The Janata Party (जनता पार्टी, People's Party in Hindi) was an Indian political party that contested the Indian Emergency (1975-77) and became the first political party to defeat the Indian National Congress in the 1977 Lok Sabha elections, forming the central government from 1977 to 1980. Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral See also State of Emergency in India The Indian Emergency of June 1975–21st March 1977 was a 21-month period when President Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had led her Indian National Congress to a landslide majority in the Parliament of India in the 1971 elections, and after the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, her popularity was meteoric. Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi ( Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī) ( Née: Nehru (19 November 1917 - 31 October 1984 was the Prime Minister of the Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is the federal and supreme Legislative body of India. The Bangladesh Liberation War (i ( Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho) was an armed conflict between West Pakistan (later
However accusations of authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption soon emerged, causing strikes and protests across the country. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Former freedom fighter Jaya Prakash Narayan alleged that Indira was destroying India's democracy and economy. Jayaprakash Narayan ( Devanāgarī: जयप्रकाश नारायण October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979) widely known Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Unhappiness over slow economic progress, inflation and bureaucratic stagnation intensified public discontent.
In 1974, the Allahabad High Court ruled in a case that the Prime Minister had wrongfully used government machinery in her election campaign in 1971. Allahabad ( Hindi: इलाहाबाद Urdu: الہ آباد Ilāhābād) is a city in the north Indian state of Uttar Thus convicted, opposition parties of across the spectrum called for her immediate resignation, which Indira refused.
J. P. Narayan and his allies organized major protests and strikes across the country, which adversely affected government and the economy. Trade, students and government unions striked, and a large public crowd surrounded the Parliament building and the PM's residence. Narayan received open support from the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Indian National Congress (Organisation). The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (abbreviated BJS and often known simply as the Jan Sangh existed from 1951 to 1980 whereupon it was succeeded by the Bharatiya Janata Party, one of The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ National Volunteers' Organisation) also known as the Sangh or The Indian National Congress (Organisation or Congress (O was a Political party in India formed when Indira Gandhi (then the Congress president Veteran Congressmen began leaving the party.
Prime Minister Gandhi convinced the President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare emergency under the Constitution. Using sweeping powers it gave, the police arrested thousands of protestors, including Narayan and his allies.
Although for nearly 2 years India was peaceful and progressive, there was widespread unhappiness with the decision to impose rule by decree. Although it gave India relief from chronic strikes and demonstrations that paralyzed the economy and created unnecessary disorder, hundreds of thousands of people across the country were allegedly arrested without cause and detained for substantial periods without notification to family of their whereabouts. Police abuse, torture and corruption were alleged, and thousands of political prisoners were taken. State media and private publications became mouthpieces for Congress propaganda.
The satyagraha-style protest and arrest of thousands of people evoked sympathy from a population that remembered the sacrifices made during the Indian independence movement. Satyagraha ( Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of Nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant Gradually the lack of democracy and fear of arbitrary arrest and abuse made the Indira administration very unpopular. Unaccountable to the people, the administration began suffering from corruption, which increased disenchantment.
When Indira Gandhi called elections in 1977, virtually all opposition parties banded together to form the Janata Party, which became a rainbow coalition of diverse political groups. The major ones included the Bharatiya Lok Dal led by Charan Singh, the Congress (O) led by Morarji Desai, the Bharatiya Jana Sangh led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the Swatantra Party and the Socialists. Bharatiya Lok Dal (Indian Peoples Party was a Political party in India. Chaudhary Charan Singh (23 December 1902 &ndash 29 May 1987 was the seventh Prime Minister of the Republic of India serving from 28 July 1979 until 14 January 1980 The Indian National Congress (Organisation or Congress (O was a Political party in India formed when Indira Gandhi (then the Congress president Morarji Ranchhodji Desai ( मोरारजी देसाई) (29 February 1896 &ndash 10 The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (abbreviated BJS and often known simply as the Jan Sangh existed from 1951 to 1980 whereupon it was succeeded by the Bharatiya Janata Party, one of Atal Bihari Vajpayee (अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpeiː (born December 25 1924 The eleventh Prime Minister of India. Swatantra Party ( swatantra meaning 'free' or 'independent' in Sanskrit) was a Political party in India founded by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Socialist Party has been the name of several political parties in India, all of which have their roots in the Congress Socialist Party formed during the An Indira loyalist, Jagjivan Ram deserted her and formed the Congress for Democracy, joining the Janata alliance. Early life Jagjivan Ram was born at Chandwa near Arrah in Bihar. The broad spectrum of leaders united under Jaya Prakash Narayan. Jayaprakash Narayan ( Devanāgarī: जयप्रकाश नारायण October 11, 1902 - October 8, 1979) widely known
Although Indira Gandhi had thought that the economic progress and order achieved under Emergency had been popular, the Janata capitalized on public discontent with the lack of free expression and government accountability, the arrest and detentions of large numbers of innocent people as well as charges of gross abuse, corruption and harassment on police and government authorities. Indira's son Sanjay Gandhi and Indira herself were accused of political corruption and abuse of authority. Sanjay Gandhi ( December 14, 1946 –- June 23, 1980) was an Indian politician the younger son of Prime Minister Indira
The Congress for Democracy and BLD emerged with the largest number of seats, and with the outside support of the Communists, Janata held control of 270 seats in the Lok Sabha out of 539, however total seat was 542. The Lok Sabha (also titled the House of the People, by the Constitution) is the directly elected Lower house of the Parliament of India
Narayan was asked to select one of three major leaders to become the Prime Minister of India. The Prime Minister of India is head of the Council of Ministers, appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive Narayan selected former freedom fighter and veteran Morarji Desai; Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram would become his Deputy Prime Ministers. Morarji Ranchhodji Desai ( मोरारजी देसाई) (29 February 1896 &ndash 10
Atal Bihari Vajpayee became the Minister for External Affairs; H.M. Patel became the Finance Minister, and Lal Krishna Advani became the Minister for Information and Broadcasting. Atal Bihari Vajpayee (अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी əʈəl bɪhaːɾiː ʋaːdʒpeiː (born December 25 1924 The eleventh Prime Minister of India. Haribhai M Patel ( 1903 - November 30, 1993) was an Indian Civil servant who played a major role in the issues regarding internal and Lal Krishna Advani (लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi लाल किशनचंद
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, a Janata leader was elected the President of India in 1977 upon the death of the incumbent Fakhruddin Ahmed. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (నీలం సంజీవ రెడ్డి) ( May 19 1913 - June 1 1996) was an Indian statesman The President of India or Rashtrapati ( Hindi: राष्ट्रपति a Sanskrit Neologism, lit
The Desai administration re-established diplomatic relations with China, and improved bilateral relations with Pakistan, as well as defending India's nuclear policy on the world stage. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and It also set up tribunals to investigate Emergency-era abuses and prosecute the guilty.
But with the poor health of J. P. Narayan, Janata lost its unity. Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram wrangled for Desai's job, and the public prosecutions of Indira were backfiring because of lack of evidence and public sympathy for the latter, who was seen as a defenseless woman being attacked by powerful lawmakers. Fractious political bickering prevented the making of any effective policy, and the people began to criticize the Government for its impotence in face of major national problems of poverty, illiteracy and economic stagnation.
Socialists led by Madhu Limaye took strong stand on the issue of dual membership of Janata party and RSS which eventually led to split in Janata Party. Madhu Limaye was an Indian Socialist essayist and activist particularly active in the 1970s In 1979, A. B. Vajpayee and L. K. Advani resigned from their posts when the RSS and BJS withdrew support from Janata; in June, Prime Minister Desai resigned as Charan Singh threatened to lead BLD out of the coalition.
Retaining some coalition partners, Charan Singh was sworn in as the new Prime Minister in June, as leader of the BLD and the new Janata (Socialist). The President took him in over Morarji Desai because of the loss of trust by parliament in the Desai government. It should be noted that the Jana Sangh and Congress (Organisation) groups were for his reinstatement while the socialist camps and the Lok Dal backed Charan Singh in his bid for the prime ministership. George Fernandes virulently defended the record of the Desai government but later defected to the Charan Singh group. This reduced the numbers of the Desai government even further. However, Charan Singh required the support of the Congress Party of Indira Gandhi, which just months ago had been his greatest rival to form a parliamentary majority. Jagjivan Ram had returned to the Congress. Early life Jagjivan Ram was born at Chandwa near Arrah in Bihar. It was alleged that Raj Narain (the health minister) and Sanjay Gandhi had brokered the deal on behalf of Charan Singh. Raj Narain (1917 &ndash December 31, 1986) was an Indian politician who as a candidate of Janata Party in 1977 defeated Indira Gandhi - then Sanjay Gandhi ( December 14, 1946 –- June 23, 1980) was an Indian politician the younger son of Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi initially promised to back Charan Singh, but later declined. Charan Singh gave up his frantic efforts to form a government, and President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy called fresh elections in January 1980. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (నీలం సంజీవ రెడ్డి) ( May 19 1913 - June 1 1996) was an Indian statesman Charan Singh was retained as the caretaker prime minister and held the dubious distinction of being the only prime minister to not face parliament.
The Congress party won a massive majority after campaigning against the chaos and corruption of the Janata years, epitomized with the slogan: "Elect a Government That Works. "
Janata Party suffered various divisions and splits during the 1980s.
The Janata is remembered for leading a popular revolution against an authoritarian government, and for preventing the erosion of democracy and fundamental freedoms in India. It is fondly remembered by politicians of political parties opposing the Indian National Congress, which is even today led by the Nehru-Gandhi family. Indian National Congress-I (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major Political party in India. The Nehru-Gandhi family (which is not in fact descended from Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi) is an Indian Political family which has been
But the Janata is also criticized in the same vein by many for its disorder, corruption and inefficiency in solving any of the country's problems. It provided important lessons for India's political system when the Coalition Age began with the 1996 elections.
Those members who had formerly been members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh formed the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and another group formed the Janata Dal. The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (abbreviated BJS and often known simply as the Jan Sangh existed from 1951 to 1980 whereupon it was succeeded by the Bharatiya Janata Party, one of The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP (भारतीय जनता पार्टी, Translation: Indian People's Party) founded in 1980 is a major Political Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of one of the major Janata Party factions the Lok Dal and a group of Congressmen Morarji Desai retired from politics, and Charan Singh was reduced to a regional figure.
During the 1980s there were several groups calling themselves Janata Party. Today there is one group led by liquor baron Vijay Mallya and Dr. Dr Vijay Mallya ( Kannada / Konkani: ವಿಜಯ ಮಲ್ಯ: (born December 18, 1955) is an Indian businessman and Rajya Sabha Subramanian Swamy claiming the name of JP. Dr Subramanian Swamy (b 15 September, 1939 at Chennai, sometimes spelt as Subramaniam Swamy) is a Politician from India The Janata Party has minimum presence in the country and has no presence in the Lok Sabha as of now. The Janata Party has moved closer to the BJP and fought the recent elections in Tamil Nadu in alliance with the BJP.