car shape, the compartments have sloped ceilings low enough to force taller riders to lean forward while seated (for this reason it's recommended that the tallest of the five passengers in the car sit in the center seat facing the door). Eight compartments are linked to form a train, meaning that both trains have a capacity of 40, and that 80 people can be transported at one time. A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another These compartments individually retain an appropriate level by periodically rotating every 5 degrees, which allows them to maintain the correct orientation while the entire train follows curved tracks up one leg of the arch. The trip to the top of the Arch takes four minutes, and the trip down takes three minutes. The car doors have narrow windows, allowing passengers to see the interior stairways and structure of the Arch during the trip.
On July 21, 2007, several hundred people were trapped in the trams or at the top of the Arch after an electrical problem occurred with the tram system. All were returned to the ground either by being taken down stairs to a service elevator, or by waiting for power to be restored. A second electrical problem caused one tram to be taken out of service the following day.
Near the top of the arch, the rider exits the compartment and climbs a slight grade to enter the arched observation area. Small windows, almost invisible from the ground, allow views across the Mississippi River and southern Illinois with its prominent Mississippian culture mounds to the east at Cahokia, and the City of Saint Louis and St. Louis County to the west beyond the city. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern St Louis County is a County located in the US state of Missouri. On a clear day, one can see up to thirty miles (48 km).
The geometric form of the Arch was set by mathematical equations provided to Saarinen by Dr. Hannskarl Bandel. Hannskarl Bandel ( May 3, 1925 Dessau Germany - December 29, 1993 Aspen Colorado, United States was a German-American Bruce Detmers and other architects expressed the geometric form in blueprints with this equation:
fc = maximum height of centroid (in feet) = 625. 0925
Qb = maximum cross sectional area of arch at base (in sq. feet) = 1262. 6651
Qt = minimum cross sectional area of arch at top (in sq. feet) = 125. 1406
L = half width of centroid at the base (in feet) = 299. 2239
This hyperbolic cosine function describes the shape of a catenary. In Mathematics, the hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular functions In Physics and Geometry, the catenary is the theoretical Shape of a hanging flexible Chain or Cable when supported at its ends and A chain that supports only its own weight forms a catenary; in this configuration, the chain is strictly in tension.  An inverted catenary arch that supports only its own weight is strictly in compression, with no shear. The shape is therefore ideal.
The base of each leg at ground level had an engineering tolerance of one sixty-fourth of an inch or the two legs would not meet at the top. Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit of variation in a physical Dimension, a measured value or Physical property of a Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches.
During construction, both legs were built up simultaneously. When the time came to connect both legs together at the apex, thermal expansion of the sunward facing south leg prevented it from aligning precisely with the north leg. This alignment problem was solved when the Saint Louis City Fire Department sprayed the south leg with water from firehoses until it had cooled to the point where it aligned with the north leg.
Eleven light aircraft have been successfully piloted beneath the arch, the first on 22 June 1966, when the arch had been completed for less than a year. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. 
In 1980 Kenneth Swyers tried to parachute onto the span of the Gateway Arch, planning to jump back off to land on the ground below. Instead, he slid all the way down one leg to his death. The pilot, Richard Skurat, had his pilot certificate suspended for 90 days. 
In 1984, David Adcock of Houston, Texas, began to scale the arch by means of suction cups on his hands and feet, but he was talked out of continuing after having climbed only 20 feet (6. A suction cup is a device usually made of rubber or plastic that sticks to smooth nonporous surfaces 1 m). The next day he successfully scaled the nearby 21-story Equitable Building in downtown St. Louis.
On 14 September 1992 it was rumored that John C. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Vincent of New Orleans successfully scaled the outside of the Arch with suction cups during the night, and performed a BASE jump from the top with a parachute at 7 a. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana BASE jumping is involving the use of a Parachute or the sequenced use of a Wingsuit and parachute to jump from fixed objects--with the parachute unopened at the jump A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. m. No evidence surfaced to support his claim, and it was speculated by Rangers at the Arch that Vincent was lowered from a helicopter onto the top of the Arch, from which he parachuted. He spent three months in jail for the stunt. 
The Old Courthouse is built on land originally deeded by St. The Old Courthouse (officially called the Old St Louis County Courthouse) was a combination federal and state Courthouse in St Louis founder Auguste Chouteau. René Auguste Chouteau (born September 7, 1749 in New Orleans, Louisiana; died February 24, 1829 in St It marks the location over which the arch reaches. Its dome was built during the American Civil War and is similar to the dome on the United States Capitol which was also built during the Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South It was the site of the local trials in the Dred Scott case. Dred Scott (1799 – September 17, 1858) was a slave in the United States who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom in the famous
The courthouse is the only portion of the memorial west of I-70. To the west of the Courthouse is a Greenway between Market and Chestnut Streets which is only interrupted by the Civil Courts Building which features a pyramid model of the Mausoleum of Maussollos (which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) on its roof. The Civil Courts Building (sometimes referred to as the St Louis Pyramid) is a landmark court building used by the 22nd Judicial Circuit Court of Missouri in St The Tomb of Mausolus, Mausoleum of Mausolus or Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (in Greek,) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World) is a well known list of seven remarkable constructions of Classical antiquity. When Civil Courts building was built in the 1920s the Chouteau family sued to regain the property belonging the Old Courthouse because it had been deeded in perpetuity to be a courthouse.
Underneath the Arch is a visitor center, entered from a descending outdoor ramp starting at either base. A visitor center, centre (see Spelling differences) or visitor information centre may be A visitor center at a specific attraction Within the center is the Museum of Westward Expansion, exhibits on the history of the St. A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the Louis riverfront, and tram loading and unloading areas. Tucker Theater, finished in 1968 and renovated 30 years later, has about 285 seats and shows a documentary (Monument to the Dream) on the Arch's construction. Odyssey Theater, designed by Cox/Croslin Architects was completed in 1993 and has 255 seats. It was the first 70 mm film theater to be located on National Park Service grounds and operated by the NPS. 70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge of superior quality to standard 35 mm motion picture film format. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The theater runs films from a rotating play list. Also located in the visitor center are retail operations run by the Jefferson National Parks Association, a not-for-profit partner.
The memorial was developed largely through the efforts of St. Louis civic booster Luther Ely Smith who first pitched the idea in 1933, was the long-term chairman of the committee that selected the area and persuaded Franklin Roosevelt in 1935 to make it a national park after St. Luther Ely Smith (June 11 1873 - April 2 1951 was a St Louis Missouri lawyer civic booster and is called by the National Park Service the "father of the Jefferson Louis passed a bond issue to begin building it, and who partially financed the 1947 architectural contest that selected the Arch. 
In the early 1930s the United States began looking for a suitable memorial for Thomas Jefferson (the Washington Monument and the newly built Lincoln Memorial were the only large Presidential memorials at the time). Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence The Washington Monument is a large tall sand-colored Obelisk near the west end of the National Mall in Washington D The Lincoln Memorial is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln.
Shortly after Thanksgiving in 1933 Smith who had been on the commission to build the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park in Indiana, was returning via train when he noticed the poor condition or the original platted location of St. Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a traditional North American Holiday, which is a form of harvest festival. George Rogers Clark National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in downtown Vincennes, Indiana, on the Louis along the Mississippi. He thought that the memorial to Jefferson should be on the actual location that was symbolic of one of Jefferson's greatest triumphs -- the Louisiana Purchase. For the film see Louisiana Purchase (film. The Louisiana Purchase (French Vente de la Louisiane "Louisiana Sale"
The originally platted area of St. Louis included:
Almost all of the historic buildings associated with this period had been replaced by newer buildings. Background The attack was motivated both by Spain's entry into the war in 1779 and by American activity in the Northwest Territory that same year In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Three Flags Day commemorates March 9 and 10 1804 when Spain officially turned over Louisiana Territory to France, which in turn ceded the territory to His idea was to raze all of the buildings in the original St. Louis platted area and replace it with a park with "a central feature, a shaft, a building, an arch, or something which would symbolize American culture and civilization. "
Smith pitched the idea to Bernard Dickmann who quickly assembled a meeting of St. Bernard F Dickmann ( September 7, 1888 in St Louis Missouri, USA – December 9, 1971 in Collins Mississippi) was the Louis civic leaders on December 15, 1933 at the Jefferson Hotel and they endorsed the plan and Smith became chairman of what would become the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association (a position he would hold until 1949 with a one-year exception).
The Commission then defined the area, got cost estimates of $30 million to buy the land, clear the buildings and erect a park and monument. With promises from the federal government (via the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission) to join if the City of St. Louis could raise money.
The area to be included in the park was the Eads Bridge/Washington Avenue on the north and Poplar Street on the south, the Mississippi River on the east Third Street (now I-70) on the west plus the Old Courthouse just west of Third Street (the Courthouse was actually added in 1940). The Eads Bridge is a combined road and railway bridge over the Mississippi River at St Interstate 70 (I-70 is an Interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 near Cove Fort Utah, to a Park and Ride The Old Courthouse (officially called the Old St Louis County Courthouse) was a combination federal and state Courthouse in St
The only building in this area not included was the Old Cathedral, which is on the site of St. The Basilica of Saint Louis King of France, formerly the Cathedral of Saint Louis, and colloquially the Old Cathedral, was consecrated in 1834 Louis first church and was opposite the home of St. Louis founder Auguste Chouteau. René Auguste Chouteau (born September 7, 1749 in New Orleans, Louisiana; died February 24, 1829 in St The founders of the city were buried in its graveyard (but were moved in 1849 to Bellefontaine Cemetery during a cholera outbreak). Bellefontaine Cemetery (established in 1849 and the Roman Catholic Calvary Cemetery (established in 1857 in St Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium
Taking away 40 blocks in the center of St. Louis was bitterly fought by some sources -- particularly the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. The St Louis Post-Dispatch is the only major city-wide Newspaper in St 
On September 10, 1935, the voters of St. Louis approved a $7. 5 million bond issue to buy the property.
The buildings were bought for $7 million by the federal government via Eminent domain and was subject to considerable litigation but were ultimately bought at 131. Eminent domain ( United States) compulsory purchase ( United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland) resumption/compulsory acquisition 99 percent of assessed valuation. 
The land was to be cleared by 1942. Among the buildings razed was the "Old Rock House" 1818 home of fur trader Manuel Lisa (now occupied by the stairs on the north side of the Arch) and the 1819 home of original St. Manuel Lisa ( September 8, 1772 - August 12, 1820) was a well known Louis pioneer Jean Pierre Chouteau at First and Washington. Jean Pierre Chouteau or Pierre Chouteau ( New Orleans, 10 October 1758 - † St 
The architectural competition for a monument was delayed by World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Interest in the monument was fed after the war as it was to be the first big monument in the post-World War II era.
The estimated cost of the competition was $225,000 and Smith personally donated $40,000. Civic leaders held the nation-wide competition in 1947 to select a design for the main portion of the Memorial space.
Architect Eero Saarinen won this competition with plans for a 590-foot (180-metre) catenary arch to be placed on the banks of the Mississippi River. Eero Saarinen (eːro saːrinen (August 20 1910 Kirkkonummi, Finland – September 1 1961 Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States) was The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International In Physics and Geometry, the catenary is the theoretical Shape of a hanging flexible Chain or Cable when supported at its ends and The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to However, these plans were modified over the next 15 years, placing the arch on higher ground and adding 40 feet (12 m) in height and width.
The central architectural feature at the base of the arch is the Old Courthouse, which was once the tallest building in Missouri and has a dome similar to the United States Capitol and was placed on the building during the American Civil War at the same time as the U. The Old Courthouse (officially called the Old St Louis County Courthouse) was a combination federal and state Courthouse in St Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South S. Capitol.
Saarinen developed the shape with the help of architectural engineer Hannskarl Bandel. Hannskarl Bandel ( May 3, 1925 Dessau Germany - December 29, 1993 Aspen Colorado, United States was a German-American It is not a pure inverted catenary. In Physics and Geometry, the catenary is the theoretical Shape of a hanging flexible Chain or Cable when supported at its ends and Saarinen preferred a shape that was slightly elongated and thinner towards the top, a shape that produces a subtle soaring effect, and transfers more of the structure's weight downward rather than outward at the base.
When Saarinen won the competition, the official notification was sent to "E. Saarinen", thinking it to be the architect's father Eliel Saarinen, who had also submitted an entry. Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen ( August 20, 1873, Rantasalmi, Finland &ndash July 1, 1950, Bloomfield Hills Michigan The family celebrated with a bottle of champagne, and two hours later an embarrassed official called to say the winner was, in fact, the younger Saarinen. The elder Saarinen then broke out a second bottle of champagne to celebrate his son's success.
Among the five finalists was local St. Louis architect Harris Armstrong. Harris Armstrong (1899 – 1973 was an American regional modernist architect considered the dean of modernists active in St
Land for the memorial was formally dedicated on June 10, 1950 by Harry S. Truman. However the Korean War began and the project was put on hold. The Korean War refers to a period of military conflict between North Korean and South Korean regimes with major hostilities lasting from June 25 1950 until the
On June 23, 1959, work begins on covering railroad tracks that cut across the memorial grounds.
On February 11, 1961 excavation began.
On September 1, 1961 Saarinen died.
On February 12, 1963 the first stainless steel triangle that forms the first section of the arch was set in place on the south leg. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On October 28, 1965 it was completed, costing approximately US$15 million to build. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Along with all other historical areas of the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP is the United States government's official list of districts sites buildings structures and objects deemed worthy of Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall dedicated the Arch on May 25, 1968. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. Stewart Lee Udall (born January 31, 1920) is a former American politician Events 1085 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo Spain back from the Moors. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 1984, Congress authorized the enlargement of the Memorial to include up to 100 acres (0. 4 km²) on the east bank of the Mississippi River in East St. Louis, Illinois. East St Louis is a city located in St Clair County Illinois, USA directly across the Mississippi River from St Funds were authorized to begin land acquisition, but Congress placed a moratorium upon NPS land acquisitions in fiscal year 1998. The moratorium continued into the 21st century, with expansion becoming less likely because of the construction of a riverboat gambling facility and related amenities. A riverboat casino is a type of Casino found in several areas of the United States which use a Riverboat as a casino
During the Great Flood of 1993, Mississippi flood waters reached half way up the Grand Staircase on the east. The Great Flood of 1993 occurred in the American Midwest, along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers and their tributaries from April to October
In 1999, the Arch tram queue areas were completely renovated at a cost of approximately $2. 2 million.
In 1999 the Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site in St. Louis County, Missouri was brought under the Superintendent of the Memorial jurisdiction. Ulysses S Grant National Historic Site is a 965 acre United States National Historic Site located 10 miles (16 km southwest of Downtown St St Louis County is a County located in the US state of Missouri.
The arch was featured on the Missouri state quarter in 2003.
In 2007 St. Louis Mayor Francis Slay and former Missouri Senator John Danforth asked the National Park Service to create a more "active" use of the grounds of the memorial and model it on Millennium Park in Chicago including the possibility of an amphitheater, cafes and restaurants, fountains, bicycle rentals, sculptures and an aquarium. Francis G Slay (born March 18, 1955 in St Louis Missouri) is the forty-fifth Mayor of St John Claggett "Jack" Danforth (born September 5, 1936) is a former United States Ambassador to the United Nations and former Republican Millennium Park is a public Park located in the Chicago Loop community area of Chicago within, United States. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. .  The National Park Service is currently cool to the plan noting that the only other overt development pressure on National Park property has been at the Jackson Hole Airport in Grand Teton National Park
The Memorial is separated from the rest of Downtown St. Louis by a sunken section of I-70. Jackson Hole Airport is a public Airport located seven miles (11 km north of the Central business district of Jackson, a town in Teton County Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. Downtown St Louis is the central business district of St Louis Missouri, the hub of tourism and entertainment and the anchor of the St Interstate 70 (I-70 is an Interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 near Cove Fort Utah, to a Park and Ride The city is considering a $90 million proposal to cover the interstate. The NPS, as part of their Centennial Initiative celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2016, is considering a plan to complete Saarinen's original master plan. The intention is to build the Gateway Arch Connector to link the Old Courthouse with the grounds of the Arch. 
Lower north tram queue area
The Arch, from the west
The sign at the top of the observation deck.
The St. Louis Arch as seen from the lawn.
As seen from Laclede's Landing
Arch at dawn
The Old Cathedral as viewed from top of Arch
North Tram entrance in March 2005. Laclede's Landing is a popular attraction located in St Louis Missouri, United States. The Basilica of Saint Louis King of France, formerly the Cathedral of Saint Louis, and colloquially the Old Cathedral, was consecrated in 1834
At night as seen from Illinois