The Jamestown Settlement was the first permanent English settlement in North America. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland  Named for King James I of England, Jamestown was founded in the Virginia Colony on May 14, 1607. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James The Colony of Virginia (also known frequently as the Virginia Colony and occasionally as the Dominion and Colony of Virginia) was the English colony Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the In modern times, "Jamestown Settlement" is also a promotional name used by the Commonwealth of Virginia's portion of the historical attractions at Jamestown. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 It is adjacent and complementary to the Historic Jamestown attraction at Jamestown Island. Historic Jamestowne is the official name used for promotional purposes for the original site of the 1607 James Fort and the later 17th century city of Jamestown located on the James Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607
Jamestown followed no fewer than eighteen earlier failed attempts at European colonization of North America, including the famous "Lost Colony" at Roanoke Island in what is now Dare County, North Carolina. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County near the coast of North Carolina, United States. Dare County is a County located in the US state of North Carolina. (The ill-fated Spanish Ajacan Mission, established thirty-six years earlier by Jesuit priests fewer than fifteen miles from Jamestown, Virginia, was a venture to convert Native Americans to Christianity rather than an attempted settlement of Europeans. The Ajacán Mission (a xa 'kan was a failed attempt in the 16th century by Spanish Jesuit priests to Christianize the Native The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 Other successful colonies in North America were in Spanish dominions such as New Spain, New Mexico, and Spanish Florida. )
Late in 1606, English entrepreneurs set sail with a charter from the Virginia Company of London to establish a colony in the New World. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome A charter is the grant of authority or rights stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified The London Company (also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London) was an English Joint stock company established by royal charter by The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. After a particularly long voyage of five months duration, the three ships, named Susan Constant, The Discovery, and The Godspeed, under Captain Christopher Newport, made land in April 1607 at a place they named Cape Henry. Susan Constant, at 120 tons, was the largest of three ships of the English Virginia Company that were led by Captain Christopher Newport on the See also Ship replica (including a list of ship replicas The ship carried 17 male passagers Godspeed was one of the three ships of the English Virginia Company that were led by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold on the 1607 voyage that resulted in Christopher Newport (c 1561&ndash1618 was an English sailor and Privateer. Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia in the Independent city of Virginia Beach. Under orders to select a more secure location, they set up a cross and gave thanks for safe landing, then set about exploring what is now Hampton Roads and a Chesapeake Bay outlet they named the James River in honor of their sitting king, James I of England. A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other dividing one or two of the lines in half Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water and the region of land areas which surround it in southeastern Virginia in the USA. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. The James River in the US state of Virginia is a long River, including its Jackson River source James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James 
On May 14, 1607, Captain Edward Maria Wingfield, elected president of the governing council the day before, selected Jamestown Island on the James River, some 40 miles (67 kilometers) inland from the Atlantic Ocean, as a prime location for a fortified settlement. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Captain Edward Maria Wingfield, sometimes hyphenated as Edward-Maria Wingfield, (born 1550 in Stonely, Huntingdonshire (now Cambridgeshire) Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand The island was surrounded by deep water, making it a navigable and defensible strategic point, qualities high in the minds of the Englishmen. However, the island was swampy and isolated, offered limited space, and was plagued by mosquitoes and brackish tidal river water unsuitable for drinking. Mosquitoes are insects in the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings a pair of Halteres, a slender body and long legs Characteristics A tide is a repeated cycle of sea level changes in the following stages Over several hours the water rises or advances up a beach in the flood Perhaps the best thing about it from an English point of view was that it was not inhabited by nearby Native American tribes, who regarded the site as too poor and remote for agriculture. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
Although Native Americans may not have been living exactly on the spot upon which they settled, there were an estimated 14,000 Algonquian Indians in the surrounding Chesapeake area. They came to be known as the Powhatan Confederacy, after the name the colonists called their powerful chief, Wahunsonacook, and lived in several dozen self-governing communities. Soon the settlers started to take over the area, which they justified by saying that the indians were not Christians, but rather savages who had no rights over the land.
Powhatan welcomed the settlers, and attempted to form an alliance with them to take over some of the surrounding communities which he did not yet control, and to obtain new supplies of metal tools and weapons. He soon found out that the settlers were there not to live among them peacefully, but to invade and conquer. The resulting war lasted until the English captured his daughter Matoaka, later nicknamed Pocahontas, after which the chief accepted a treaty of peace.
Despite the inspired leadership of Captain John Smith early on, many of the colonists and their replacements died within the first five years. Captain Sir John Smith (c January 1580– June 21 1631) Admiral of New England was an English Soldier, Sailor This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. In 1608, arriving ships brought supplies and experts from Poland and Germany , who would help to establish the first factories in the colony. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is an industrial Building where workers manufacture goods As a result, glassware became the first American product to be exported to Europe. Glassware usually refers to Glass items used as Tableware, such as dishes cutlery flatware and Drinkware used to set a table for eating a meal After Smith was forced to return to England due to an explosion during a trading expedition  the colony was led by George Percy, who proved incompetent in negotiating with the native tribes. George Percy ( September 4, 1580 - 1632) was an English explorer author and early Colonial Governor of Virginia During what became called the "Starving Time" in 1609–1610, over 80% of the colonists perished, and the island was briefly abandoned that spring. The Starving Time at Jamestown in the English Colony of Virginia killed all but 60 of 500 colonists during the winter of 1609 – 1610 However, on June 10, 1610, retreating settlers were intercepted a few miles downriver by a supply mission from London headed by a new governor, Lord De La Warr, who brought much-needed supplies and additional settlers. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Thomas West 3rd (or 12th Baron De La Warr ( July 9, 1577 &ndash June 7, 1618) was the Englishman after whom the bay, Lord De La Warr's ship was named The Deliverance. The settlers called this The Day of Providence, and the state of Delaware was eventually named after the timely governor. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Fortuitously, among the colonists inspired to remain was John Rolfe, who carried with him a cache of untested new tobacco seeds from the Caribbean. John Rolfe (c 1585 &ndash 1622 was one of the early English settlers of North America. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting (His first wife and their young son had already died in Bermuda, after being shipwrecked on the island during the voyage from England. Ba (officially The Bermuda Islands or The Somers Isles) is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. )
Due to the aristocratic backgrounds of many of the new colonists and the communal nature of their work load, progress through the first few years was inconsistent, at best. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations By 1613, six years after Jamestown's founding, the organizers and shareholders of the Virginia Land Company were desperate to increase the efficiency and profitability of the struggling colony. Without stockholder consent, Governor Dale assigned 3-acre plots to its "ancient planters" and smaller plots to the settlement's later arrivals. Measurable economic progress was made, and the settlers began expanding their planting to land belonging to local native tribes.
The following year, 1614, John Rolfe began to successfully harvest tobacco. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Prosperous and wealthy, he married Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, bringing several years of peace between the settlers and natives. Pocahontas (c 1595 – March 21 1617 was a Native American woman who married an Englishman John Rolfe, and became a celebrity in London in the last year of her (Through their son, Thomas Rolfe, many of the First Families of Virginia trace both Native American and English roots. Thomas Rolfe ( January 30, 1615 - c 1675 was the only child of Pocahontas by her English husband John Rolfe. First Families of Virginia (FFV originated with colonists from England who primarily settled at Jamestown and along the James River and other navigable ) However, at the end of a public relations trip to England in 1616, Pocahontas became sick and died. The following year, her father also died. As the settlers continued to leverage more land for tobacco farming, relations with the natives worsened. Powhatan's brother, a fierce warrior named Opchanacanough, became head of the Powhatan Confederacy. Opechancanough or Opchanacanough (1554?-1644 was a tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia in the United The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) or Powhatan Renape (literally the "Powhatan Human Beings" is the name of a
In 1619, the first representative assembly in America convened in a Jamestown church, "to establish one equal and uniform government over all Virginia" which would provide "just laws for the happy guiding and governing of the people there inhabiting. " This became known as the House of Burgesses (forerunner of the Virginia General Assembly, which last met in Jamestown in January, 2007). The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first elected lower house in the legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Individual land ownership was also instituted, and the colony was divided into four large "boroughs" or "incorporations" called "citties" (sic) by the colonists. Jamestown was located in James Cittie. James City (or cittie as it was then called was one of four incorporations established in the Virginia Colony in 1619 by the proprietor the Virginia Company. Initially only men of English origin were permitted to vote. The Polish artisans protested and refused to work if not allowed to vote. On July 12, the court granted the Poles equal voting rights. Events 1191 - Saladin 's garrison surrenders ending the two-year Siege of Acre. 
After several years of strained coexistence, Chief Opchanacanough and his Powhatan Confederacy attempted to eliminate the English colony once and for all. On the morning of March 22, 1622, a Good Friday, they attacked outlying plantations and communities up and down the James River in what became known as the Indian Massacre of 1622. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday ("Pascha" The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown Massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on Good Friday, March 22, 1622. The attack killed over 300 settlers, about a third of the English-speaking population. Sir Thomas Dale's progressive development at Henricus, which was to feature a college to educate the natives, and Wolstenholme Towne at Martin's Hundred, were both essentially wiped out. Sir Thomas Dale (d August 19, 1619) was a British naval commander and deputy-governor of the Virginia Colony in 1611 and from 1614 to 1616 The "Citie of Henricus ", also known as Henricopolis or Henrico Town, was a city founded by Sir Thomas Dale in 1611 as an alternative College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. Martin's Hundred was an early 17th century plantation located along about ten miles of the north shore of the James River in the Virginia Colony east of Jamestown Jamestown was spared only through a timely warning. There was not enough time to spread the word to the outposts.
Despite such setbacks, the colony continued to grow. In 1624, King James revoked the Virginia Company's charter, and Virginia became a royal colony. Ten years later, in 1634, by order of King Charles I, the colony was divided into the original eight shires of Virginia (or counties), in a fashion similar to that practiced in England. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The eight Shires of Virginia were formed in 1634 in the Virginia Colony. A county is a Land area of Regional Government within a larger State. Jamestown was now located in James City Shire, soon renamed the "County of James City", better-known in modern times as James City County, Virginia, the nation's oldest county. James City Shire was formed in the British colony of Virginia in 1634. James City County (formally the County of James City) is a county located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region of the
Another large-scale "Indian attack" in 1644 resulted in the capture of Chief Opchanacanough. He was murdered while in custody, and the Powhatan Confederacy was decimated. Most survivors assimilated into the general population, or began living on two reservations in present-day King William County, Virginia, where the Mattaponi and Pamunkey reservations continue in modern times. King William County is a county located on the about 35 miles northeast of Richmond in the U Mattaponi tribe traces its history back to the Powhatan Confederation of tribes led by Chief Powhatan. The Pamunkey Native American tribe is one of two existing tribes in Virginia that were part of the Powhatan Confederacy.
A generation later, during Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, Jamestown was burned, eventually to be rebuilt. Bacon's Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. During its recovery, the Virginia legislature met first at Governor William Berkeley's nearby Green Spring Plantation, and later at Middle Plantation, which had been started in 1632 as a fortified community inland on the Virginia Peninsula. Sir William Berkeley (pronounced "bark-lee" ( Hanworth Manor, Middlesex 1605–Berkeley House Mayfair, London July 9, Green Spring Plantation in James City County about five miles (8 km west of Williamsburg, was the 17th century plantation of one of Colonial Virginia's Middle Plantation in the Virginia Colony, was an unincorporated town originally established in 1632 A peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by Water but connected to Mainland via an Isthmus. When the statehouse burned again in 1698, this time accidentally, the legislature again temporarily relocated to Middle Plantation, and was able to meet in the new facilities of the College of William and Mary, which had been established after receiving a royal charter in 1693. The College of William and Mary (officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia, also known as William & Mary or W&M) is a Public university Rather than rebuilding at Jamestown again, the capital of the colony was moved permanently to Middle Plantation in 1699. The town was soon renamed Williamsburg, to honor the reigning monarch, King William III. Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region in southeastern Virginia William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" A new Capitol building and "Governor's Palace" were erected there in the following years.
Originally, the first people of Jamestown were reluctant to work, as they were used to the luxury of having servants and possibly even slaves back in England. A domestic worker, domestic, servingman, servingwoman, or servant is one who works and often also lives within the employer's household Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services This was until Captain John Smith ordered that if the people did not do their share of work, then they would not get their food (for that day at least).
Early on in Jamestown's history, there was no known method of purifying the river water they drank, and many settlers unwittingly died from resulting diseases.
By the early 18th century, Jamestown was in decline, eventually reverting to a few scattered farms, the period of occupied settlement essentially over.
During the American Revolution, a military post was set up on the island to exchange American and British soldiers. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" During the American Civil War, Confederate soldiers erected a fort near the town church in 1861, but it later fell to Union troops. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
Late in the 19th century, Jamestown became the focus of renewed historical interest and efforts at preservation. Historic preservation or heritage conservation is a professional endeavor that seeks to preserve the ability of older (e In 1893, a portion of the island was donated to the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA) for that purpose. Founded in 1889, the Richmond, Virginia -based Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities was the United States ' first statewide A seawall was constructed, which preserved the site where the remains of the original "James Fort" were to be discovered by archaeologists of the Jamestown Rediscovery project beginning in 1994, a century later. A seawall is a form of hard and strong Coastal defence constructed on the inland part of a Coast to reduce the effects of strong Waves. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Jamestown Rediscovery is an Archaeological project of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA investigating the remains of the original
In 1907, the Jamestown Exposition to celebrate the settlement's 300th anniversary was held at a more convenient location at Sewell's Point, near Norfolk. The Jamestown Exposition was one of the many World's fairs and Expositions that were popular in the United States early part of the 20th century Sewell's Point is a Peninsula of land in the Independent city of Norfolk Virginia in the United States, located at the mouth of the salt-water Norfolk is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States By the 1930s, all of the island was under protective ownership, and the Colonial National Historical Park was created by the National Park Service. Colonial National Historical Park is located in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia and is operated by the National Park Service of the United The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation
In 1957, the Jamestown Festival, a celebration of its 350th anniversary, was held at the original site (and nearby). The renovated "settlement" now linked by the bucolic Colonial Parkway with the other two points of Virginia's Historic Triangle, Colonial Williamsburg, and Yorktown, the festival was a great success. Colonial Parkway is a scenic 23-mile (37 km Parkway linking the three popular attractions of Virginia's Historic Triangle of colonial-era communities Jamestown Colonial Williamsburg' is the historic district of the Independent city of Williamsburg Virginia. Yorktown is a Census-designated place (CDP in York County, Virginia, United States. Tourism became continuous after 1957.
The name "Jamestown Settlement" currently is used to describe the Commonwealth of Virginia's state-sponsored attraction, which began in 1957 as Jamestown Festival Park, created for the 350 anniversary of the original settlement. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Jamestown Festival Park was established at Jamestown Virginia in 1957 to mark the 350th anniversary of the founding of the settlement at Jamestown in the Virginia The actual location of the settlement is partially underwater, so officials built this attraction near the entrance to Jamestown Island. It includes a recreated English Fort and Native American Village, extensive indoor and outdoor displays, and features three popular replicas of the original settler's ships. A replica is a copy that is relatively indistinguishable from the original It was greatly expanded early in the 21st century.
On Jamestown Island itself, the National Park Service operates Historic Jamestowne. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation Historic Jamestowne is the official name used for promotional purposes for the original site of the 1607 James Fort and the later 17th century city of Jamestown located on the James Over a million artifacts have been recovered by the Jamestown Rediscovery project with ongoing archaeological work, including a number of exciting recent discoveries. Jamestown Rediscovery is an Archaeological project of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA investigating the remains of the original Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos
Early in the 21st century, in preparation for the upcoming Jamestown 2007 event commemorating America's 400th Anniversary, new accommodations, transportation facilities and attractions were planned. Jamestown 2007 is the name of the organization planning the events commemorating the 400th Anniversary Jamestown 2007 is the name of the organization planning the events commemorating the 400th Anniversary The celebration began in the Spring of 2006 with the sailing of a new replica Godspeed to six major East Coast U. Godspeed was one of the three ships of the English Virginia Company that were led by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold on the 1607 voyage that resulted in The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern S. cities, where several hundred thousand people viewed it. Major corporate sponsors of Jamestown 2007 include Norfolk Southern Corporation, Verizon Communications, and Anheuser-Busch. The Norfolk Southern Corporation ( is a Publicly-traded stock corporation based in Norfolk Virginia. "Verizon" redirects here this article is about the corporation see also Verizon Wireless, Verizon Online DSL and Verizon FiOS. Anheuser-Busch Companies Inc ( (ˈænhаɪzər bʊʃ is the largest Brewing company in the United States with a 48 Late in 2006, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip announced their intentions to pay another state visit to Jamestown in May 2007. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II "Official visit" redirects here For the Yes Minister episode see " The Official Visit "
John Marshall - A History of Colonies planted by the English on the Continent of North America, published Philadelphia 1824 - Chapter II