Jean-Paul Sartre in 1960
|Birth||June 21, 1905 (Paris, France)|
|Death||April 15, 1980 (aged 74) (Paris, France)|
|Main interests||Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Politics, Phenomenology, Ontology|
|Notable ideas||"Existence precedes essence"|
|Influenced by||Kant, Hegel, Marx, Mao, Dostoyevsky, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Jaspers, De Beauvoir, Camus, Kojève, Flaubert, Céline, Merleau-Ponty|
|Influenced||De Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty, Frantz Fanon, R.D. Laing, Iris Murdoch, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, Alain Badiou, Frederic Jameson, Michael Jackson, Albert Camus, Kenzaburo Oe, Doris Lessing, William Burroughs, Michel Foucault|
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced [ʒɑ̃ pol saʁtʁə]), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. See also [[Analytic philosophy]] and [[Continental philosophy]] The 20th century brought with it upheavals that produced a series of conflicting developments within Philosophy Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions In Philosophy, ontology (from the Greek, genitive: of being (part The proposition that existence precedes essence is a central claim of Existentialism, which reverses the traditional philosophical view that the Essence or nature Bad faith (from French mauvaise foi) is a philosophical concept first coined by Existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre to describe the Nothing is a concept that describes the lack or absence of anything at all Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (ˈsœːɐn ˈkʰiɐ̯kəˌɡ̊ɒˀ in Danish Anglicized as;) Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (ˈhʊsɛrl April 8 1859 – April 26 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Karl Theodor Jaspers ( February 23, 1883 – February 26, 1969) was a German Psychiatrist and Philosopher who "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation Albert Camus ( (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960 was an Algerian born French Author, philosopher, and journalist who won the Nobel prize Alexandre Kojève (Russian Александр Владимирович Кожевников Aleksandr Vladimirovič Koževnikov; April 28 1902 &ndash Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among Louis-Ferdinand Céline was the Pen name of French writer and doctor Louis-Ferdinand Destouches (27 May 1894 &ndash 1 July 1961 Maurice Merleau-Ponty (mɔʁis mɛʁlopɔ̃ti in French March 14, 1908 – May 3, 1961) was a French phenomenological "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation Maurice Merleau-Ponty (mɔʁis mɛʁlopɔ̃ti in French March 14, 1908 – May 3, 1961) was a French phenomenological Frantz Fanon ( July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a Psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary and author from Ronald David Laing ( 7 October 1927 – 23 August 1989 was a Scottish Psychiatrist who wrote extensively on Mental illness Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE ( 15 July 1919 &ndash 8 February 1999) was a Dublin -born writer and philosopher Gilles Deleuze ( (January 18 1925 &ndash November 4 1995 was a French philosopher of the late 20th century Pierre-Félix Guattari ( April 30, 1930 – August 29, 1992) was a French Militant, institutional Psychotherapist Alain Badiou (born January 17, 1937 in Rabat, Morocco) is a prominent French Marxist Philosopher, formerly chair Fredric Jameson (born April 14, 1934) is an American literary critic and Marxist political theorist. Michael D Jackson (born 1940 is a Post-modern New Zealand anthropologist who has taught in the anthropology departments at the University of Copenhagen Albert Camus ( (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960 was an Algerian born French Author, philosopher, and journalist who won the Nobel prize is a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. His works strongly influenced by French and American literature and Literary theory, engage with political social Doris May Lessing, CH, OBE (née Tayler; born 22 October 1919) is a British Writer, author of works such William Seward Burroughs II ( – ˈbʌroʊz was an American Novelist, Essayist, Social critic, painter and Spoken word Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or Drama. Screenwriters or scenarists are Scriptwriters who write the Screenplays from which Films and Television programs are made A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. He was a leading figure in 20th century French philosophy. Twentieth-century French philosophy is a strand of contemporary Philosophy generally associated with post- World War II French thinkers although it is directly influenced
Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris to Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm His mother was of Alsatian origin, and was a cousin of French Nobel prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. Albert Schweitzer, MD, OM, (January 14 1875 &ndash September 4 1965 was an Alsatian theologian, Musician, Philosopher When Sartre was 15 months old, his father died of a fever. Anne-Marie raised him with help from her father, Charles Schweitzer, a high school professor of German, who taught Sartre mathematics and introduced him to classical literature at a very early age. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature.
As a teenager in the 1920s while mountaineering in Canada, Jean became attracted to philosophy upon reading Henri Bergson's Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language He studied in Paris at the elite École Normale Supérieure, an institution of higher education which was the alma mater for several prominent French thinkers and intellectuals. École Normale de Musique de ParisThe École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup’, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Sartre was influenced by many aspects of Western philosophy, absorbing ideas from Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Martin Heidegger among others. Western philosophy is a term that refers to philosophical thinking in the Western or Occidental world, as distinct from Eastern or Oriental philosophies Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and later went on to become a noted thinker, writer, and feminist. "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate The two, it is documented, became inseparable and lifelong companions, initiating a romantic relationship, though they were not monogamous. Sartre graduated from the École Normale Supérieure in 1929 with a doctorate in philosophy and served as a conscript in the French Army from 1929 to 1931. A doctorate is an Academic degree that indicates the highest level of academic achievement The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest
Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions The conflict between oppressive, spiritually-destructive conformity (mauvaise foi, literally, "bad faith") and an "authentic" state of "being" became the dominant theme of Sartre's early work, a theme embodied in his principal philosophical work L'Être et le Néant (Being and Nothingness) (1943). Bad faith (from French mauvaise foi) is a philosophical concept first coined by Existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre to describe the Disambiguation For the Wigwam album see Being (album, for spiritual or religious beingness, see Ego (spirituality Being and Nothingness An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology ( French: L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique) sometimes subtitled Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is his work Existentialism is a Humanism (1946), originally presented as a lecture. Existentialism is a Humanism ( L'existentialisme est un humanisme) is a 1946 philosophical work by Jean-Paul Sartre. In this work, he defends existentialism against its detractors, which ultimately results in what Sartre felt was a mistaken understanding of his work; in 1965, Sartre told Francis Jeanson that its publication had been "an error". Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence
In 1939 Sartre was drafted into the French army, where he served as a meteorologist. Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary German troops captured him in 1940 in Padoux, and he spent nine months as a prisoner of war — in Nancy and finally in Stalag 12D, Trier, where he wrote his first theatrical piece, Barionà, fils du tonnerre, a drama concerning Christmas. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Padoux is a Village and commune in the Vosges département of northeastern France. Nancy (nɑ̃si archaic Nanzig Nanzeg is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France In Germany, Stalag was a term used for Prisoner-of-war camps Stalag is an abbreviation for " Sta mm' lag' er" itself a short form of Trier (Trèves Luxembourgish: Tréier; Augusta Treverorum is a City in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one It was during this period of confinement that Sartre read Heidegger's Sein und Zeit later to become a major influence on his own essay on phenomenological ontology. Martin Heidegger ( September 26, 1889 &ndash May 26, 1976) (ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈhaɪ̯dɛgɐ was an influential German philosopher Being and Time ( German: Sein und Zeit, 1927) is a book by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Due to poor health (he claimed that his poor eyesight affected his balance) Sartre was released in April 1941. Given civilian status, he recovered his position as a teacher of Lycée Pasteur near Paris, settled at the Hotel Mistral near Montparnasse at Paris and was given a new position at Lycée Condorcet, replacing a Jewish teacher who had been forbidden to teach by Vichy law. The Lycée Condorcet is a school founded in 1803 in Paris, France located at 8 rue du Havre in the city's IXe arrondissement. The Statute on Jews (Statut des juifs was discriminatory legislation against French Jews passed on October 3, 1940 by the Vichy Regime, grouping them as
After coming back to Paris in May 1941, he participated in the founding of the underground group Socialisme et Liberté with other writers Simone de Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Toussaint, Dominique Desanti, Jean Kanapa, and École Normale students. "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation Maurice Merleau-Ponty (mɔʁis mɛʁlopɔ̃ti in French March 14, 1908 – May 3, 1961) was a French phenomenological In August, Sartre and Beauvoir went to the French Riviera seeking the support of André Gide and André Malraux. André Malraux (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976 was a French Author, adventurer and Statesman, and a dominant figure in French politics and culture However, both Gide and Malraux were undecided, and this may have been the cause of Sartre's disappointment and discouragement. Socialisme et liberté soon dissolved and Sartre decided to write, instead of being involved in active resistance. He then wrote Being and Nothingness, The Flies and No Exit, none of which was censored by the Germans, and also contributed to both legal and illegal literary magazines. Being and Nothingness An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology ( French: L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique) sometimes subtitled The Flies (known in the original French as Les Mouches) is a play by Jean-Paul Sartre, written in 1943 No Exit is a 1944 existentialist play by Jean-Paul Sartre, originally published in French as Huis Clos
After August 1944 and the liberation of Paris, he was a very active contributor to Combat, a newspaper created during the clandestine period by Albert Camus, a philosopher and author who held similar beliefs. Combat (French for "fight" was a French Newspaper created during the Second World War. Albert Camus ( (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960 was an Algerian born French Author, philosopher, and journalist who won the Nobel prize Sartre and Beauvoir remained friends with Camus until he turned away from communism, a schism that eventually divided them in 1951, after the publication of Camus' The Rebel. Later, while Sartre was labelled by some authors as a resistant, the French philosopher and resistant Vladimir Jankelevitch criticized Sartre's lack of political commitment during the German occupation, and interpreted his further struggles for liberty as an attempt to redeem himself. Vladimir Jankélévitch ( 31 August 1903 in Bourges – 6 June 1985 in Paris) was a French philosopher and musicologist According to Camus, Sartre was a writer who resisted, not a resistor who wrote.
When the war ended Sartre established Les Temps Modernes (Modern Times), a monthly literary and political review, and started writing full-time as well as continuing his political activism. Les Temps modernes ( French for Modern Times) is a political literary and philosophical French magazine (named after the Charlie Chaplin film See also Critic. A review is an evaluation of a publication such as a movie, Video game, Musical composition He would draw on his war experiences for his great trilogy of novels, Les Chemins de la Liberté (The Roads to Freedom) (1945–1949). The Roads to Freedom ( Les chemins de la liberté, in the original French) is a trilogy of novels by Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre was the head of the Organization to Defend Iranian Political Prisoners from 1964 till the victory of the Islamic Revolution.
The first period of Sartre's career, defined in large part by Being and Nothingness (1943), gave way to a second period as a politically engaged activist and intellectual. "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed Being and Nothingness An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology ( French: L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique) sometimes subtitled His 1948 work Les Mains Sales (Dirty Hands) in particular explored the problem of being both an intellectual at the same time as becoming "engaged" politically. He embraced communism, and defended existentialism, though never officially joining the Communist party, and took a prominent role in the struggle against French rule in Algeria. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence The French Communist Party ( French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems He became perhaps the most eminent supporter of the FLN in the Algerian War and was one of the signatory of the Manifeste des 121. The National Liberation Front ( Arabic: جبهة التحرير الوطني transliterated: Jabhat al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī French: Front The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from The Manifesto of the 121 ( French: Manifeste des 121, full title Déclaration sur le droit à l’insoumission dans la guerre d’Algérie or Declaration Furthermore, he had an Algerian mistress, Arlette Elkaïm, who became his adopted daughter in 1965. He opposed the Vietnam War and, along with Bertrand Russell and others, organized a tribunal intended to expose alleged U. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian Tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title S. war crimes, which became known as the Russell Tribunal in 1967. War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied The Russell Tribunal, also known as the International War Crimes Tribunal or Russell-Sartre Tribunal, was a public body organized by British philosopher Bertrand Its effect was limited.
As a fellow-traveller, Sartre spent much of the rest of his life attempting to reconcile his existentialist ideas about free will with communist principles, which taught that socio-economic forces beyond our immediate, individual control play a critical role in shaping our lives. In some political contexts the term fellow traveler refers to a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization but does not belong to that organization The question of free will His major defining work of this period, the Critique de la raison dialectique (Critique of Dialectical Reason) appeared in 1960 (a second volume appeared posthumously). Critique of Dialectical Reason, originally Critique de la raison dialectique ( 1960) was the last of Sartre 's major philosophical In "Critique," Sartre set out to give Marxism a more vigorous intellectual defense than it had received up until then; he ended by concluding that Marx's notion of "class" as an objective entity was fallacious. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. Sartre's emphasis on the humanist values in the early works of Marx led to a dispute with the leading Communist intellectual in France in the 1960s, Louis Althusser, who claimed that the ideas of the young Marx were decisively superseded by the "scientific" system of the later Marx. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation altuˡseʁ ( October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. Young Marx is one half of the concept in Marxology that Karl Marx ’s intellectual development can be broken into two broad categories the other being ‘ Mature
Sartre went to Cuba in the '60s to meet Fidel Castro and spent a great deal of time philosophizing with Ernesto "Che" Guevara. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed After Guevara's death, Sartre would declare him: "Not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age"  and the "era's most perfect man. " Sartre would also compliment Che Guevara by professing that: "He lived his words, spoke his own actions and his story and the story of the world ran parallel. Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed ” 
Following the Munich massacre in which eleven Israeli Olympians were killed by the Palestinian organization Black September in Munich 1972, Sartre said terrorism "is a terrible weapon but the oppressed poor have no others. The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn The Black September Organization (منظمة أيلول الأسود munazzamat aylul al-aswad) was a Palestinian militant group founded in 1970 Munich (München; Minga is the capital city of Bavaria, Germany. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion " Sartre also found it "perfectly scandalous that the Munich attack should be judged by the French press and a section of public opinion as an intolerable scandal. "
In 1964, Sartre renounced literature in a witty and sardonic account of the first ten years of his life, Les mots (Words). The book is an ironic counterblast to Marcel Proust, whose reputation had unexpectedly eclipsed that of André Gide (who had provided the model of littérature engagée for Sartre's generation). Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (maʁsɛl pʁust (10 July 1871 &ndash 18 November 1922 was a French Novelist Essayist and Critic Literature, Sartre concluded, functioned as a bourgeois substitute for real commitment in the world. In the same year he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he declined it, stating that "It is not the same thing if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre or if I sign Jean-Paul Sartre, Nobel Prize winner. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honorable form. " He was the first Nobel Laureate to voluntarily decline the Nobel Prize, after Nikola Tesla; he had previously refused the Légion d'honneur, in 1945. The prize was announced 1964 October 22; on October 14, Sartre had written a letter to the Nobel Institute, asking to be removed from the list of nominees, and that he would not accept the prize if awarded, but the letter went unread; on October 23, Le Figaro published a statement by Sartre explaining his refusal. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Events 1066 - Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings - In England on Senlac Hill seven miles from Hastings, the forces Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Le Figaro is one of the leading French morning daily Newspapers Its editorial line is conservative and has generally been supportive of
However, Lars Gyllensten, long time member of the Nobel prize committee has claimed in his autobiography that Sartre later tried to access the prize money, but was subsequently turned down. Lars Johan Wictor Gyllensten ( 12 November 1921 &ndash 25 May 2006) was a Swedish Author and Physician, and  Allegedly, the French philosopher in 1975 wrote a letter to the Nobel Prize committee saying that he had changed his mind about the prize, at least when it came to the money. At which point the prize committee is said to have declined the request, stating that the funds had been reinvested in the Nobel institute.
Though his name was now a household word (as was "existentialism" during the tumultuous 1960s), Sartre remained a simple man with few possessions, actively committed to causes until the end of his life, such as the student revolution strikes in Paris during the summer of 1968 during which he was arrested for civil disobedience. For other events in May 1968 see 1968. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical President De Gaulle intervened and pardoned him, commenting that "you don't arrest Voltaire. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French "
In 1975, when asked how he would like to be remembered, Sartre replied: "I would like [people] to remember Nausea, [my plays] No Exit and The Devil and the Good Lord, and then my two philosophical works, more particularly the second one, Critique of Dialectical Reason. Then my essay on Genet, Saint Genet. . . If these are remembered, that would be quite an achievement, and I don't ask for more. As a man, if a certain Jean-Paul Sartre is remembered, I would like people to remember the milieu or historical situation in which I lived,. . . how I lived in it, in terms of all the aspirations which I tried to gather up within myself. " Sartre's physical condition deteriorated, partially due to the merciless pace of work (and using drugs for this reason, e. g. , amphetamine) he put himself through during the writing of the Critique and the last project of his life, a massive analytical biography of Gustave Flaubert (The Family Idiot), both of which remained unfinished. Amphetamine, and related drugs such as Methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Dopamine Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among He died April 15, 1980 in Paris from an oedema of the lung. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Oedema (or Edema in American English formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is the increase of Interstitial fluid in any organ &mdash swelling lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive
Sartre's atheism was foundational for his style of existentialist philosophy. Montparnasse Cemetery ( French: Cimetière de Montparnasse) is a famous cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the Atheism In March 1980, about a month before his death, he was interviewed by his assistant, Benny Lévy, and within these interviews he expressed his interest in Judaism which was inspired by Levy's renewed interest in the faith. Benny Lévy (aka Pierre Victor) was a philosopher political activist and author Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Through Sartre's study of Jewish history he became particularly interested in the messianic idea of the faith. This article is about the concept of a Messiah in religion notably in the Christian Islamic and Jewish traditions Some people apparently took this to indicate a deathbed conversion; however, the text of the interviews makes it clear that he did not consider himself a Jew, and was interested in the ethical and "metaphysical character" of the Jewish religion, while continuing to reject the idea of an existing God. A deathbed conversion is the adoption of a particular Religious Faith shortly before dying PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. In a separate 1974 interview with Simone de Beauvoir, Sartre said that "I do not feel that I am the product of chance, a speck of dust in the universe, but someone who was expected, prepared, prefigured. "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation In short, a being whom only a Creator could put here; and this idea of a creating hand refers to God. " But immediately adds that "this is not a clear, exact idea. . . "
During his life, Sartre tried to draw all possible conclusions from the fact that there is no God. "man," he wrote in 1943, "is a useless passion. " He also wrote "everything that exists is born for no reason, carries on living through weakness, and dies by accident. "
Sartre lies buried in Cimetière de Montparnasse in Paris. Montparnasse Cemetery ( French: Cimetière de Montparnasse) is a famous cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, part of the Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city His funeral was attended by 20,000 mourners.
The basis of Sartre's existentialism is found in The Transcendence of the Ego. The Transcendence of the Ego is a philosophical and psychological essay written by Jean-Paul Sartre in 1937 To begin with, the thing-in-itself is infinite and overflowing. "Noumena" redirects here For the band see Noumena (band. Sartre refers to any direct consciousness of the thing-in-itself as a "pre-reflective consciousness. " Any attempt to describe, understand, historicize etc. the thing-in-itself, Sartre calls "reflective consciousness. " There is no way for the reflective consciousness to subsume the pre-reflective, and so reflection is fated to a form of anxiety, i. e. the human condition. The reflective consciousness in all its forms, (scientific, artistic or otherwise) can only limit the thing-in-itself by virtue of its attempt to understand or describe it. It follows, therefore, that any attempt at self-knowledge (self-consciousness - a reflective consciousness of an overflowing infinite) is a construct that fails no matter how often it is attempted. Consciousness is consciousness of itself insofar as it is consciousness of a transcendent object.
The same holds true about knowledge of the "Other. The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in Continental philosophy, opposed to the Same " The "Other" (meaning simply beings or objects that are not the self) is a construct of reflective consciousness. One must be careful to understand this more as a form of warning than as an ontological statement. However, there is an implication of solipsism here that Sartre considers fundamental to any coherent description of the human condition. Solipsism ( Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self is the philosophical idea that "My mind is the only thing that I know exists  Sartre overcomes this solipsism by a kind of ritual. Self consciousness needs "the Other" to prove (display) its own existence. The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in Continental philosophy, opposed to the Same It has a "masochistic desire" to be limited, i. e. limited by the reflective consciousness of another subject. This is expressed metaphorically in the famous line of dialogue from No Exit, "Hell is other people. No Exit is a 1944 existentialist play by Jean-Paul Sartre, originally published in French as Huis Clos "
The main idea of Jean-Paul Sartre is that we are "condemned to be free. " This theory relies upon his atheism, and is formed using the example of the paper-knife. Atheism Sartre says that if one considered a paper-knife, one would assume that the creator would have had a plan for it: an essence. Sartre said that human beings have no essence before their existence because there is no Creator. Thus: “existence precedes essence” 
As a junior lecturer at the Lycée du Havre in 1938, Sartre wrote the novel La Nausée (Nausea) which serves in some ways as a manifesto of existentialism and remains one of his most famous books. Le Havre is a city in the northwest region of France situated on the right bank of the mouth of the Seine River as it outlets into the Bay of the Seine Nausea (orig French La Nausée) is a novel by the existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, published in 1938 and written For the Roxy Music album see Manifesto (album. A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions often Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence Taking a page from the German phenomenological movement, he believed that our ideas are the product of experiences of real-life situations, and that novels and plays describing such fundamental experiences have as much value as do discursive essays for the elaboration of philosophical theories. Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (ˈhʊsɛrl April 8 1859 – April 26 1938) was a philosopher, known as the father of With this mandate, the novel concerns a dejected researcher (Roquentin) in a town similar to Le Havre who becomes starkly conscious of the fact that inanimate objects and situations remain absolutely indifferent to his existence. As such, they show themselves to be resistant to whatever significance human consciousness might perceive in them.
This indifference of "things in themselves" (closely linked with the later notion of "being-in-itself" in his Being and Nothingness) has the effect of highlighting all the more the freedom Roquentin has to perceive and act in the world; everywhere he looks, he finds situations imbued with meanings which bear the stamp of his existence. Being and Nothingness An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology ( French: L'Être et le néant: Essai d'ontologie phénoménologique) sometimes subtitled Hence the "nausea" referred to in the title of the book; all that he encounters in his everyday life is suffused with a pervasive, even horrible, taste — specifically, his freedom. The book takes the term from Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra, where it is used in the context of the often nauseating quality of existence. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German Also sprach Zarathustra, sometimes translated Thus Spake Zarathustra) subtitled A Book for All and None No matter how much Roquentin longs for something else or something different, he cannot get away from this harrowing evidence of his engagement with the world. The novel also acts as a terrifying realization of some of Kant's fundamental ideas; Sartre uses the idea of the autonomy of the will (that morality is derived from our ability to choose in reality; the ability to choose being derived from human freedom; embodied in the famous saying "Condemned to be free") as a way to show the world's indifference to the individual. Morality (from the Latin la moralitas "manner character proper behavior" has three principal meanings The freedom that Kant exposed is here a strong burden, for the freedom to act towards objects is ultimately useless, and the practical application of Kant's ideas prove to be bitterly rejected.
The stories in Le Mur (The Wall) emphasize the arbitrary aspects of the situations people find themselves in and the absurdity of their attempts to deal rationally with them. The Wall by Jean-Paul Sartre, a collection of short stories containing the eponymous story "The Wall" is considered one of the author's greatest A whole school of absurd literature subsequently developed. The Theatre of the Absurd ( French: Théâtre de l'Absurde) is a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European Playwrights
During the 1940s and 1950s Sartre's ideas remained ambiguous, and existentialism became a favoured philosophy of the beatnik generation. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence  Sartre's views were counterposed to those of Albert Camus in the popular imagination. Albert Camus ( (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960 was an Algerian born French Author, philosopher, and journalist who won the Nobel prize In 1948, the Roman Catholic Church placed his complete works on the Index of prohibited books. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum ("List of Prohibited Books" was a list of publications prohibited by the Roman Catholic Church. Most of his plays are richly symbolic and serve as a means of conveying his philosophy. The best-known, Huis-clos (No Exit), contains the famous line "L'enfer, c'est les autres", usually translated as "Hell is other people". No Exit is a 1944 existentialist play by Jean-Paul Sartre, originally published in French as Huis Clos
Aside from the impact of Nausea, Sartre's major contribution to literature was the The Roads to Freedom trilogy which charts the progression of how World War II affected Sartre's ideas. The Roads to Freedom ( Les chemins de la liberté, in the original French) is a trilogy of novels by Jean-Paul Sartre. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In this way, Roads to Freedom presents a less theoretical and more practical approach to existentialism. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence
Sartre has been called "the most written about twentieth-century author. " At the same time, his relationship with the media is not only fraught from his individual perspective but is indicative of the societal issue of the intellectual as a subject of knowledge and the concrete subject of an intellectual and their role. What Sartre encapsulates is the ‘complex and paradoxical role of the intellectual in post-industrial western societies, and symbolic of the voice of political and cultural dissidence struggling for the freedom of expression in an environment increasingly subject to rapid technological change. ’ (Scriven 1993: 1).
Whilst the broad focus of his life revolved around the notion of human freedom, a sustained intellectual participation in more public matters began in 1945. Prior to this, before the Second World War, he was content with the role of apolitical liberal intellectual, ‘Now teaching at the a lycee in Laon [. . . ] Sartre made his headquarters the Dome café at the crossing of Montparnasse and Raspail boulevards. He attended plays, read novels, and dined [with] women. He wrote. And he was published’ (Gerassi 1989: 134). He and his lifelong companion, Simone de Beauvoir, existed in her words where ‘the world about us was a mere backdrop against which our private lives were played out. "La Beauvoir" redirects here also see Beauvoir (disambiguation (de Beauvoir 1958: 339).
Sartre portrayed his own pre-war situation in the character Mathieu, chief protagonist in the The Age of Reason (completed during Sartre’s first year as a soldier in the Second World War), the first episode of the Road to Freedom trilogy. The Age of Reason Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology, a Deistic treatise written by eighteenth-century British radical and American Road To Freedom was a monthly anarchist political journal published by Hippolyte Havel, between 1927 and 1931 and is known as the successor to Emma Goldman's By forging Mathieu as an absolute rationalist, analysing the minutae of every situation, and functioning entirely on reason, he removed any strands of authentic content from his character and as a result, Mathieu could “recognize no allegiance except to myself” (Sarte 1942: 13), though he realized that without “responsibility for my own existence, it would seem utterly absurd to go on existing” (Sartre 1942: 14). In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 Mathieu’s commitment was only to himself, never to the outside. Restraining him from action each time was that he had no reasons for acting thus. Sartre then, for these reasons, was not compelled to participate in the Spanish Civil War, and it took the invasion of his own country to motivate him into action and the war itself to provide a crystallization of these ideas he had so eloquently written about. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of It was the war that gave him a purpose beyond himself, and the atrocities of the war can be seen as the turning point in his public stance.
The war was to be the most formative experience of Sartre’s life – it opened his eyes to a political reality he had not yet understood until forced into this continual engagement with it: ‘the world itself destroyed Sartre’s illusions about isolated self-determining individuals and made clear his own personal stake in the events of the time’ (Aronson 1980: 108). Returning to Paris therefore in 1941 he formed the ‘Socialisme et Liberte’ resistance group and later, in 1943, after a lack of Communist support forced the disbandment of the first, he joined a writers Resistance group, in which he remained an active participant until the end of the war. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based He continued to write ferociously also, and it was due to this ‘crucial experience of war and captivity that Sartre began to try to build up a positive moral system and to express it through literature. ’ (Thody 1964: 21).
The symbolic initiation of this new phase in Sartre’s work is packaged in the introduction he wrote for a new journal, Les Temps Modernes, in October 1945. Les Temps modernes ( French for Modern Times) is a political literary and philosophical French magazine (named after the Charlie Chaplin film Here he aligned the journal and thus himself, with the Left and called for writers to express their political commitment (Aronson 1980: 107) and yet this alignment was indefinite – directed more to the concept of the Left than a specific party of the Left.
Sartre’s philosophy lent itself aptly to his being a public intellectual. An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, He envisaged culture as a very fluid concept – neither pre-determined, nor definitely finished – instead, in true existential fashion, ‘culture was always conceived as a process of continual invention and re-invention’. Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives and that this essence follows from their existence This marks Sartre, the intellectual, as a pragmatist, willing to move and shift stance along with events. Pragmatism generally considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Peirce, who first stated the Pragmatic maxim. He did not dogmatically follow a cause – other than the belief in human freedom - preferring to retain a pacifist's objectivity. Liberty, the freedom to act or believe without being stopped by unnecessary force It is this over-arching theme of freedom that means his work ‘subverts the bases for distinctions among the disciplines’ (Kirsner 2003: 13) and therefore, in the fashion of a public intellectual, he was able to hold knowledge across a vast array of subjects: ‘the international world order, the political and economic organisation of contemporary society, especially France, the institutional and legal frameworks that regulate the lives of ordinary citizens, the educational system, the media networks that control and disseminate information. Sartre systematically refused to keep quiet about what he saw as inequalities and injustices in the world’ (Scriven 1999: xii). Most often too, his views were divergent from the prevailing political situation. The most clear example of this is in his post-war attitude to the French Communist Party (PCF), who, following Liberation were infuriated by Sartre's philosophy and opposition, which appeared to lure young French men and women away from the ideology of Marxism into Sartre’s own existential nihilism (Scriven 1999: 13). The French Communist Party ( French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing is a philosophical position that argues that Existence is without objective meaning Purpose Here we see Sartre telling his own truths to power, a fundamental role of the public intellectual. His troubled and varied relationship with Communism and Marxism in particular was a consequence of their doctrines that would have prevented his freedom of expression – indeed, to align himself too rigidly with any political movement, would have circumscribed the very freedom he was searching for through, initially his writings and, especially after the Second World War, his public activities, which he had begun to regard as more significant upon recognition of the futility of words in contrast to action. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including (Kirsner 2003: 60).
In the aftermath of a war that had for the first time properly engaged him in political matters, Sartre set about a body of work which ‘reflected on virtually every important theme of his early thought and began to explore alternative solutions to the problems posed there’ (Aronson 1980: 121). The greatest difficulties that he and all public intellectuals of the time faced were the increasing technological aspects of world that were outdating the printed word as a form of expression. So, although in Sartre’s opinion, ‘traditional bourgeois literary forms remain innately superior’ there is ‘a recognition that the new technological "mass media" forms must be embraced if Sartre’s ethical and political achievements as an authentic, committed intellectual are to be achieved: the demystification of bourgeois political practices and the raising of the consciousness, both political and cultural, of the working class” (Scriven 1993: 8). "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" The struggle for Sartre was against the monopolising moguls who were beginning to take-over the media and defunct the role of the intellectual. His attempts therefore to reach a public were mediated by these powers, and it was often these powers he had to campaign against. He was skilled enough however, to circumvent some of these issues by his interactive approach to the various forms of media – advertising his radio interviews in a newspaper column for example, and vice versa. (Scriven 1993: 22).
The role of a public intellectual often leads to the individual placing themselves in danger as they engage with heatedly disputed topics. In Sartre’s case this was witnessed in June 1961 especially, when a plastic bomb exploded in the entrance of his apartment building. His public support of Algerian self-determination at the time, had led Sartre to become a target of the right-wing campaign of terror that mounted as the colonists’ position deteriorated. Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their A similar occurrence took place the next year and he had begun to receive threatening letters from Oran. Oran ( Arabic:ar وهران pronounced Wahran; also transliterated as Ouahran, Spanish: Orán. (Aronson 1980: 157).
Sartre clearly held himself and his kind in a high regard, pronouncing the intellectual to be the moral conscience of their age, their task being to observe the political and social situation of the moment and to speak out, freely, in accordance with their conscience. (Scriven 1993: 119).
|NAME||Sartre, Jean Paul|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||French philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 21, 1905|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Paris|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 15, 1980|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Paris|
Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city