Jade is an ornamental stone. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National An ornamental stone is a stone used as a decoration They differ from Gemstones in that they are not only used for Jewelry. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. The silicate minerals make up the largest and most important class of rock-forming Minerals They are classified based on the structure of their silicate Ion group Nephrite jade consists of the calcium- and magnesium-rich amphibole mineral actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos). Nephrite is a variety of the calcium and magnesium rich Amphibole mineral Actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of Asbestos) Amphibole (pronounced amfi-bowl defines an important group of generally dark-colored rock-forming inosilicate Minerals composed of double chain SiO4 For the community in Canada see Actinolite Ontario. For the Sailor Moon character Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective The rock called jadeitite consists almost entirely of jadeite, a sodium- and aluminium-rich pyroxene. Jadeitite is a rare Metamorphic rock found in Blueschist grade metamorphic terrains Jadeite is a Pyroxene mineral with composition Na[[aluminum Al]] Si 2 O 6 The pyroxenes are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals found in many Igneous and metamorphic rocks. The trade name Jadite is sometimes applied to translucent/opaque green glass.
The English word 'jade' is derived from the Spanish term piedra de ijada (first recorded in 1565) or 'loin stone', from its reputed efficacy in curing ailments of the loins and kidneys. The loins are the sides between the lower Ribs and Pelvis, and the lower part of the Back. The kidneys are complicated organs that have numerous biological roles 'Nephrite' is derived from lapis nephriticus, the Latin version of the Spanish piedra de ijada. 
Nephrite and jadeite were used by people from the prehistoric for similar purposes. Both are about the same hardness as quartz, and they are exceptionally tough. Hardness refers to various properties of Matter in the Solid phase that give it high resistance to various kinds of shape change when Force Toughness, in Materials science and Metallurgy, is the resistance to Fracture of a material when stressed. They are beautifully coloured and can be delicately shaped. Thus it was not until the 19th century that a French mineralogist determined that "jade" was in fact two different materials.
Among the earliest known jade artifacts excavated from prehistoric sites are simple ornaments with bead, button, and tubular shapes. Additionally, jade was used for axe heads, knives, and other weapons. The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons As metal-working technologies became available, the beauty of jade made it valuable for ornaments and decorative objects. Jade has a Mohs hardness of between 6. The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various Minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material 5 and 7. 0, so it can be worked with quartz or garnet sand, and polished with bamboo or even ground jade.
Nephrite can be found in a creamy white form (known in China as "mutton fat" jade) as well as in a variety of green colours, whereas jadeitite shows more colour variations, including blue, lavender-mauve, pink, and emerald-green colours. Of the two, jadeite is rarer, documented in fewer than 12 places worldwide. Translucent emerald-green jadeitite is the most prized variety, both now and historically. As "quetzal" jade, bright green jadeitite from Guatemala was treasured by Mesoamerican cultures, and as "kingfisher" jade, vivid green rocks from Burma became the preferred stone of post-1800 Chinese imperial scholars and rulers. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined Burma (Myanmar) and Guatemala are the principal sources of modern gem jadeitite, and Canada of modern lapidary nephrite. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. Nephrite jade was used mostly in pre-1800 China as well as in New Zealand, the Pacific Coast and Atlantic Coasts of North America, Neolithic Europe, and south-east Asia. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island In addition to Mesoamerica, jadeitite was used by Neolithic Japanese and European cultures.
Jade is the official gemstone of British Columbia, where it is found in large deposits in the Lillooet and Cassiar regions. Symbols of Canada's provinces and territories British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Lillooet (formerly Cayoosh Flat) is a small but historic and highly scenic community on the Fraser River in western Cassiar is a Ghost town in British Columbia, Canada. It was a small company-owned asbestos mining town located in the Cassiar Mountains It is also the official gemstone of the state of Alaska, found particularly in the Kobuk area. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Kobuk is a city in Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska, United States. A two ton block of jade sits outside the Anchorage Visitor’s Center in downtown Anchorage, Alaska, mined from near Kobuk and donated to the city as a showpiece. Jade is also the state gemstone of Wyoming, U. S. A.
During Neolithic times, the key known sources of nephrite jade in China for utilitarian and ceremonial jade items were the now depleted deposits in the Ningshao area in the Yangtze River Delta (Liangzhu culture 3400–2250 BC) and in an area of the Liaoning province in Inner Mongolia (Hongshan culture 4700–2200 BC). Chinese jade is any of the carved-jade objects produced in China from the Neolithic Period (c The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. Events By place Carthage Accused of treason by the Carthaginians after being defeated by the Romans at the Battle of the Year 9 ( IX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos A ceremony is an activity infused with Ritual significance performed on a special occasion The Yangtze River Delta or Yangtze Delta, also called Chang Jiang Delta, or the Golden Triangle of the Yangtze ( Hanyu Pinyin:) generally The Liangzhu culture ( ( 3400 - 2250 BC) was the last Neolithic Jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Cultures c 3400 BC — Sumerian temple record keepers redesign the Stamp seal in the form of a cylinder The 23rd century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2300 BC to 2201 BC ( is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. Inner Mongolia ( Mongolian:, Öbür mongɣul; occasionally romanized to Nei Mongol is the Mongol The Hongshan culture ( was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. The 5th millennium BC saw the spread of Agriculture from the Near East throughout southern and central Europe The 22nd century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 2200 BC to 2101 BC As early as 6000 B. C. Dushan Jade has been mined. In the Yin Ruins of Shang Dynasty (1,600 B. C. to 1,050 B. C. ) in Anyang, Dushan Jade ornaments was unearthed in the tomb of the Shang kings. Jade was used to create many utilitarian and ceremonial objects, ranging from indoor decorative items to jade burial suits. A Jade burial suit ( is a ceremonial suit made of pieces of Jade in which some nobles in Han Dynasty China were buried Jade was considered the "imperial gem". From about the earliest Chinese dynasties until present, the jade deposits in most use were not only from the region of Khotan in the Western Chinese province of Xinjiang but also from other parts of China, like Lantian, Shaanxi. The following is a Chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk ( Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess There, white and greenish nephrite jade is found in small quarries and as pebbles and boulders in the rivers flowing from the Kuen-Lun mountain range northward into the Takla-Makan desert area. The Kunlun Mountains ( Mongolian: Хөндлөн Уулс is one of the longest Mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 Km. The Taklamakan Desert (Takelamagan Shamo 塔克拉玛干沙漠 also known as Taklimakan, is a Desert in Central Asia, in the Xinjiang River jade collection was concentrated in the Yarkand, the White Jade (Yurungkash) and Black Jade (Karakash) Rivers. The Yarkand River ( Chinese: 叶尔羌河 Pinyin: Yèěrqiāng hé Uyghur: يەكەن دەرياسى is a River in the Xinjiang Uyghur The Yurungkash or White Jade River, also spelt Yurungkax (白玉河 Pinyin: Báiyù Hé is a river in the southern Xinjiang region People's The Karakash or Black Jade River, also spelled Karakax ( Chinese: 黑玉河 Pinyin: Hēiyù hé is a river in the Xinjiang autonomous From the Kingdom of Khotan, on the southern leg of the Silk Road, yearly tribute payments consisting of the most precious white jade were made to the Chinese Imperial court and there transformed into objets d'art by skilled artisans as jade was considered more valuable than gold or silver. The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Jade became a favorite material for the crafting of Chinese scholars objects, such as rests for calligraphy brushes, as well as the mouthpieces of some opium pipes, due to the belief that breathing through jade would bestow longevity upon smokers who used such a pipe. An opium pipe is a pipe designed for the vaporization and inhalation of Opium. 
Jadeite, with its bright emerald-green, pink, lavender, orange and brown colours was imported from Burma to China only after about 1800. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The vivid green variety became known as Feicui (翡翠) or Kingfisher (feathers) Jade. It quickly replaced nephrite as the imperial variety of jade.
In the long history of the art and culture of the enormous Chinese empire, jade has always had a very special significance, roughly comparable with that of gold and diamonds in the West. Jade was used not only for the finest objects and cult figures, but also in grave furnishings for high-ranking members of the imperial family.
The use of jade and other greenstone was a long-term tradition in Korea (c. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. 850 B. C. - A. D. 668). Jade is found in small numbers of pit-houses and burials. A pit-house or ( dugout is a dwelling dug into the ground which may also be layered with stone Burial, also called interment and inhumation, is the act of placing a person or object into the ground The craft production of small comma-shaped and tubular 'jades' using materials such as jade, microcline, jasper, etc in southern Korea originates from the Middle Mumun Pottery Period (c. See also List of minerals JasPer is a project to create a reference implementation of the codec specified in the JPEG-2000 Part-1 standard (ie The Mumun pottery period is an Archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC 850-550 B. C. ). Comma-shaped jades are found on some of the gold crowns of Silla royalty (c. Silla (57 BC – 935 AD was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. A. D. 300/400-668) and sumptuous elite burials of the Korean Three Kingdoms. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" The Three Kingdoms of Korea ( refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula After the state of Silla united the Korean Peninsula in A. D. 668, the widespread popularisation of death rituals related to Buddhism resulted in the decline of the use of jade in burials as prestige mortuary goods. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices
Nephrite jade in New Zealand is known as pounamu in the Māori language, and is highly valued, playing an important role in Māori culture. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Pounamu' is the Māori name for several hard durable and highly valued types of stone - the New Zealand English term is "greenstone" This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. Māori culture is the culture of the Māori of New Zealand, and Eastern Polynesian people and forms a distinctive part of New Zealand culture It is considered a taonga, or treasure, and therefore protected under the Treaty of Waitangi, and the exploitation of it is restricted and closely monitored. A taonga in Māori culture is a treasured thing whether tangible or intangible The Treaty of Waitangi ( Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a Treaty first signed on February 6, 1840, by representatives of the British The South Island of New Zealand is Te Wai Pounamu in Māori - "The [land of] Greenstone Water" - because greenstone used to be easily obtainable in rivers. The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. An alternative (and more probable) Maori place-name for the South Island is Te Wahi Pounamu -"The Place of Greenstone".
Weapons and ornaments were made of it; in particular the 'mere' (short club), and the Hei-tiki (neck pendant). A mere (pronounced like "merry") is a traditional weapon of the Māori of New Zealand hei-tiki is an ornamental neck pendant of the Māori. Materials used Hei-tiki are usually made of Pounamu (greenstone and worn around the neck These were believed to have their own mana, handed down as valuable heirlooms, and often given as gifts to seal important agreements. Mana is the concept of an impersonal force or quality that resides in people animals and inanimate objects With no metal tools, it was also used for a range of tools such as adzes. An adze or adz (ædz is a tool used for smoothing rough-cut Wood in hand Woodworking.
In New Zealand English the normal term is "greenstone" and jewellery of it in Māori designs is widely popular with locals of all races, and with tourists - although much of the jade itself is now imported from British Columbia and elsewhere. New Zealand English ( NZE, en-NZ) is the form of the English language used in New Zealand. Pounamu' is the Māori name for several hard durable and highly valued types of stone - the New Zealand English term is "greenstone" Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
Jade was a rare and valued material in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Tikal (or Tik’al, according to the more current orthography is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Mayan civilization. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined The only source from which the various indigenous cultures, such as the Olmec and Maya, for example, could obtain jade was located in the Motagua River valley in Guatemala. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic The Olmec were an ancient Pre-Columbian people living in the Tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in what are roughly the modern-day states The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas The Motagua River is a 486 km long river in Guatemala. It rises in central Guatemala to the north-east of Guatemala City and runs north-east to east to the Gulf Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Jade was largely an elite good, and was usually carved in a variety ways, whether serving as a medium upon which hieroglyphs were inscribed, or shaped into symbolic figurines. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" Hieroglyph ( Greek grc-Grek ἱερογλύφος " sacred carving " or hieroglyphics ( = grc-Grek τὰ ἱερογλυφικά "Symbolic" redirects here For other uses see Symbolism (disambiguation and Symbolic (disambiguation. For the indie band see Figurine (band A figurine (a diminutive form of the word Figure) is a Statuette that represents Generally, the material was highly symbolic, and it was often employed in the performance of ideological practices and rituals. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions
Today, Guatemala produces jadeite in a variety of colours, ranging from soft translucent lilac, blue, green, yellow, and black. It is also the source of new colours, including "rainbow jade" and the unique "Galactic Gold," a black jadeite with natural incrustations of gold, silver and platinum. 
Besides the terms already mentioned, jadeite and nephrite are sometimes referred to by the following:
Agate verdâtre, Feitsui, Jadeit, Jadeita, Natronjadeit, Yunnan Jade, Yu-stone, Sinkiang jade.
Aotea, Axe-stone, B. C. Jade, Beilstein, British Columbian Jade, Canadian Jade, Dushan Jade, Nanyang Jade, Du Jade, Henan Yu, Grave Jade, Kidney Stone, Lapis Nephriticus, Nephrit, Nephrita, Nephrite (of Werner), New Zealand Greenstone, New Zealand Jade, Siberian Jade, Spinach Jade, Talcum Nephriticus, Tomb Jade.
Many minerals are sold as jade. Some of these are: serpentine (also bowenite), carnelian, aventurine quartz, glass, grossularite, Vesuvianite, soapstone (and other steatites such as shoushan stone) and recently, Australian chrysoprase. The serpentine group describes a group of common rock-forming hydrous Magnesium Iron phyllosilicate (()3 Minerals they Carnelian, sometimes spelled cornelian, is a red or reddish-brown variant of Chalcedony. Aventurine is a form of Quartz, characterised by its translucency and the presence of platy Mineral inclusions that give a shimmering or glistening effect Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many The garnet group includes a group of minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase is a green brown yellow or blue silicate mineral. Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a Metamorphic rock, a talc- Schist. Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a Metamorphic rock, a talc- Schist. Chrysoprase or chrysophrase is a Gemstone variety of Chalcedony (a Cryptocrystalline form of Silica) that contains small quantities "Korean jade," "Suzhou jade," "Styrian jade," "Olive jade", and "New jade" are all really serpentine; "Transvaal jade" or "African jade" is grossularite; "Peace jade" is a mixture of serpentine, stichtite, and quartz; "Malaysia jade" is dyed quartz; "Mountain jade" is dyed dolomite marble.
In almost all dictionaries, the Chinese character 'yù' (玉) is translated into English as 'jade'. However, this frequently leads to misunderstanding: Chinese, Koreans, and Westerners alike generally fail to appreciate that the cultural concept of 'jade' is considerably broader in China and Korea than in the West. A more accurate translation for this character on its own would be 'precious/ornamental rock'. It is seldom, if ever, used on its own to denote 'true' jade in Mandarin Chinese; for example, one would normally refer to 'ying yu' (硬玉, 'hard jade') for jadeite, or 'ruan yu' (軟玉, 'soft jade') for nephrite. The Chinese names for many ornamental non-jade rocks also incorporate the character 'yù', and it is widely understood by native speakers that such stones are not, in fact, true precious nephrite or jadeite. Even so, for commercial reasons, the names of such stones may well still be translated into English as 'jade', and this practice continues to confuse the unwary.
Jade may be enhanced (sometimes called "stabilized"). There are three main methods, sometimes referred to as the ABC Treatment System:
Jade dragon ring, Shang Dynasty (1600 BC-1050 BC)
Belt plaque with dragon, Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 AD)
Belt plaque with dragon, Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD)