Japanese architecture (日本建築 Nihon kenchiku?) has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over millenia from the country's prehistoric Jomon culture to its contemporary hybrid culture which combines influences from Asia Originally heavily influenced by Chinese architecture, it has also developed many differences and aspects which are indigenous to Japan. Chinese architecture refers to a style of Architecture that has taken shape in Asia over the centuries
There are no extant examples of prehistoric architecture, and the oldest Japanese texts, such as Kojiki and Nihonshoki hardly mention architecture at all. is a Tendai Buddhist temple in Kyoto. Its full name is. The temple is part of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto Uji and Otsu Cities Yoshinogari (吉野ヶ里 遺跡 Yoshinogari iseki) is the name of a large and complex Yayoi Archaeological site in Yoshinogari and Kanzaki WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> is located in the northwest part of the island of Kyūshū, Japan. The, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. Excavations and researches show these houses had thatched roofs and dirt floors. Houses in areas of high temperature and humidity had wooden floors. With the spread of rice cultivation from China, communities became increasingly larger and more complex, and large scale buildings for the local ruling family or rice storage houses are seen in Sannai-Maruyama site (before 2nd century BC) in Aomori or Yoshinogari site in Saga (before 3rd century BC). Yoshinogari (吉野ヶ里 遺跡 Yoshinogari iseki) is the name of a large and complex Yayoi Archaeological site in Yoshinogari and Kanzaki
After the 3rd century, a centralized administrative system was developed and many keyhole-shaped Kofun were built in Osaka and Nara for the aristocracy. are megalithic Tombs or tumuli in Japan, constructed between early 3rd century and early 7th century. Among many examples in Nara and Osaka, the most notable is Daisen-kofun, designated as the tomb of Emperor Nintoku. was the 16th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession This kofun is approximately 486 by 305 m, rising to a height of 35 m.
The earliest structures still extant in Japan, and the oldest surviving wooden buildings in the world are found at the Hōryū-ji to the southwest of Nara. is a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Its full name is Hōryū Gakumonji (法隆学問寺 or Learning Temple See Ikaruga for the arcade and home video game that shares the same name and kanji The is the treasure house that belongs to Tōdai-ji, Nara The building is in the azekura log-cabin style with a raised floor WikipediaWikiProject Japanese prefectures for guidelines --> is a prefecture in the Kinki region on Honshū Island, Japan They serve as the core examples of architecture in Asuka period. The, was a period in the History of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592-645 although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. First built in the early 7th century as the private temple of Crown Prince Shotoku consists of 41 independent buildings; the most important ones, the main worship hall, or Kondo (Golden Hall), and Goju-no-to (Five-story Pagoda), stand in the center of an open area surrounded by a roofed cloister. also known as, was a Regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan. A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered Tower with multiple Eaves common in China, Japan, Korea The Kondo, in the style of Chinese worship halls, is a two-story structure of post-and-beam construction, capped by an irimoya, or hipped-gabled roof of ceramic tiles. Chinese Buddhism ( Pinyin fójiào refers collectively to the various schools of Buddhism that have flourished in China proper since ancient times
Temple building in the 8th century was focused around the Tōdaiji in Nara. is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. Constructed as the headquarters for a network of temples in each of the provinces, the Tōdaiji is the most ambitious religious complex erected in the early centuries of Buddhist worship in Japan. Before the modern prefecture system was established the land of Japan was divided into tens of kuni (国 countries) usually known in Appropriately, the 16. 2-m (53-ft) Buddha (completed in 752) enshrined in the main hall, or Daibutsuden, is a Rushana Buddha, the figure that represents the essence of Buddhahood, just as the Tōdai-ji represented the center for imperially sponsored Buddhism and its dissemination throughout Japan. Only a few fragments of the original statue survive, and the present hall and central Buddha are reconstructions from the Edo period. The, also referred to as the Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868 Clustered around the Daibutsuden on a gently sloping hillside are a number of secondary halls: the Hokkedo (Lotus Sutra Hall), with its principal image, the Fukukenjaku Kannon (the most popular bodhisattva), crafted of dry lacquer (cloth dipped in lacquer and shaped over a wooden armature); the Kaidanin (Ordination Hall) with its magnificent clay statues of the Four Guardian Kings; and the storehouse, called the Shosoin. Guanyin (觀音 pinyin guānyīn, Wade-Giles kuan-yin) is the Bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists In the Buddhist faith, the Four Heavenly Kings are four guardian gods each of whom watches over one Cardinal direction of the world The is the treasure house that belongs to Tōdai-ji, Nara The building is in the azekura log-cabin style with a raised floor This last structure is of great importance as an art-historical cache, because in it are stored the utensils that were used in the temple's dedication ceremony in 752, the eye-opening ritual for the Rushana image, as well as government documents and many secular objects owned by the imperial family.
In reaction to the growing wealth and power of organized Buddhism in Nara, the priest Kūkai (best known by his posthumous title Kobo Daishi, 774-835) journeyed to China to study Shingon, a form of Vajrayana Buddhism, which he introduced into Japan in 806. Daigo-ji (醍醐寺 is a Shingon Buddhist Temple in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. (IPA /kʲoːto / is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. For the Arena in Debrecen Hungary see Fonix Hall. For the replica temple in Hawaii see Byodo-In Temple. is a city on the southern outskirts of the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Kūkai (ja 空海 or also known posthumously as Kōbō-Daishi (ja 弘法大師 774&ndash835 CE was a Japanese monk, Scholar Events By Place Europe Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards Events By Place Europe Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date Shingon Buddhism (眞言 真言 " true words " is a major school of Japanese Buddhism, and is the other branch of Vajrayana Buddhism Vajrayana Buddhism is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayana, Mantranaya, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and Events By Place Asia Emperor Heizei succeeds Emperor Kammu as Emperor of Japan. At the core of Shingon worship are the various mandalas, diagrams of the spiritual universe which influenced temple design. Mandala ( Sanskrit maṇḍala मंड "essence" + ल "having" or "containing" Japanese Buddhist architecture also adopted the stupa in its Chinese form of pagoda. A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist
The temples erected for this new sect were built in the mountains, far away from the court and the laity in the capital. The irregular topography of these sites forced Japanese architects to rethink the problems of temple construction, and in so doing to choose more indigenous elements of design. Cypress-bark roofs replaced those of ceramic tile, wood planks were used instead of earthen floors, and a separate worship area for the laity was added in front of the main sanctuary.
In the Fujiwara period, Pure Land Buddhism, which offered easy salvation through belief in Amida (the Buddha of the Western Paradise), became popular. The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) descending from the Nakatomi clan, was a powerful family of Regents in Japan that monopolized the regent positions Pure Land Buddhism ( Jìngtǔzōng; 浄土教 Jōdokyō; Korean: ko-Hang 정토종 jeongtojong; Vietnamese: 浄土宗 vi Amitābha ( Sanskrit: अमिताभ Amitābha (wordstem pronunciation; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛 Ēmítuó Fó; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་ Concurrently, the Kyoto nobility developed a society devoted to elegant aesthetic pursuits. So secure and beautiful was their world that they could not conceive of Paradise as being much different. The Amida hall, blending the secular with the religious, houses one or more Buddha images within a structure resembling the mansions of the nobility.
The Ho-o-do (Phoenix Hall, completed 1053) of the Byodoin, a temple in Uji to the southeast of Kyoto, is the exemplar of Fujiwara Amida halls. For the Arena in Debrecen Hungary see Fonix Hall. For the replica temple in Hawaii see Byodo-In Temple. is a city on the southern outskirts of the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It consists of a main rectangular structure flanked by two L-shaped wing corridors and a tail corridor, set at the edge of a large artificial pond. Inside, a single golden image of Amida (circa 1053) is installed on a high platform. The Amida sculpture was executed by Jocho, who used a new canon of proportions and a new technique (yosegi), in which multiple pieces of wood are carved out like shells and joined from the inside. Jōchō (定朝 d 1057 also known as Jōchō Busshi, was a Japanese sculptor of the Heian period. is a type of traditional Japanese Parquetry which originated in Japan’s culturally rich Edo Period. Applied to the walls of the hall are small relief carvings of celestials, the host believed to have accompanied Amida when he descended from the Western Paradise to gather the souls of believers at the moment of death and transport them in lotus blossoms to Paradise. Raigo (Descent of the Amida Buddha) paintings on the wooden doors of the Ho-o-do are an early example of Yamato-e, Japanese-style painting, because they contain representations of the scenery around Kyoto. A ("welcoming approach" is an appearance of Amida Buddha on a purple cloud at the time of one's death Yamato-e (大和絵 is a style of Japanese painting inspired by Tang dynasty paintings and developed in the late Heian period.
After the Kamakura period, Japanese political power was dominated by the armed Samurai, such as Seiwa Genji. is a Buddhist temple in Higashiyama District of Kyoto, Japan. the "Temple of the Silver Pavilion" is a Buddhist temple in the Sakyo ward of Kyoto, Japan. is the term for the military nobility of Pre-industrial Japan. The were the most successful and powerful of the many branch families of the Japanese Minamoto clan Their simple and sturdy ideas affected the architecture style, and many samurai houses are a mixture of shinden-zukuri and turrets or trenches. The were palatial or Aristocratic Mansions built in Heian-kyō (平安京 today's Kyoto) in the Heian period (794-1185 especially
In the Genpei War (1180-1185), many traditional buildings in Nara and Kyoto were damaged. The ( 1180 &ndash 1185) were a Conflict between the Taira and Minamoto clans and in late- Heian period Japan. For example, Kofukuji and Todaiji were burned down by Taira no Shigehira of the Taira clan in 1180. is a Buddhist Temple in the city of Nara, in Nara prefecture, Japan. is a Buddhist temple complex located in the city of Nara, Japan. (1158 &ndash 1185 was one of the sons of Taira no Kiyomori, and one of the Taira Clan's chief commanders during the Heian period of the 12th century For other uses of the word Taira see Taira (disambiguation The was a major Japanese clan in historical Japan Many of these temples and shrines were rebuilt in the Kamakura period by the Kamakura shogunate to consolidate the shogun's authority. The Kamakura shogunate ( Japanese: 鎌倉幕府 Kamakura bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship in Japan headed by the Shoguns from is a military rank and historical title in Japan. The Japanese word for "general" it is made up of two Kanji words sho, meaning "commander" This program was carried out in such an extensive scale that many of the temples and shrines built after the Kamakura period were influenced by this architectural style.
Another major development of the period was the tea ceremony and the tea house in which it was held. The Japanese tea ceremony is called chanoyu (茶の湯 lit "tea hot-water" or also chadō or sadō (ja A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking Tea. Their function varies widely depending on the culture and some cultures have a variety of distinct The purpose of the ceremony is to spend time with friends who enjoy the arts, to cleanse the mind of the concerns of daily life, and to receive a bowl of tea served in a gracious and tasteful manner. Zen was the basic philosophy. Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, referred to in Chinese as Chan. The rustic style of the rural cottage was adopted for the tea house, emphasizing such natural materials as bark-covered logs and woven straw.
Two new forms of architecture were developed in response to the militaristic climate of the times: the castle, a defensive structure built to house a feudal lord and his soldiers in times of trouble; and the shoin, a reception hall and private study area designed to reflect the relationships of lord and vassal within a feudal society. were Fortresses composed primarily of wood and stone They evolved from the wooden stockades of earlier centuries and came into their most well-known form in the 16th century means writing place and study room in Japanese domestic architecture Himeji Castle (built in its present form 1609), popularly known as White Heron Castle, with its gracefully curving roofs and its complex of three subsidiary towers around the main tenshu (or keep), is one of the most beautiful structures of the Momoyama period. is a flatland-mountain Japanese castle complex located in Himeji in Hyōgo Prefecture and comprising 83 Wooden Buildings It is occasionally The Ohiroma of Nijo Castle (17th century) in Kyoto is one of the classic examples of the shoin, with its tokonoma (alcove), shoin window (overlooking a carefully landscaped garden), and clearly differentiated areas for the Tokugawa lords and their vassals. is a flatland castle located in Kyoto, Japan. The castle consists of two concentric rings of fortifications the Ninomaru Palace the ruins of the Honmaru Palace various support (IPA /kʲoːto / is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan.
Katsura Detached Palace, built in imitation of Prince Genji's palace, contains a cluster of shoin buildings that combine elements of classic Japanese architecture with innovative restatements. The, or Katsura Detached Palace, is a Villa with associated Gardens and outbuildings in the western suburbs of Kyoto, Japan (in Nishikyo-ku The, or Katsura Detached Palace, is a Villa with associated Gardens and outbuildings in the western suburbs of Kyoto, Japan (in Nishikyo-ku is a classic work of Japanese literature attributed to the Japanese noblewoman Murasaki Shikibu in the early eleventh century around the peak of the Heian Period The whole complex is surrounded by a beautiful garden with paths for walking.
The city of Edo was repeatedly struck by fires, leading to the development of a simplified architecture that allowed for easy reconstruction. Because fires were most likely to spread during the dry winters, lumber was stockpiled in nearby towns prior to their onset. Once a fire that had broken out was extinguished, the lumber was sent to Edo, allowing many rows of houses to be quickly rebuilt. Due to the shogun's policy of sankin kotai ("rotation of services"), the daimyo constructed large houses and parks for their guests' (as well as their own) enjoyment. Sankin kōtai (参勤交代 ("alternate attendance" was a policy of the Shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. The ( were powerful territorial lords who ruled most of Japan from their vast hereditary land holdings Kōrakuen is a park from that period that still exists and is open to the public for afternoon walks.
In the years after 1867, when Emperor Meiji ascended the throne, Japan was once again invaded by new and alien forms of culture. Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The (3 November 1852 — 30 July 1912 or Meiji the Great was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession reigning from 3 February By the early 20th century, European art forms were well introduced and their marriage produced notable buildings like the Tokyo Train Station and the National Diet Building that still exist today. is a Train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the The is the place where both houses of the Diet of Japan meet It is located at 1-chome Nagatachō, Chiyoda Tokyo.
In early 1920s, modernists and expressionists emerged and began to form their own groups. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Kunio Maekawa and Junzo Sakakura joined Le Corbusier's studio in France, came back to Japan in early 1930s, and designed several buildings. was a Japanese Architect. He entered First Tokyo Middle School in 1918 and then Tokyo Imperial University in 1925 Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Influence of modernism spread to many company and government buildings. In 1933 Bruno Taut fled to Japan, and his positive opinion of Japanese architecture (especially Katsura Imperial Villa) encouraged Japanese modernists. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bruno Julius Florian Taut ( 4 May 1880, Königsberg, Germany &ndash 24 December 1938, Istanbul) was a prolific German The, or Katsura Detached Palace, is a Villa with associated Gardens and outbuildings in the western suburbs of Kyoto, Japan (in Nishikyo-ku
See also Giyōfū architecture. Giyōfū architecture (擬洋風建築 -kenchiku) or pseudo-Western-style architecture) was a style of Japanese architecture which outwardly resembled Western-style
As with so many other aspects of Japanese culture and society, the change to modern technology brought a quite noticeable change in architecture as well. The need to rebuild Japan after World War II proved a great stimulus to Japanese architecture, and within a short time, the cities were functioning again. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including However, the new cities that came to replace the old ones came to look very different. The current look of Japanese cities is the result of and a contributor to 20th century architectural attitudes. With the introduction of Western building techniques, materials, and styles into Meiji Japan, new steel and concrete structures were built in strong contrast to traditional styles. The, or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July Like most places, there is a great gap between the appearance of the majority of buildings (generally residences and small businesses) and of landmark buildings. Originally a landmark literally meant a Geographic Feature used by explorers and After World War II, the majority of buildings ceased to be built of wood (which is easily flammable in the case of earthquakes and bombing raids), and instead were internally constructed of steel. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including High visibility landmark buildings also changed. Whereas major pre-war buildings, such as the Wako Department Store, Tokyo Station, Akasaka Palace, and the Bank of Japan were designed along European classical lines, post-war buildings adopted the "unadorned box" style that some people love and some people hate. (officially Wako Co Ltd, also known as Ginza Wako) is an exclusive Department store in Japan, located at the heart of the Ginza Shopping is a Train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the Akasaka Palace is a former imperial residence that functions today as the. is the Central bank of Japan. History Like most modern Japanese institutions the Bank of Japan was born after the Meiji Restoration. Because of earthquakes, bombings, and later redevelopment, and also because of Japan's rapid economic growth from the 1950s until the 1980s, most of the architecture to be found in the cities are from that period, which was the height of Brutalist Modern architecture generally. The term Brutalist Architecture originates from the French Béton brut, or "raw concrete" a term used by Le Corbusier to describe This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture.
However, since around the early 1990s, the situation has slowly started to change. The 1991 completion of the postmodernist Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building was perhaps a tipping point in skyscraper design. The, also referred to as Tokyo City Hall or Tochō (都庁 for short houses the headquarters of the Tokyo local government; this comprises not only the 23 wards Hot on its heels was the Yokohama Landmark Tower. The is the tallest building in Japan, standing high It is located in the futuristic Minato Mirai 21 district of Yokohama city right next to Yokohama Museum In 1996 came the much-loved Tokyo International Forum, which besides a unique design, sported a landscaped area outside for people to relax and chat. The is an an exhibition and concert hall and conference center in Tokyo, Japan. More recently, in 2003, Roppongi Hills was opened, which borrowed ideas from previous ground-breaking designs and furthered them. is one of Japan 's largest integrated property developments located in the Roppongi district of Minato, Tokyo. The new area of Shiodome, completely redeveloped since the late 1990s, is an excellent place to see a group of postmodern and European-style buildings, away from the usual jumble of '60s-era anonymous rectangular prisms. Shiodome (汐留 is an area in Minato Tokyo, Japan, located adjacent to Shimbashi and Ginza, near Tokyo Bay and the Hamarikyu Still, despite this slow but continuing trend in contemporary Japanese architecture, the vast majority of suburban areas still exhibit cheap, uninspired designs.
The best-known Japanese architect is Kenzo Tange, whose National Gymnasiums (1964) for the Tokyo Olympics emphasizing the contrast and blending of pillars and walls, and with sweeping roofs reminiscent of the tomoe (an ancient whorl-shaped heraldic symbol) are dramatic statements of form and movement. was a Japanese Architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for Architecture. is an Arena in Yoyogi Park, Tokyo, Japan which is famous for its Suspension roof design Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan A tomoe or tomoye (archaic (ja-Hani 巴 is a Japanese abstract Shape (i
Japan played some role in modern skyscraper design, because of its long familiarity with the cantilever principle to support the weight of heavy tiled temple roofs. A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper A cantilever is a beam supported on only one end The beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and Shear stress. Frank Lloyd Wright was strongly influenced by Japanese spatial arrangements and the concept of interpenetrating exterior and interior space, long achieved in Japan by opening up walls made of sliding doors. Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8 1867 &ndash April 9 1959 was an American (of Welsh descent Architect, Interior designer, Writer, and educator who In Japanese architecture, fusuma (襖 are opaque vertical rectangles which can slide from side to side to redefine spaces within a room or act as doors In the late twentieth century, however, only in domestic and religious architecture was Japanese style commonly employed. Cities sprouted modern skyscrapers, epitomized by Tokyo's crowded skyline, reflecting a total assimilation and transformation of modern Western forms. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū.
The widespread urban planning and reconstruction necessitated by the devastation of World War II produced such major architects as Maekawa Kunio and Kenzo Tange. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including was a Japanese Architect. He entered First Tokyo Middle School in 1918 and then Tokyo Imperial University in 1925 was a Japanese Architect, and winner of the 1987 Pritzker Prize for Architecture. Maekawa, a student of world-famous architect Le Corbusier, produced thoroughly international, functional modern works. Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier ( October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965) was a Swiss Tange, who worked at first for Maekawa, supported this concept early on, but later fell in line with postmodernism, culminating in projects such as the aforementioned Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building and the Fuji TV Building. Both architects were notable for infusing Japanese aesthetic ideas into starkly contemporary buildings, returning to the spatial concepts and modular proportions of tatami (woven mats), using textures to enliven the ubiquitous ferroconcrete and steel, and integrating gardens and sculpture into their designs. (originally meaning "folded and piled" Mats are a traditional type of Japanese flooring Reinforced concrete is Concrete in which reinforcement bars (" Rebars quot or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be Tange used the cantilever principle in a pillar and beam system reminiscent of ancient imperial palaces; the pillar--a hallmark of Japanese traditional monumental timber construction-- became fundamental to his designs. Fumihiko Maki advanced new city planning ideas based on the principle of layering or cocooning around an inner space (oku), a Japanese spatial concept that was adapted to urban needs. Fumihiko Maki (槇文彦 Maki Fumihiko) (born Tokyo, September 6, 1928) is a Japanese architect He also advocated the use of empty or open spaces (ma), a Japanese aesthetic principle reflecting Buddhist spatial ideas. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Another quintessentially Japanese aesthetic concept was a basis for Maki designs, which focused on openings onto intimate garden views at ground level while cutting off sometimes-ugly skylines. that is Gardens in traditional Japanese style can be found at private homes in neighborhood or city parks and at historical Landmarks such as Buddhist A dominant 1970s architectural concept, the "metabolism" of convertibility, provided for changing the functions of parts of buildings according to use, and remains influential.
A major architect of the 1970s and 1980s was Isozaki Arata, originally a student and associate of Tange's, who also based his style on the Le Corbusier tradition and then turned his attention toward the further exploration of geometric shapes and cubic silhouettes. Arata Isozaki (磯崎新 Isozaki Arata; born 23 July 1931) is a Japanese architect from Ōita Ōita. He synthesized Western high-technology building concepts with peculiarly Japanese spatial, functional, and decorative ideas to create a modern Japanese style. Isozaki's predilection for the cubic grid and trabeated pergola in largescale architecture, for the semicircular vault in domestic-scale buildings, and for extended barrel vaulting in low, elongated buildings led to a number of striking variations. For lintel as a decorative element see Lintel (architecture For beam as load-bearing member see beam A pergola is a Garden feature forming a shaded walk or passageway of pillars that support cross beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained New Wave architects of the 1980s were influenced by his designs, either pushing to extend his balanced style, often into mannerism, or reacting against them.
A number of avant-garde experimental groups were encompassed in the New Wave of the late 1970s and the 1980s. They reexamined and modified the formal geometric structural ideas of modernism by introducing metaphysical concepts, producing some startling fantasy effects in architectural design. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century In contrast to these innovators, the experimental poetic minimalism of Tadao Ando embodied the postmodernist concerns for a more balanced, humanistic approach than that of structural modernism's rigid formulations. is a Japanese Architect whose approach to Architecture was once categorised as Critical regionalism. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Ando's buildings provided a variety of light sources, including extensive use of glass bricks and opening up spaces to the outside air. He adapted the inner courtyards of traditional Osaka houses to new urban architecture, using open stairways and bridges to lessen the sealed atmosphere of the standard city dwelling. is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of Honshū His ideas became ubiquitous in the 1980s, when buildings were commonly planned around open courtyards or plazas, often with stepped and terraced spaces, pedestrian walkways, or bridges connecting building complexes . In 1989 Ando became the third Japanese to receive France's prix de l'académie d'architecture, an indication of the international strength of the major Japanese architects, all of whom produced important structures abroad during the 1980s. Japanese architects were not only skilled practitioners in the modern idiom but also enriched postmodern designs worldwide with innovative spatial perceptions, subtle surface texturing, unusual use of industrial materials, and a developed awareness of ecological and topographical problems. Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of
For more information on artistic concepts, also see Japanese art. Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media including ancient pottery sculpture in wood and bronze ink painting on silk and paper and a myriad of other types of works of
Example of pre-modern Japanese architecture are:
Typical architectural features are: