|City of Jeddah|
Beach of Jeddah
|Nickname: The Bride of the Red Sea|
Location of Jeddah
|Joint Saudi Arabia||1925|
|- Mayor||Adil Faqeeh|
|- City Governor||Mish'al Al-Saud|
|- Provincial Governor||Khalid al Faisal|
|- Urban||1,320 km² (509. A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The flag of Saudi Arabia is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since March 15, 1973. The Saudi Arabian Coat of arms ( شعار السعودية) was adopted in 1950 A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Wikipedia talkFeatured lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of countries, arranged alphabetically The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 emirates ( manatiq idāriyya, singular – Mintaqah idariyya,) Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country with an extended coastline The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Prince Khalid Al-Faisal bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (* 1941 is the son of His late Majesty King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz and the governor of Makkah Province in western Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 7 sq mi)|
|- Metro||3,000 km² (1,158. 3 sq mi)|
|- Density||2,921/km² (1,826/sq mi)|
|Jeddah Municipality estimate|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|- Summer (DST)||EAT (UTC+3)|
|Postal Code||(5 digits)|
Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; Arabic: جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country with an extended coastline Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city The population of the city currently stands at over 3. 4 million. It is considered the commercial capital of Saudi Arabia and the wealthiest city in the Middle East and western Asia. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.
Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca, Islam's holiest city, which able-bodied Muslims are required to visit at least once in a lifetime. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Residents of Jeddah are called Jeddans. Jeddah has 24 sister cities, which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.
There are at least two explanations for the etymology of the name Jeddah. According to Jeddah Ibn Helwaan Al-Qudaa'iy the chief of Quda'a clan. The more common account has it that the name is derived from Jaddah, the Arabic word for "grandmother". Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language According to eastern folk belief, the tomb of Eve ( ), considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah. In Genesis, Eve is the first woman the wife of Adam. God created her from Adam's rib as his helpmate The purported "Grave of Eve" was sealed with concrete by the religious authorities in 1975 as a result of some Muslim pilgrims breaking Islamic doctrine by praying at the site. The Eve Grave is an Archeological site located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (
Ibn Battuta, The Berber traveller, visited Jeddah during his world trip. Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta (أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة (born February He wrote the name of the city into his diary as Juddah. 
The British Foreign Office, used to use the older spelling of Jedda, contrary to other English-speaking usage -- including other branches of the British government, but in 2007 changed to the spelling Jeddah. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting 
T E Lawrence felt that any transcription of Arabic names into English was arbitrary. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language In his book "Revolt in the Desert" Jeddah is spelled three different ways on the first page alone. 
On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", which is now the prevailing usage.
The city was founded as a fishing hamlet over 2,500 years ago, but first achieved prominence in 647 A. D. , when the third Muslim caliph Uthman Ibn Affan turned it into a port for Muslim pilgrims making the required Hajj to Mecca. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Early life Uthman was born in Ta’if, which is situated on a hill and the presumption is that Uthman was born during the summer months since wealthy Meccans ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world
Jeddah was for centuries the main city of the historic Hejaz province and historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea on their pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca. al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia
Hejaz - including Jeddah - became a part of the Ayyubid Empire in 1177 during the leadership of Sharif Ibn Abul-Hashim Al-Thalab (1094 - 1201). The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for The Sharif of Mecca ( Arabic:شريف مكة or Sharif of Hejaz ( Arabic:شريف الحجاز was the title of the former
In 1254, following events in Cairo, Hejaz became a part of the Mamluk Sultanate. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Sharif Barakat II bin Muhammed (Barakat Efendi) (1497 - 1525) built the first walls of Jeddah in 1505 following the Portuguese advances in the Indian Ocean. See also List of cities with defensive walls A defensive wall is a Fortification used to defend a city or settlement from potential aggressors Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface 
In 1517, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt and Syria, during the reign of Selim I. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Selim I ( Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish: ISelim; also known as "the Grim" or "the Brave" Yavuz in  As territories of the Mamluk Sultanate, the Hejaz, including the holy city of Mecca and Jeddah, passed into Ottoman possession. The Ottomans rebuilt the weak walls of Jeddah in 1525 following their victory over Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada in the Red Sea. The Portuguese Gold Coast was a Portuguese colony on the West African Gold Coast (present day Ghana) on the Gulf of Guinea. The new Turkish wall included six watchtowers and six city gates. A watchtower is a type of Fortification used in many parts of the world A city gate is a Gate which is or was set within a City wall. They were constructed to defend against the Portuguese attack. Of the six gates, the Gate of Mecca was the eastern gate and the Gate of Al-Magharibah, facing the port, the western one. The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset The Gate of Sharif was south facing. The other gates were the Gate of Al-Bunt, Gate of Al-Sham (also called Gate of Al-Sharaf) and Gate of Medina facing north. Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as  The Turks also built the The Qishla of Jeddah, a small castle for the city soldiers. The Qishla of Jeddah (Cidde Redif Kışlası was built in 1525 to be a military castle of the Ottoman army in Jeddah (nowadays in Saudi Arabia) In the 19th century these seven gates were minimized into four giant gates with four towers. These giant gates were the Gate of Sham from the north, the Gate of Mecca from the east, the Gate of Sharif from the south, and the Gate of Al-Magharibah on the sea side.
At 1802, Nejdi forces conquered both Mecca and Jeddah from the Ottomans, when Sharif Ghalib Efendi informed Sultan Mahmud II, the sultan ordered his Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Ali Pasha to re-take the city. The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 A Ghalib Afendi (or Ghalib Efendi, or Sharif Ghalib bin Musa'ed) (غالب أفندي (Gelib Efendi was the Sharif of Hejaz (Governor of Hejaz Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Mahmud II ( Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثاني Mahmud-ı sānī) ( July 20, 1785 July 1, 1839 This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation Muhammad Ali successfully regained the city during Battle of Jeddah in 1813.
During World War I, Sharif Hussein bin Ali declared a revolt against the Ottoman Empire seeking independence from the Ottoman Turks and the creation of a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen. Ali bin Hussein, GBE (1879–1935 was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until December 1925 King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad The Arab Revolt (1916&ndash1918 ( الثورة العربية Al-Thawra al-`Arabīya) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing The Kingdom of Hejaz (1916 to 1925 was a state in the Hejaz region ruled by the Hashemite family World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Sayyid Hussein bin Ali, GCB (1854 &mdash June 4, 1931) ( حسین بن علی; Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī) was the Sharif The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding For other meanings see Aleppo (disambiguation. Halab redirects here for other meanings see Halab (disambiguation. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Aden (ˈeɪdən Arabic: عدن) is a city in Yemen, 170 kilometers east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya
King Hussein declared the Kingdom of Hejaz. The Kingdom of Hejaz (1916 to 1925 was a state in the Hejaz region ruled by the Hashemite family Later, Hussein was involved in war with Ibn Saud, who was the Sultan of Nejd. King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula. Hussein resigned following the fall of Mecca, in December 1924, and his son Ali bin Hussein became the new king of the remaining soil of the Kingdom of Hejaz. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Ali bin Hussein, GBE (1879–1935 was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until December 1925
A few months later, Ibn Saud, whose clan originated in the central Nejd province, conquered Medina, and Jeddah, via an agreement with Jeddans, following the events of the Second Battle of Jeddah. King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula. Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as The Battle of Jeddah took place within today's Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and was mainly a siege of Jeddah that ended on the 17th of December 1925 (1343 A He deposed the Sharif of Hejaz, Ali bin Hussien, who fled to Baghdad, settling eventually in Amman, Jordan, where his descendants became the Hashemite royal family. The Sharif of Mecca ( Arabic:شريف مكة or Sharif of Hejaz ( Arabic:شريف الحجاز was the title of the former Ali bin Hussein, GBE (1879–1935 was King of Hejaz and Grand Sharif of Mecca from October 1924 until December 1925 Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Amman (ɑˈmɑːn sometimes spelled Ammann ( Arabic عمان ʿAmmān) is the Capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic: هاشمي ( Transliteration: Hāšimī and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim
As a result, Jeddah came under the sway of the Al-Saud dynasty in December of 1925. The House of Saud ( Arabic: آل سعود romanized Āl Suʿūd is the Royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1926, Ibn Saud added the title King of Hejaz to his position of Sultan of Nejd. Today, Jeddah has lost its historical role in peninsular politics, historic Hejaz province along the west coast having been subdivided into smaller provinces, with Jeddah falling within the new province of Makkah with its provincial capital at Mecca.
From 1928 to 1932 the new Khuzam Palace was built as new residenz of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah. The palace lies south of the old walled city and was constructed under the supervision of the engineer Muhammad bin Laden. After 1963 the palace was used as a royal guest house and since 1995 houses the Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography. 
What was left of the walls and gates of the old city was taken down in 1947. A fire in 1982 destroyed some ancient buildings in the old town center, called the Balad, but much is still preserved despite the commercial interest to tear down old houses and build modern high rise buildings. this article is about Old-City of Jeddah City for other uses see Balad. A house by house survey of the old destricts was made in 1979, showing that some 1000 traditional buildings still existed, though the number of structures with great historic value was far less. In 1990 a Jeddah Historical Area Preservation Department was founded. ,
The modern city has expanded wildly beyond its old boundaries. The built up area expanded mainly to the north along the Red Sea coastline, reaching the new airport during the last decade of the last century and since edging its way around it towards the "Ob'hur Creek" some 27 kilometers from the old city center.
Most of Saudi Arabia is desert. A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. The central region consists of an eroded plateau, mostly arid and hot in the summer and cold in the winter. In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting In general terms the Climate of a local or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available Water, to the extent of hindering The western region is mountainous, except for the coastal plain bordering the Red Sea such as the Jeddah area. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak A coastal plain is an area of flat low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features
Jeddah borders the Red Sea from the west and the Al-Sarawat Mountains from the east. The Sarawat Mountains or the Sarat ( جبال السروات) is a Mountain range running parallel to the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula It has no rivers or valleys but it includes Sharm Ob'hur which connect the Red Sea to the other end of the city. Headlands and bays are two related features of the coastal environment Sharm of Salman (Also called Gulf of Salman) borders the city from north. Headlands and bays are two related features of the coastal environment
Unlike other Saudi Arabian cities, Jeddah retains its warm temperature in winter, which can range from +15 °C (59 °F) at midnight to +25 °C (77 °F) in the afternoon. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 Summer temperatures are considered very hot and break the +40 °C (104 °F) mark in the afternoon dropping to +30 °C (86 °F) in the evening. Rain usually falls in Jeddah in small amounts in December.
Some unusual events often happen during the year, such as dust storms in summer, coming from the Arabian Peninsula's deserts or from North Africa. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan
|Jeddah Climatological Data|
|Record high °C (°F)||33 (91)||35 (95)||38 (100)||40 (104)||42 (108)||47 (117)||42 (108)||42 (108)||42 (108)||41 (106)||41 (106)||34 (93)|
|Average high °C (°F)||29 (84)||29 (84)||29 (84)||33 (91)||35 (95)||36 (97)||37 (99)||37 (99)||36 (97)||35 (95)||33 (91)||30 (86)||33 (91)|
|Average low °C (°F)||19 (66)||18 (64)||19 (66)||21 (70)||23 (73)||24 (75)||26 (79)||27 (81)||25 (77)||23 (73)||22 (72)||19 (66)||22 (72)|
|Record low °C (°F)||9 (48)||11 (52)||13 (55)||12 (54)||13 (55)||19 (66)||21 (70)||23 (73)||21 (70)||20 (68)||17 (63)||10 (50)|
|Rainfall mm (in)||5 (0. 2)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||0 (0)||25 (1. 0)||31 (1. 2)||61 (2. 4)|
Air pollution remains to some degree an issue for Jeddah, particularly on the hot summer days. The city has experienced a number of brush fires, landfill fires and even pollution caused by the two industrial zones in the north and the south of Jeddah. For other uses see Water treatment and Land reclamation. A landfill, also known as a dump (and historically as
The water treatment factory and the seaport have a major impact of water pollution. Jeddah Port (also called Jeddah Islamic Seaport has an excellent location in the middle of the international shipping route between However, the coast of the city can be considered as safe, and of very good quality .
Because pollution of Mecca's environment is considered unclean and disrespectful, Jeddah has created and enforced extremely strict environmental law.
With a thousand years of trading behind it and home to some of the world most successful merchants and business people, it is natural that Jeddah is the commercial capital of Saudi Arabia. Tahlia Street ( Arabic:شارع التحلية) (Also called: Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz St In addition, the city's geographical location places it at the heart of the region covered by the Middle East and North Africa, with all their capitals within two hours flying distance, defining Jeddah as the commercial center of the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. 
Also, Jeddah industrial district is the third largest industrial city in Saudi Arabia after Jubail and Yanbu. Jubail ( Arabic: "الجبيل" Al Jubayl) is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Yanbu' al Bahr ( Arabic: ينبع "spring by the sea" also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea
King Abdullah Street is an important place for companies' offices and commercial developments. The street hosts some of the most powerful conglomerates in Saudi Arabia such as Emaar Middle East and Al-Farsi. A conglomerate is a large Company that consists of seemingly unrelated Business sections Emaar Properties (إعمار the Dubai-based Public Joint Stock Company and one of the world’s largest real estate companies is listed on the Dubai Financial Market Due to the economic boom in this region there is a central business district planned which would be one of the biggest CBD in the eastern world.
Tahlia Street is an important fashion and shopping street in the mid-town of Jeddah. Tahlia Street ( Arabic:شارع التحلية) (Also called: Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz St It contains many upscale department shops, and boutiques, such as Prada, Gucci, and Giorgio Armani. Prada SpA is an Italian high-fashion company (also referred to as fashion House or Label) specializing in Luxury goods for men and women The House of Gucci, better known simply as Gucci, is an Italian iconic fashion and Leather goods label Fashion career From 1961 to 1970 Armani worked as a designer in well-known fashion house Nino Cerruti Jimenez after which he left to pursue freelance work As the Champs-Élysées in Paris, Tahlia Street is believed to be the heart of Jeddah and Saudi Arabia's wealthiest district. The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (ʃɑ̃zeliˈze) is the most prestigious avenue in Paris. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city It is also considered as one of the biggest modern shopping district in the middle east.
The city has several global major organizations such as:
Popular Saudi and foreign opinion regards Jeddah as the most liberal and cosmopolitan of Saudi cities in spite of its historic role as port and gateway to the holy city of Mecca. The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS is the national geologic survey of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and was established as an independent entity attached to the Ministry of Petroleum Saudi Arabian Airlines ( Arabic: الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية is the national Airline of Saudi Arabia, based The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Jeddah Economic Forum (JEF ( Arabic: منتدى جدة الإقتصادي is a forum held annually since 1999 during winter in Jeddah, western Saudi Arabia The Jeddah Chamber of Commerce & Industry, (JCCI was established on May 1946 and since then it has been serving the economy of Saudi Arabia and has Jeddah Marketing Board is the a branch of marketing systems for Saudi Arabia. The International Association of Islamic Banks was founded in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, under the auspices of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC For over one thousand years, Jeddah has received millions of pilgrims of different ethnicities and backgrounds, from Africa, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe and the Middle East, many of whom remained and became residents of the city. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south As a result, Jeddah is much more ethnically diverse than most Saudi cities and its culture more eclectic in nature (in contrast with the more geographically isolated, homogeneous, and religiously strict capital Riyadh). Added to the traditional diversity, the oil-boom of the past 50 years has brought hundreds of thousands of working immigrants and foreign workers from non-Muslim countries, the majority originating from continents such as North America (Unites States of America), Europe (Western Europe), and Asia (South and South-East Asia); there are also many Christian Arabs from the Middle East, coming from Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term expatriate foreign worker is a person who works in a country other than the one of which he or she is a Citizen. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. However, despite the relative liberal attitude of the Jeddeh, none of these non-Muslims are allowed to celebrate their religion openly.
The vast majority of Jeddans are Sunni Muslims, with a minority of Asian, Western, and Arab Christians. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings There are also non-Muslim/non-Christian Asians. However, there are no non-Muslim citizens; while there are Muslims who are not citizens, all non-Muslims are resident expatriate workers. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing The city has over 1300 Mosques, and has no Churches, synagogues, or other types of places of worship; non-Muslims are also strictly not allowed to celebrate their religion in any way openly. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger A synagogue (from Greek: grc συναγωγή transliterated synagogē, "assembly" he בית כנסת beit knesset, "house of However, some Filipino workers report the presence of Churches inside some Gated communities. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP In its modern form a gated community is a form of Residential community containing controlled entrances for Pedestrians Bicycles and Automobiles
Since the 7th Century , Jeddah has hosted millions of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world in their way to Hajj. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world This merge with pilgrims has also a major impact on the society, religion, and economy of Jeddah.
There is a ban on Alcohol and Narcotics all over the Kingdom. Anyone found to be involved in usage or handling of Alcohol and Narcotics is severely punished under "Saudi Rule Of Law" (which is derived mainly from "Islamic Sharia"). Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law.
All business activities and markets are closed (five times a day) during prayer times.
The Court and Justice System of Saudi Arabia follows Islamic Codes.
Jeddah residents are a mix of several different ethnicities and nationalities. Kabsa ( كبسة) is a family of rice dishes that are served mostly in Saudi Arabia, and the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf. This mixture of races has made a major impact on Jeddah's traditional cuisine.
Like other Saudi cities, The Nejdi Kabsa is the most traditional lunch for Jeddan people. Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula. Kabsa ( كبسة) is a family of rice dishes that are served mostly in Saudi Arabia, and the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf. The Yemeni Mandi is also popular as a lunch meal. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya Mandi (Arabic المندي is the traditional dish in Hadhramaut, Yemen. The Hejazi cousine is popular as well, dishes like Mabshoor, Mitabbak, Foul, Migalgal, Kibdah, Ma'asoob can be acquired in many traditional restaurants around the city such as Althamrat, Abo-Zaid, Al-Quarmooshi, Aiyaz, and Hejaziyat .
Grilled meat has a good market in Jeddah such as Shawarma, Kofta and Kebab. Shawarma (شاورما or שווארמה also spelled Chawarma, Schawarma, Shwarma, Shuarma, Shawerma, Shoarma, Kofta (see section Name for other names is a Southeastern European Middle Eastern and South Asian Meatball or Dumpling. Kebab (also transliterated as kabab, kabob, kibob, kebhav, kephav) refers to a variety of meat dishes in Middle Eastern During Ramadan Sambousak and Ful are the most popular meals during Dusk. Ramadan or Ramazan ( Arabic: رمضان Ramaḍān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic Sambusac, also known as simbusak or samboussa, is a small fried or baked pasty which may be either half-moon shaped or triangular Ful medames ( Arabic: فول مدمس fūl mudammas) is one of the National dishes of Sudan and Egypt, often eaten at breakfast Dusk refers to the period of time following Sunset. Although commonly confused with twilight dusk is the time frame that occurs either before or after a twilight - when the These meals are almost found in Lebanese, Syrian, and Turkish restaurants.
International food is also popular in the city. American chains such as McDonald's, Burger King, Domino's Pizza and KFC, among others' are widely distributed in Jeddah, as are more upscale chains like Fuddruckers and Chili's. Burger King ( often abbreviated to Domino's Pizza Inc ( is an international Fast food Pizza delivery corporation headquartered just outside Ann Arbor Michigan, United States Kentucky Fried Chicken, usually known as KFC, is a chain of Fast food restaurants based in Louisville Kentucky. Fuddruckers is an American fast casual franchised chain Restaurant that specializes Chili's Grill & Bar is a restaurant chain founded by Larry Lavine Chinese, Japanese, and other Eastern/Asian food are also popular. European restaurants, such as Italian and French, are also found throughout the city.
During the oil boom in the late 1970s and '80s, there was a focused civic effort at bringing art to Jeddah's public areas. A public space refers to an area or place that is open and accessible to all citizens regardless of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age or As a result, Jeddah contains an unusually large number of modern open air sculptures and works of art, typically situated in roundabouts, which makes it to this day the largest open-air art gallery in the world. A roundabout is a type of Road junction at which Traffic enters a one-way stream around a central island Sculptures include works by a variety of artists, ranging from the obscure to international stars such as Jean/Hans Arp, César Baldaccini, Alexander Calder, Henry Moore, Joan Miró and Victor Vasarely and often depict elements of traditional Saudi culture - coffee pots, incense burners, palm trees, etc. César Baldaccini ( January 1, 1921 in Marseille - December 6, 1998 in Paris) was a noted French sculptor Alexander Calder (22 July 1898 – 11 November 1976 also known as Sandy Calder, was an American sculptor and Artist most famous for inventing Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986 was an English artist and sculptor. Joan Miró i Ferrà ( April 20, 1893 &ndash December 25, 1983) was an ethnic Catalan (of Spanish nationality Victor Vasarely (Vásárhelyi Győző ( 9 April, 1906, Pécs - 15 March, 1997, Paris) was a Hungarian The fact that Islamic tradition prohibits the depiction of living creatures, notably the human form, has made for some very creative modern art, ranging from the tasteful to the bizarre and downright hideous. These include a mounted defunct propeller plane, a giant geometry set, a giant bicycle, and a huge block of marble with several cars protruding out of it at odd angles.
There may be about a dozen museums or collections in Jeddah.  Some of these, showing a wide variety of educational aim and professionality, are the Jeddah Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography run by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, the Jeddah Municipal Museum, the Naseef House, the private Abdul Rauf Hasan Khalil Museum and the private Arts Heritage Museum.
Jeddah is served by four major Arabic-language newspapers, Asharq Al-Awsat, Al-Madina, Okaz, Al-Bilad, as well as two major English-language newspapers, The Saudi Gazette and Arab News. Asharq Al-Awsat (الشرق الاوسط The Middle East) is a major Pan-Arabic Daily Newspaper, with a circulation of Saudi Gazette is an English language Daily newspaper published in Saudi Arabia. Okaz and Al-Madina are Jeddah's and some other Saudi cities' primary newspaper with over a million readers focusing mainly on issues that affect the city.
Jeddah is the largest radio and television market in Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al-Ekhbariya, ART channels network and hundreds of cable, satellite and other specialty television providers. Arab Radio and Television Network (Acronym ART) is an Arabic-language Television network characterized by its multitude of channels
The Jeddah TV Tower is a 250 m (820 ft) high television tower with an observation deck at Jeddah. The tower started construction in 2006 and finished in 2007 and is a part of the new branch of Ministry of Information in Jeddah. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Jeddah hosts the oldest sport clubs in Saudi Arabia. The Jeddah TV Tower is a 250 meter high television tower with an observation deck at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Al-Ittihad was the first club in the country, being established in 1928. Al-Ittihad (الاتحاد or Ittihad Jeddah is a Saudi Arabian Sports club based in the Red Sea port city of Jeddah.
Football is the most popular sport in Jeddah. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Al-Ittihad and Al-Ahli are well known football clubs. Al-Ittihad (الاتحاد or Ittihad Jeddah is a Saudi Arabian Sports club based in the Red Sea port city of Jeddah. Former and Greatest motivator of the club is one coach Salman Mohammed Al-sudairy he is one of the most notable coaches of the team They are major competitors in both the Saudi Premier League and the AFC Champions League. History Up until the late seventies football in Saudi Arabia was organised on a regional basis with the only nationwide tournament being the King's Cup The AFC Champions League is the current annual Asian club football competition hosted by Asian Football Confederation (AFC They have also won the FIBA Asia Champions Cup. The FIBA Asia Champions Cup is the Asian club championship for basketball organized by FIBA Asia.
There are several public football stadiums in Jeddah, such as:
The Jeddah City area has a distinctive regional speech pattern called the Hejazi dialect, alternatively known as Meccan or Makkawi. Prince Abdullah al-Faisal Stadium (ستاد الأمير عبدالله الفيصل is a Stadium in the port city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Prince Sultan bin Fahd Stadium is a multi-use Stadium in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. King Abdulaziz University ( KAU) (جامعة الملك عبد العزيز was founded in 1967 in Saudi Arabia and had 2000 teachers and more than 37000 students Hejazi Arabic (also known as Hijazi Arabic 639-3 West Arabian Arabic is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in the western region of Saudi Arabia It is often considered to be one of the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language.
Pronunciations in Hejazi differ from other Gulf dialects in some respects. The Classical Arabic qaaf (ق) is pronounced as /g/ sound, as in "get". Hijazi Arabic is also conservative with respect to the sound of the pronunciation of the letter ğim (ج), which is very close to the two sounds considered, by specialists, to be the best candidates for the way it was pronounced in Classical Arabic, namely, the voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/ and the palatalized velar stop /gʲ/.  This stands in contrast with many dialects in the region which use /g/ or /ʒ/ for ğim instead. Some speakers replace the interdental /θ/ with /t/ or /s/.
The Hejazi dialect also contains fairly recent borrowings from other Arabic dialects, including Levantine and Egyptian Arabic. Levantine Arabic (Arabic شامي (Shami and sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic varieties spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean
Life in Jeddah is different from many cities in Saudi Arabia for many reasons. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Firstly, Jeddah is a cosmopolitan city, more so than any other city in the country; it has many people coming from all over the world, who share their cultures. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Secondly, it has many historical buildings, with traditional designs, and it has lots of buildings near the beach.  It also has very nice beaches and a Corniche where people spend a very good time and relax. Also, Jeddah has the tallest fountain in the world, named King Fahd Fountain. Last but not least, it has the annual Jeddah Festival. During the festival, there are many games and activities held in the city. There are shopping sprees, water skiing competitions, art exhibitions, and music festivals. Not only that, the prices of the things that are sold there are reasonably cheap. It also has a great shopping district on Tahlia Street, with many designer names available.
The Old City with its traditional multistory buildings and merchant houses has lost ground to more modern development. this article is about Old-City of Jeddah City for other uses see Balad. this article is about Old-City of Jeddah City for other uses see Balad. this article is about Old-City of Jeddah City for other uses see Balad. However, the city's recent generations have come to appreciate its traditions more and have persevered in having many of the older buildings, such as the Nasseef House, carefully preserved. Nasseef House or Nassif House ( Arabic: بيت نصيف Bayt Nasseef) Is one of Balad's most magnificent historical palaces.
The city has a lot of popular resorts, including Durrat Al-Arus, Crystal Resort, Al Nakheel Village, Sands, Sheraton Abhur, and many other splendid resorts. Durrat Al-Arus is an integrated tourist Village built in 1996 around 40 Kilometers north of Jeddah center ( Saudi Arabia) in the very Many are renowned for their preserved Red Sea marine life and offshore coral reefs.
The increasing occupancy rates of hotels every year depends on the number of tourists and hajj pilgrims. In the last few years, Jeddah received more than 2. 5 millions pilgrims per year. 
One of three consulates of the United States of America in Saudi Arabia is located in Jeddah, along with consulates for 67 other countries such as United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and People's Republic of China as well as countries of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Arab League states. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية
King Fahd Fountain
Jeddah's King Fahd's Fountain is a major landmark built in the 1980s and listed by the Guinness World Records organization as the highest in the world where the water jet can reach 312 metres (1,024 feet). King Fahd's Fountain (نافورة الملك فهد is a Fountain located in the city Jeddah, Saudi Arabia named for King Fahd. King Fahd's Fountain (نافورة الملك فهد is a Fountain located in the city Jeddah, Saudi Arabia named for King Fahd. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit , and can be seen from very far distances. The fountain was donated to the City of Jeddah by the late King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz which is where the name is derived. King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, ( 1921 - August 1, 2005) was the King of the Kingdom
Built in 1983 and believed to be the highest tower in Saudi Arabia during the 1980s, with a height over 235 m (771 ft). The National Commercial Bank (NCB also known as AlAhli Bank ( Arabic:البنك الأهلي التجاري is the first Saudi Arabian bank The National Commercial Bank is Saudi Arabia's first bank. The National Commercial Bank (NCB also known as AlAhli Bank ( Arabic:البنك الأهلي التجاري is the first Saudi Arabian bank
The Islamic Development Bank is a multilateral development financing institution. Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), convened 18 December 1973. The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975. Events 1740 - Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Jeddah Municipality Tower
This is the headquarters of the metropolitan area of Jeddah, the new building of the Municipality is one of Jeddah's highest towers. Jeddah Municipality (also called Amanat Mohafathat Jeddah Arabic: أمانة محافظة جدة (and Al-Baladiyah Arabic: البلدية)
The school system in Jeddah has many public and private schools for both males and females. List of Saudi Arabia 's Universities, Colleges and Institutes. As of 2005, there were 849 public and private schools for males and another 1,179 public and private schools for female students. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and For the film of this title see Private School (film. Private schools, or Independent schools are Schools not administered  The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language, but some private schools which are by foreign entities such as (International schools) use the English language for medium of instruction. A second language (L2 is any Language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1 An International school is loosely defined as a School that does not require their students to learn the national or local language of the country the school is located in
For higher education, the city has several universities and colleges. The following list includes some of them:
Jeddah is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport which is one of the world's busiest airports. King Abdulaziz University ( KAU) (جامعة الملك عبد العزيز was founded in 1967 in Saudi Arabia and had 2000 teachers and more than 37000 students See also List of Open University Alumni Partnerships The Electrical and Computer Engineering program was developed through a partnership with Duke University and the Pratt School of Engineering Departments Flight crew ground training Flight safety training Islamic Fiqh Academy (Arabic مجمع الفقه الاسلامي الدولي is an Academy for advanced study of Islam based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. King Abdulaziz International Airport (مطار الملك عبدالعزيز الدولي is an Aviation facility located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Jeddah Port (also called Jeddah Islamic Seaport has an excellent location in the middle of the international shipping route between King Abdulaziz International Airport (مطار الملك عبدالعزيز الدولي is an Aviation facility located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia The airport has four passenger terminals. One is the Hajj Terminal, a special outdoor terminal covered by very huge tents, which was constructed to handle the more than 2 million pilgrims who pass through the airport during the Hajj season. The Hajj (حج is a pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah It is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world The Southern Terminal is used for Saudi Airlines flights with the Northern Terminal for foreign and other national airlines. Saudi Arabian Airlines ( Arabic: الخطوط الجوية العربية السعودية is the national Airline of Saudi Arabia, based The Royal Terminal is a special terminal for VIPs, foreign Kings and Presidents, and even the Saudi Royal Family.
Moreover, the Jeddah Seaport which is the 28th busiest seaport in the world (2005) handles the majority of Saudi Arabia's commercial movement. Jeddah Port (also called Jeddah Islamic Seaport has an excellent location in the middle of the international shipping route between Jeddah Port (also called Jeddah Islamic Seaport has an excellent location in the middle of the international shipping route between This is a list of the world's busiest container Seaports, total mass of actual TEU (in thousands transported through the port
Jeddah does not have any rapid transit system but a current plan to connect the city to the capital, Riyadh, via a train is under construction. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another
Modern streets connect the city parts to each other, these streets are often under mercy of sewage workers or floods. Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge In Jeddah the main highways run parallel to each other with a eight lane road.
Jeddah has 24 sister cities (aka "twin towns") which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.