Jeane Kirkpatrick's official portrait
1981 – 1985
|Preceded by||Donald McHenry|
|Succeeded by||Vernon A. Walters|
|Born||November 19, 1926|
|Died||December 7, 2006 (aged 80)|
|Political party||Democratic Party until 1985; Republican from 1985 until 2006|
|Profession||Professor, Diplomat, Politician|
Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 – December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. The United States Ambassador to the United Nations (full title Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Donald Franchot McHenry ( October 13 1936 -) was the United States Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations from September 1979 Vernon A Walters ( January 3, 1917 – February 10, 2002) was a United States Army officer and a Diplomat. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Duncan is a city in Stephens County, Oklahoma, United States. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Bethesda is an Unincorporated area in southern Montgomery County Maryland, just Northwest of Washington D The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The meaning of the word professor ( Latin: professor, person who professes to be an expert in some art or science teacher of highest rank) varies Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article contains several lists of Ambassadors from the United States. Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and After serving as Ronald Reagan's foreign policy adviser in his 1980 campaign and later in his Cabinet, the longtime Democrat-turned-Republican was nominated as the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations and became the first woman to hold this position. The foreign policy of the United States is highly influential on the world stage as it is a Superpower. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The United States Ambassador to the United Nations (full title Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security 
She is famous for her "Kirkpatrick Doctrine," which advocated U. The Kirkpatrick Doctrine was a political Doctrine expounded by United States of America Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick S. support of anticommunist governments around the world, including authoritarian dictatorships, if they were not totalitarian and went along with Washington's aims-- believing they could be led into democracy by example. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union She wrote, "Traditional authoritarian governments are less repressive than revolutionary autocracies. "
Kirkpatrick served on Reagan's Cabinet on the National Security Council, Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Defense Policy Review Board, and chaired the Secretary of Defense Commission on Fail Safe and Risk reduction of the Nuclear Command and Control System. A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U 
Jeane Duane Jordan was born in Duncan, Oklahoma, the daughter of an oilfield wildcatter, Welcher F. Duncan is a city in Stephens County, Oklahoma, United States. A wildcatter is a person who drills Oil wells in areas that are not in advance known to be Oil fields A wildcatter notable for his success was Texan Jordan, and his wife, the former Leona Kile. She attended Emerson Elementary School there and was known to her classmates as "Duane Jordan". At age 12, her father moved the family to southern Illinois where she graduated from Mt. Vernon Township High School in Mt. Vernon, Illinois. Mount Vernon (Mt Vernon is a city located near the center of Jefferson County Illinois, in the United States. In 1948, she graduated from Barnard College after receiving her Associate's Degree from Stephens College (then only a 2 year institution) in Columbia, Missouri. Barnard College is a women's liberal arts college founded in 1889 Stephens College is a liberal arts women's college located in Columbia, Missouri, a city of about 100000 residents Columbia (kəˈlʌmbiə is the fifth-largest city in the US state of Missouri and the largest city in Mid-Missouri. In 1968, Kirkpatrick received a Ph.D in political science from Columbia University. "PhD" redirects here for other uses see PhD (disambiguation. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League.  She spent a year of post-graduate study at the at the Institut des Sciences Politiques at the University of Paris, which helped her learn the French language. Institut d'études politiques ( English: Institutes of Political Studies, or IEPs are nine publicly owned institutions of higher learning in France The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century She was also fluent in Spanish. 
Though she was to be ultimately known as a figure of conservatism, as a college freshman in 1945 she joined the Young People's Socialist League of the Socialist Party of America, a membership that was influenced by one of her grandfathers, who was a founder of the Populist and Socialist parties in Oklahoma. Conservatism in the United States includes a variety of political ideologies including Fiscal conservatism, Supply-side economics, Social conservatism Young People's Socialist League ( YPSL) is a democratic socialist youth group originally affiliated with the Socialist Party of America. The Socialist Party of America (SPA was a socialist Political party in the United States. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America.  As Kirkpatrick recalled at a symposium in 2002, "It wasn't easy to find the YPSL in Columbia, Missouri. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. But I had read about it and I wanted to be one. We had a very limited number of activities in Columbia, Missouri. We had an anti-Franco rally, which was a worthy cause. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid You could raise a question about how relevant it was likely to be in Columbia, Missouri, but it was in any case a worthy cause. We also planned a socialist picnic, which we spent quite a lot of time organizing. Eventually, I regret to say, the YPSL chapter, after much discussion, many debates and some downright quarrels, broke up over the socialist picnic. I thought that was rather discouraging. "
At Columbia University, her principal adviser was Franz Neumann, a revisionist Marxist. Columbia University is a private University in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. Franz Leopold Neumann ( May 23, 1900 &ndash September 2 1954) was a German left-wing Political activist and labor The term "revisionism" is also used to refer to other concepts In 1967, she joined the faculty of Georgetown University and became a full professor of government in 1973. Georgetown University is a Jesuit Private university located in Georgetown Washington D
She became active in politics as a Democrat in the 1970s, and was involved in the later campaigns of former Vice President and Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Please DO NOT flip the colors -->The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr ( May 27, 1911 &ndash January 13, 1978) was the thirty-eighth Vice President of the United States, serving Along with Humphrey, she was close to Henry M. Jackson, who ran for the Democratic nomination for President in 1972 and 1976.  She was opposed to the candidacy of George McGovern. George Stanley McGovern In 1976, she joined with George V. Allen and others to found the Committee on Present Danger for the purpose of warning Americans against the Soviet Union's growing military power and the dangers of the SALT II treaty. George Venable Allen ( November 3 1903 – July 11 1970) was a United States Diplomat.  She also served on the Platform Committee for the Democratic Party in 1976. 
Kirkpatrick published a number of articles in political science journals reflecting her disillusionment with the Democratic Party with specific critism of the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 Her most well known piece was "Dictatorships and Double Standards," published in Commentary in November 1979. In that piece, Kirkpatrick mentioned what she saw as a difference between authoritarian regimes and the totalitarian regimes such as the Soviet Union; sometimes it was necessary to work with authoritarian regimes if it suited American purposes.  She wrote: “No idea holds greater sway in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible to democratise governments, anytime and anywhere, under any circumstances. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system . . Decades, if not centuries, are normally required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits. In Britain, the road [to democratic government] took seven centuries to traverse. . . The speed with which armies collapse, bureaucracies abdicate, and social structures dissolve once the autocrat is removed frequently surprises American policymakers. ”
This piece came to the attention of Ronald Reagan through his National Security Adviser Richard V. Allen. Richard Vincent Allen (born 1936 was the United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982  Kirkpatrick then became a foreign policy adviser throughout Reagan's 1980 campaign and presidency and, after his election to the presidency, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, a position she held for four years. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan She had never been around a Republican before.  On the way to her first meeting with him, she told Allen, "Listen, Dick, I am an AFL-CIO Democrat and I am quite concerned that my meeting Ronald Reagan on any basis will be misunderstood. American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a National trade union center, the largest federation of " She asked Reagan if he minded having a lifelong Democrat on his team; he replied that he himself had been a Democrat till age 51, and in any event he liked her way of thinking about American foreign policy. 
She was one of the strongest supporters of Argentina's military dictatorship following the March 1982 Argentine invasion of the United Kingdom's Falkland Islands, which triggered the Falklands War. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the Kirkpatrick sympathized with Argentina's President Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri, whose military regime "disappeared" critics, a position on which she and Reagan's Secretary of State Alexander Haig vehemently opposed each other and which upset Margaret Thatcher. Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli ( July 15, 1926 - January 12, 2003) was an Argentine general and President of Argentina This article refers to the Argentine Dirty War for the British film of the same name see Dirty War (film. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs Alexander Meigs Haig Jr (born December 2 1924 is a retired four-star General in the United States Army who served as the U Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925  Her support became muted when the administration ultimately decided to declare support for the British. The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by
At the 1984 Republican National Convention, Kirkpatrick delivered the memorable "Blame America First" keynote speech, which re-nominated Reagan by praising his administration's foreign policy while excoriating the leadership of what she called the "San Francisco Democrats"—the Democrats had just held their convention in San Francisco—for the party's shift away from the policies of former Democratic presidents such as Harry S. Truman and John F. Kennedy to a multilateral stance that de-emphasized assertive confrontation with foreign rivals, especially the Soviet Union—which she and Reagan termed the evil empire. The 1984 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened on August 20 to August 23, 1984, at Reunion The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The phrase evil empire was applied to the Soviet Union by US President Ronald Reagan and American conservatives, who took an aggressive It was the first time since 1952's speech from Douglas MacArthur that a non-party member had delivered the Republican convention keynote address. General MacArthur redirects here for other meanings see General MacArthur (disambiguation. 
Kirkpatrick, a member of the National Security Council, did not get along with either Secretary of State Haig or his successor, George Schultz. A National Security Council (NSC is usually an Executive branch governmental body responsible for coordinating policy on national security issues and advising chief George Pratt Shultz (born December 13 1920 served as the United States Secretary of Labor from 1969 to 1970 as the U She disagreed with Schultz most notably on the Iran-Contra Affair, in which she supported skimming money off arms sales to fund the Contras. The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration.  Kirkpatrick and Schultz actually came to physical violence in their disagreement over whether to find extra funding for Nicaraguan contras, with Schultz telling Kirkpatrick that it was an "impeachable offense. Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America " Kirkpatrick wished to be Secretary of State or head of the National Security Council, which did not help either.  Shultz threatened to resign if Kirkpatrick was appointed National Security Adviser.  Kirkpatrick was more closely allied with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and head of the CIA, William J. Casey. Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger ( August 18, 1917 &ndash March 28, 2006) was an American politician and Secretary William Joseph Casey ( March 13, 1913 &ndash May 6, 1987) was the Director of Central Intelligence from 1981 to 1987 
Kirkpatrick once said, "What takes place in the Security Council more closely resembles a mugging than either a political debate or an effort at problem-solving. | |-| |-| |- | |-| |-| |-| |-| |} The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. "
According to Jay Nordlinger, on a visit with American dignitaries, Soviet human rights activist Andrei Sakharov said, "Kirkpatski, Kirkpatski, which of you is Kirkpatski?" When others pointed to Kirkpatrick, he said, "Your name is known in every cell in the Gulag," because she had named Soviet political prisoners on the floor of the UN. Jay Nordlinger is an American journalist He is a senior editor of National Review, the conservative magazine founded by William F Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов (May 21 1921 – December 14 1989 was an eminent Soviet nuclear Physicist The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union.  Kirkpatrick said she would only serve one term at the UN and stepped down in April 1985. 
She was a staunch supporter of the State of Israel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. During her ambassadorship at the United Nations, she considered its frequent criticism and condemnation of the Jewish State as holding Israel to a double standard. She attributed it to hostility and considered it as politically motivated. In 1989, Mohammed Wahby, press director of Egypt's Information Bureau, wrote to the Washington Post saying, "Jeane Kirkpatrick has, somehow, consistently opposed any attempt to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D " Kirkpatrick had warned Secretary of State James Baker and President Bush in an op-ed, not get involved in the conflict, because any intervention "will fail. See also James Addison Baker James Addison Baker III (born April 28 1930) is a American attorney politician political "
Anti-Defamation League President Abraham Foxman issued a press release upon her passing saying that "She will be fondly remembered for her unwavering and valiant support of the State of Israel and her unequivocal opposition to anti-Semitism, especially during her tenure at the United Nations. The Anti-Defamation League ( ADL) is an Interest group founded in 1913 by B'nai B'rith in the United States whose stated aim is "to stop Abraham Foxman is the current National Director and Chairman of the Anti-Defamation League. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility She was always a true friend of the Jewish people. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ "
Explaining her disillusionment with international organizations, especially the United Nations, she stated:
About socialist activism, she said:
In 1985, Kirkpatrick became a Republican (which The Economist called her "only recourse" after her speech at the 1984 Republican convention) and returned to teaching at Georgetown University. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London Georgetown University is a Jesuit Private university located in Georgetown Washington D She also became a fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a Washington D.C. think tank, and a contributor to the American Freedom Journal. The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI is a conservative Think tank, founded in 1943 Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such American Freedom Journal is a monthly newspaper on politics international relations and current events published by Dr In 1993, she co-founded Empower America, a public-policy organization. FreedomWorks is a conservative Non-profit organization based in Washington D She was also on the advisory board of the National Association of Scholars, a group that works against what it regards as a liberal bias in academia, with its emphasis on multicultural education and affirmative action. The National Association of Scholars (NAS is a Non-profit organization in the United States that opposes Multiculturalism and Affirmative action Liberalism in the United States is a broad political and philosophical mindset favoring individual Liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty whether they come from Higher education in the United States refers to a variety of institutions of Higher education in the United States. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the Demographics of a specified Education in the United States is provided mainly by government with control and funding coming from three levels federal, state, and local. Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically
Kirkpatrick briefly considered running for President in 1988 against George H.W. Bush, because she believed he was not tough enough on Communism. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993  Along with Empower America co-directors William Bennett and Jack Kemp, she called on the Congress to issue a formal declaration of war against the "entire fundamentalist Islamist terrorist network" the day after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. FreedomWorks is a conservative Non-profit organization based in Washington D William John Bennett (born July 3, 1943) is an American Neoconservative Pundit, Politician, and Political Jack French Kemp Jr (born July 13 1935 is an American politician and former professional American football player The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan
In 2003, she headed the US delegation to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights ( UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations. Kirkpatrick was appointed to the Board of Directors of IDT Corp. in 2004. IDT Corporation (originally standing for International Discount Telecommunications is a Telecommunications company headquartered in Newark New Jersey. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "  It was revealed after her death that in 2003, she was sent as a US envoy, to meet an Arab delegation and attempt to convince them to support the Iraq War; she was supposed to argue that pre-emptive war was justifiable, but she knew this would not work and instead argued that Saddam Hussein had consistently gone against the UN. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 
On February 20, 1955, she married Evron Maurice Kirkpatrick, who was a scholar and a former member of the O.S.S. (the World War II-era predecessor of the CIA). Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1955 ( MCMLV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar) The Office of Strategic Services ( OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all Her husband died in 1995. They had three sons: Douglas Jordan (1956-2006), John Evron, and Stuart Alan (a. k. a. Traktung Rinpoche, a Buddhist lama). Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Lama ( is a title for a Tibetan teacher 
Kirkpatrick died at her home in Bethesda, MD, on December 7, 2006 of congestive heart failure. Bethesda is an Unincorporated area in southern Montgomery County Maryland, just Northwest of Washington D Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Heart failure is a Cardiac condition that occurs when a problem with the structure or function of the Heart impairs its ability to supply  She had been diagnosed with heart disease and had been in failing health for several years. 
Kirkpatrick received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed  The Kennedy School of Government at Harvard created a Kirkpatrick Chair in International Affairs in her honor. The John F Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a Public policy and  Kirkpatrick was awarded an honorary degree by Brandeis University in 1994, but her honor was met with protests from some professors and students. An honorary degree or a degree honoris causa ( Latin: 'for the sake of the honour' is an Academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding Brandeis University is a private research University with a Liberal arts focus located in Waltham Massachusetts, United States. One of the 53 (out of 350 total Brandeis faculty) opposing professors said, "We oppose the degree because she was the intellectual architect of Reagan administration policies that supported some of the Latin-American regimes with the most repressive records. "
|U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations|
1981 – 1985
Vernon A. Walters
|NAME||Kirkpatrick, Jeane Jordan|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American diplomat and Presidential advisor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 19, 1926|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Duncan, Oklahoma|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 7, 2006|
|PLACE OF DEATH|