Jean-Lambert Tallien (1767 – November 16, 1820), was a French political figure of the revolutionary period. Year 1767 ( MDCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 1820 ( MDCCCXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
He was the son of the maître d'hôtel of the Marquis de Bercy, and was born in Paris. A majordomo is the highest ( major) person of a household ( domo) staff one who acts on behalf of the (often absent owner of a typically large residence Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city The marquis, noticing his ability, had him educated, and got him a place as a lawyer's clerk. A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Supportive of the Revolution, he gave up his desk to enter a printer's office, and by 1791 was overseer of the printing department of the Comte de Provence. Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Louis XVIII (17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824 Louis Stanislas Xavier de France, was a King of France and Navarre.
During his employment, he conceived the idea of the journal-affiche, and after the arrest of the king at Varennes in June 1791 he placarded a large printed sheet on all the walls of Paris twice a week, under the title of the Ami des Citoyens, journal fraternel. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The Flight to Varennes ( June 20 - 21, 1791) was a significant episode in the French Revolution during which King Louis XVI of France Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common A poster is any piece of printed Paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface
This enterprise had its expenses paid by the Jacobin Club, and made Tallien well known to the revolutionary leaders; he became even more present in politics after organizing, together with Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois, the great Fête de la Liberté on April 15, 1792, in honour of the released soldiers of Chateau-Vieux. The Jacobin Club was the largest and most powerful political club of the French Revolution. Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois ( June 19, 1749 &ndash January 8, 1796) was a French actor dramatist essayist and revolutionary Fête is a French word meaning Festival or Holiday, which has passed into English as a label that may be given to certain events Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
On July 8, 1792, he was the spokesman of a deputation of the section of the Place Royale which demanded from the Legislative Assembly the reinstatement of the Mayor, Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve, and the Procureur, Louis Pierre Manuel. Events 939 - The Major Occultation or Ghaybat el-Kubra of Muhammad al-Mahdi 1099 - First Crusade: 15000 Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Sans-culottes ( French for "without Knee-breeches " was a term created around 1790 - 1792 by the French Aristocracy to describe the During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1 1791 to September 1792. Before the French Revolution, the municipality of Paris was headed by the provost of the merchants ( prévôt des marchands) "Pétion" redirects here For the Haitian head of state see Alexandre Pétion. Louis Pierre Manuel (1751 – November 17, 1793) was a French writer and political figure of the Revolution. Tallien was one of the most active popular leaders in the Storming of the Tuileries Palace on August 10; on that day he was appointed secretary to the insurrectional Commune of Paris. Events 612 BC - Killing of Sinsharishkun, King of Assyrian Empire The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795 and especially from 1792 until 1795 He committed himself to his new mission, and habitually appeared at the bar of the Assembly on behalf of the Commune. He was a direct participant in the September Massacres of 1792, which with the help of Georges Danton, would eventually be elected a member of the National Convention. Georges Jacques Danton ( October 26, 1759 &ndash April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution  He announced the September Massacres in terms of apology and praise, and he sent off the famous circular of September 3 to the French provinces, recommending them to take similar action. September Massacres were a wave of Mob violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. A flyer (also spelled flier or called handbill) is a single page leaflet Advertising a Nightclub, event, service, or other Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius At the same time, he had several people imprisoned in order to save them from the violence of the mob, and protected several suspects himself.
At the close of the month he resigned his post on being elected, in spite of his youth, a deputy to the National Convention by the département of Seine-et-Oise, and he began his legislative career by defending the conduct of the Commune during the massacres. During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the Constitutional and legislative assembly In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division Seine-et-Oise was a département of France encompassing the western northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area of Paris. He took his seat upon The Mountain, and showed himself one of the most vigorous Jacobins, particularly in his defence of Jean-Paul Marat, on February 26, 1793; he voted in favor of capital punishment for King Louis XVI, and was elected a member of the Committee of General Security on January 21, 1793. The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group whose members called Events 747 BC - Epoch (origin of Ptolemy 's Nabonassar Era 364 - Valentinian I is proclaimed Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. List of Queens and Empresses of France Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre The Committee of General Security was a French Parliamentary committee which acted as police agency during the French Revolution that along with the Committee Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
After a short mission in the western provinces he returned to Paris, and took an active part in the coups d'état of May 31 and June 2, which resulted in the overthrow of the Girondists. In the French Revolution, representatives-on-mission were deputies sent by the National Convention to the provinces of France in 1793 Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins or "Baguettes" were a political faction in France within the Legislative For the next few months he kept a low profile, but on September 23, 1793, he was sent with Claude-Alexandre Ysabeau on his mission to Bordeaux. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate This was the month in which the Reign of Terror was organized under the superintendence of the Committees of Public Safety and General Security. Saint justjpg|thumbnail|200px| Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just]] The Reign of Terror' (5 September 1793 &ndash 28 July 1794 or simply The Terror (la Terreur was The Committee of Public Safety (Comité de salut public le Haut Comité de la santé publique which is an entirely unrelated present-day institution--> set up by the Tallien was of the most notorious envoys sent over to establish the Terror in the provinces, and soon established a revolutionary grip on Bordeaux. The young Tallien, who was barely 24, became notorious for his administration of justice in Bordeaux through his bloody affinity to “feed ‘la sainte guillotine’. ”  Tallien’s methodology of subjugation at Bordeaux has been described as “fear and flour”: the guillotining of Girondist leaders and exploitation of food shortages by withholding bread from the already-hungry province. 
However, after the initial days of his mission in Bordeaux, Tallien began to shift away from his bloody Terrorist tendencies. This tendency is directly attributable to his romantic involvement with Thérésa Cabarrús, the stunning daughter of Francisco Cabarrús and former wife of the emigré Marquis de Fontenay. Tallien not only spared her life but fell in love with her. As she was extremely weathy and desired by many, it was obivious that she became involved with Jean Tallien in order to save her neck from the guillotine at Bordeaux and infleunce Tallien to show leanience towards her emigré associates. Tallien suggested, “It is better to marry than to be beheaded. ”  After Tallien became involved with Cabarrús, there was a notable decline in the number of executions in Bordeaux. Thérésa was a moderating influence, and from the lives she saved by her entreaties she received the name of Notre-Dame de Thermidor ("Our Lady of Thermidor") after the onset of the Thermidorian Reaction (July 27, 1794). This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a  Tallien was even elected president of the Convention on March 24, 1794. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Maximillian Robespierre certainly took notice of Talliens “royalist” behavior and recalled him to Paris.
Maximilien Robespierre's own political ideas implied his readiness to strike at many of his colleagues in the committees, and Tallien was one of the men condemned. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbɛspjɛʁ ( 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) Robespierre's rivals were determined to strike first. When Tallien was recalled, Thérésa Cabarrús was recaptured and imprisoned. She set to face trial and likely would have been executed. She sent a letter to Tallien on July 26, which included a dagger and a note accusing him of weakness for not attempting to free her. Thérésa stated, “I die in despair at having belonged to a coward like you. ”  The movement was successful: Robespierre and his friends were guillotined, and Tallien, as the leading Thermidorian, was elected to the Committee of Public Safety. The guillotine ( pronounced /ˈgijətin/ or /ˈgɪlətin/ in English in French was a device used for carrying out executions by Decapitation. He was instrumental in suppressing the Revolutionary Tribunal and the Jacobin Club; he attacked Jean-Baptiste Carrier and Joseph Lebon, who had been representatives of Robespierre to Nantes and Arras respectively, and he fought with energy against the insurgents of Prairial (May 20, 1795). The Revolutionary Tribunal (Tribunal révolutionnaire was a Court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution Jean-Baptiste Carrier (1756 &ndash November 16, 1794) was a French Revolutionary known for his cruelty to his enemies especially to Clergy Nantes (Naoned Gallo: Naunnt) is a city in western France, located on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Tallien’s actions and his motivation behind his shifting loyalties have been described as, “His only claim to a place in history was to have realized that people were sick of the terror, that the inevitable reaction was imminent, and that it was better to be a part of it than to be crushed by it. ”  In all these months he was supported by Thérèse, whom he married on December 26, 1794, and who became the leader of the social life of Paris. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a This cemented Talliens transition from the infamous Terrorist at Bordeax to the “reformed terrorist” of the Thermidorean reaction. On 18th Thermidor, in order to Secure the release of his mistress, to gain popular support, and to popularize his image as a Thermidorean (rather than a Jacobin), Tallien stated, “There is not a single man in prison today who does not claim to be an ardent patriot and who has not been an enemy of Robespierre’s. ”  In the next 5 days, nearly 500 prisoners, many of which were moderates or right wing opposition to Robespierre and the leftist Jacobins, were released. Tallien and the Thermidoreans almost immediately repealed the law of July 22, ending the power of the Committee of Public Safety the right to arrest representatives without a hearing. In addition, measures were passed causing one fourth of the Committee to be up for election each month, with a one month period between the terms that deputies could serve on the Committee. For Talien's role in 9 Thermidor, he was elected to the Committee of Public Safety. In a complete reversal of his earlier positions, Tallien appealed to the new rising class of the “Jeunesse Doree” (“gilded youth”), who viewed him as their leader, by stating “I sincerely admit that I had rather see twenty aristocrats set at liberty today and re-arrested tomorrow than see a single patriot left in chains. ” In addition, Tallien helped pass a measure that would publish the lists of the freed prisoners, helping ensure that the National Convention would be accountable for any imprisonments. Furthermore, promoted a compromise that prevented a list of those who acted as guarantees for the loyalty of released prisoners. This prevented him from being publicly accountable for the release of his mistress and future wife. Shortly after, Tallien and his allies Freron and Lecointre were removed from the Jacobin clubs. 
On the 23rd of Fructidor, an assanation attempt was made on Tallien. The minor gunshot wound and knife wound gave Tallien and his allies the necessary public support to begin their attacks on the Jacobin clubs.  With the threat of a Jacobin-Terroristé plot in the air, Tallien and Freron used pubic proclamations and physical intimidation (through the Jeunessee Doree) to wipe the central Parisian Jacobin club out of existence. At this point the complete tranfomation of Jean-Lambert from an embodiment of the Terror to a right wing leader and orator. Tallien began campaigning for free spech in 1795. This increased his popularity with the Jeunesee Doree, as many Jeunesee were journalists. He reestablished his paper, L’Ami des citoyens, and contributed to the unified attack of the right wing on the remaining leftists. Although the journalistic freedom officially gave the left wing the legal opportunity to also mount an attack through the press, it is important to note that the right wing was far more unified. The Thermidoreans had even managed to get right wing jounalists into high positions on the left wing newspapers.  In addition, through much of the White Terror, the Thermidoreans did nothing to stop the monarchist resurgence.
Eventually, the Thermidoreans ordered that all émigrés and émigré supporters hand over their weapons and expel all foreigners from the country. However, there is evidence that Tallien was arranging a compromise with Spain and would support the imposition of Louis XVIII as a monarchist “without the abuses” In July of 1795, a large division of émigrés, with support from the British, attempted to invade through Quiberon. However, the General Hoche outmaneuvered the émigrés and trapped them on the end of a Peninsula. Tallien was sent by the National Convention to the scene. Partially because Tallien had been corresponding with the Bourbons in Spain, he set up military commissions under to try all of the émigré prisoners.  Under current law, all of the émigrés were convicted and summarily executed. Tallien was held responsible, and lost support from the jeunesse doree and the right wing which were supporting him. His political influence and relevance were thus greatly reduced.
After the beginning of the French Directory, Tallien's political importance came to an end, for, although he sat in the Council of Five Hundred, the moderates viewed him as an enforcer of the Terror, and the extreme party as a renegade. The Executive Directory ( Directoire exécutif) was a body of 5 single-male Directors that held executive power in France following The Council of Five Hundred ( Conseil des Cinq-Cents) or simply the Five Hundred was the Lower house of the legislature of France Madame Tallien also rejected him, and became the mistress of the rich banker Gabriel-Julien Ouvrard. Gabriel-Julien Ouvrard was a French financier who was born in Moulins d'Antières at Cugand (Vendée on October 11, 1770 and who died in London in October 1846
Napoleon Bonaparte, however, who is said to have been introduced by him to Paul Barras, took him to on his military expedition to Egypt of June 1798, and after the capture of Cairo, he edited the official journal there, the Décade Égyptienne. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. Paul François Jean Nicolas vicomte de Barras ( June 30, 1755 &mdash January 29, 1829) was a French politician of the By 1799, the French Revolutionary Wars had resumed after a period of relative peace in 1798. Year 1798 ( MDCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. General Jacques François Menou sent him back to France, and on his passage he was captured by a British cruiser and taken to London, where he had a good reception among the Whigs and was received by Charles James Fox. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The Right Honourable Charles James Fox ( 24 January 1749 &ndash 13 September 1806) was a prominent British Whig
On returning to France in 1802 he obtained a divorce from Thérésa (who in 1805 married François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet), and was left for some time without employment. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet ( September 21, 1771 - March 2, 1843) Comte de Caraman was the 16th Prince de Chimay In the end, through the interventions of Joseph Fouché and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, he was appointed consul at Alicante, and remained there until he lost the sight of one eye from yellow fever. Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d' Otrante ( May 21, 1759 Le Pellerin, near Nantes, France - December 25, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord 1st Sovereign Prince of Beneventum (2 February 1754 17 May 1838 the Prince of Diplomats, was a French ||-||} Alicante ( Spanish language) or Alacant ( Valencian) is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the Yellow fever (also called yellow jack, black vomit or sometimes American Plague) is an acute viral disease
Back in Paris, he lived on half-pay until the fall of the Empire and the Bourbon Restoration (1815), when he received the favour of not being exiled like the other regicides (those who had voted for the king's execution). The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or Following the ousting of Napoleon I of France in 1814 the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne Year 1815 ( MDCCCXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it In his latter years, all of his political and financial supporters had abandoned him and his final days were spent in poverty. He was forced to sell his books in order to buy bread. In a great twist of cruel irony, Tallien had to accept a pension of 100 sous a month from Louis XVIII, as he was “dying of hunger. ”