Portrait of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, ca. 1844. No contemporary portraits of Cartier are known.
St. Malo, France
|Died||September 1, 1557|
St. Malo, France
|Occupation||French navigator and explorer|
|Known for||Discovered, documented and claimed Canada for France|
Jacques Cartier (1491–September 1, 1557) discovered and claimed Canada for France. Events 462 - Possible start of first Byzantine indiction cycle. He was the first who described and mapped the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canada(s)", as was so called both Iroquoian big settlements he saw in Stadaconna (Quebec City) and in Hochelaga (Montreal Island). Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French golfe du Saint-Laurent) the world's largest Estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakes via the Saint Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway The name of Canada has been in use since the earliest European settlement in Canada, with the Name originating from a First Nations word The St Lawrence Iroquoians lived until the late 16th century along the shores of the St Stadacona was a 16th century St Lawrence Iroquoian village near present-day Quebec City. Hochelaga was a St Lawrence Iroquoian fortified village near present-day Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Jacques Cartier was born in Saint-Malo, the port on the extreme north-east coast of the duchy of Brittany, which duchy would later be incorporated into France (in 1532). Saint-Malo ( Breton: Sant-Maloù; Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a walled port city in Brittany in northwestern Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Cartier, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance on baptismal registers as godfather or witness. 
In 1532, the year Brittany was formally united with France, Cartier was introduced to King Francis I by Jean le Veneur, bishop of Saint-Malo and abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel, at the Manoir de Brion. Francis I may refer to Francis I Duke of Brittany (1414-1450 reigned 1442-1450 Francis I Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545 reigned Cardinal Jean Le Veneur (d August 8, 1543) was born into a noble family his father being Baron of Tillières, Valquier and Mont Saint-Michel ( English: St Michael's Mount) is a rocky Tidal island in Normandy, France. The Manoir de Brion, also known as the Château de Brion is an ancient Benedictine Priory of the Abbey of Mont Saint-Michel. Le Veneur cited voyages Cartier had already made to Brazil and Newfoundland to demonstrate his ability to "lead ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World". |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of  In 1534, Jacques Cartier set sail under a commission from King Francis I of France, hoping to discover a western passage to the wealthy markets of Asia. In the words of the king's commission, he was to "discover certain islands and lands where it is said that a great quantity of gold and other precious things are to be found". Starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of Newfoundland, the areas now known as the Canadian Atlantic provinces and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. On one stop at Iles-aux-Oiseaux, his crew slaughtered around 1000 birds, most of them great auks (now extinct). The Great Auk, Pinguinus impennis, formerly of the Genus Alca, is a Bird that became extinct in the mid-19th century Cartier's first encounter with aboriginal people, most likely the Mi'kmaq (Meeg-maw), was brief and some trading occurred. The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a On his second encounter Cartier panicked as 50 Mi'kmaq canoes surrounded one of his long boats. Despite the Mi'kmaq signs of peace Cartier ordered his men to shoot two warning shots over their heads. The Mi'kmaq paddled away. His third encounter took place at Baie de Gaspé with the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, where on July 24, without their assent, he planted a ten-meter cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" and took possession of the territory in the name of the king. The St Lawrence Iroquoians lived until the late 16th century along the shores of the St The change in mood was a clear indication that the Iroquoians understood Cartier's actions. There is no historical consensus on exactly what happened and exactly where, but during this trip he kidnapped Chief Donnacona's two sons. Chief Donnacona (died c 1539 in France) was the chief of Stadacona, a St  Donnacona at last agreed that they may be taken under the condition that they return with European goods to trade.  He also began to build diplomatic relations with the natives. Cartier returned to France in September 1534, sure that he reached an Asian coast.
Jacques Cartier set sail for a second voyage on May 19 of the following year with three ships, 110 men, and the two native boys. Reaching the St. Lawrence, he sailed up-river for the first time, and reached the Iroquoian village of Stadacona, where Chief Donnacona was reunited with his two sons. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway Stadacona was a 16th century St Lawrence Iroquoian village near present-day Quebec City.
Jacques Cartier left his main ships in a harbor close to Stadacona, and used his smallest ship to continue up-river and visit Hochelaga (now Montreal) where he arrived October 2, 1535. Hochelaga was a St Lawrence Iroquoian fortified village near present-day Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Hochelaga was far more impressive than the small and squalid village of Stadacona, and more than 1,000 Iroquoians came to the river edge to greet the Frenchmen. The site of their arrival has been confidently identified as the beginning of the Sainte-Marie Sault -- where the Jacques Cartier Bridge now stands. The Jacques Cartier Bridge (pont Jacques-Cartier is a Steel Truss Cantilever Bridge crossing the Saint Lawrence River from
After spending two days among the St. Lawrence Iroquoians of Hochelaga, Cartier returned to Stadacona on October 11. The St Lawrence Iroquoians lived until the late 16th century along the shores of the St It is not known exactly when Cartier decided to spend the winter of 1535-1536 in Stadacona, and it was by then too late to return to France. Cartier and his men prepared for the winter by strengthening their fort, stacking firewood, and salting down game and fish.
During this winter, Cartier compiled a sort of gazetteer that included several pages on the manners of the natives -- in particular, their habit of wearing only leggings and loinclothes even in the dead of winter. A loincloth is a one-piece male garment sometimes kept in place by a belt, which covers the
From mid-November 1535 to mid-April 1536, the French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St. Charles River, under the Rock of Quebec. The Saint-Charles River is a river in Quebec, Canada that empties into the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River in the Vieux-Port section of Quebec Ice was over a fathom (1. A fathom is a unit of Length in the Imperial system (and the derived U 8 m) thick on the river, and snow four feet (1. 2 m) deep ashore. To add to the discomfort, scurvy broke out -- first among the Iroquoians, and then among the French. Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans In his journal, Cartier states that by mid-February, "out of 110 that we were, not ten were well enough to help the others, a pitiful thing to see". Cartier estimated the number of natives dead at 50. One of the natives who survived was Domagaya, the chief's son who had been taken to France the previous year. Upon his visiting the French fort for a friendly call, Cartier enquired and learned of him that a concoction made from a certain tree called annedda (probably arbor vitae), would cure scurvy. The Evergreen aneda (spelled either this way or as annedda by different 16th&ndash17th century sources was used by Jacques Cartier and his men as a remedy Thuja occidentalis (Eastern Arborvitae Northern Whitecedar is an Evergreen coniferous Tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae This remedy likely saved the expedition from destruction, and by the end of the winter, 85 Frenchmen were still alive.
Ready to return to France in early May 1536, Cartier decided to take Chief Donnacona to France, so that he might personally tell the tale of a country further north, called the "Kingdom of Saguenay", said to be full of gold, rubies and other treasures. The name "Kingdom of Saguenay" (Royaume du Saguenay has its origin in an Algonquin legend as recorded by the French during French colonisation in Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 After an arduous trip down the St. Lawrence and a three-week Atlantic crossing, Cartier and his men arrived in Saint-Malo on 1536-07-15. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final
So ended the second and most profitable of Cartier's voyages, lasting 14 months. Having already located the entrance to the St. Lawrence on his first voyage, he now opened up the greatest waterway for the European penetration of North America. He had made an intelligent estimate of the resources of Canada, both natural and human, aside from considerable exaggeration of its mineral wealth. While some of his actions toward the St. Lawrence Iroquoians were dishonourable, he did try at times to establish friendship with them and other native peoples living along the great St. Lawrence river -- an indispensable preliminary to French settlement in their lands .
On October 17, 1540, Francis I ordered the Breton navigator to return to Canada to lend weight to a colonization project of which he would be "captain general". Francis I may refer to Francis I Duke of Brittany (1414-1450 reigned 1442-1450 Francis I Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545 reigned But on January 15, 1541 Cartier was supplanted by Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval, a Huguenot courtier. So, unlike the previous voyages, this one is supposed to be led by the Huguenot Roberval, with Cartier as his subordinate. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth But, while Roberval waited for artillery and supplies, he gave permission to Cartier to sail on ahead with his ships.
On May 23, 1541, Cartier departed Saint-Malo on his third voyage with five ships. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne This time, any thought of finding a passage to the Orient was forgotten. The goals were now to find the "Kingdom of Saguenay" and its riches, and to establish a permanent settlement along the big St. Lawrence River.
Anchoring at Stadacona, Cartier again met the Iroquoians, but found their "show of joy" and their numbers worrisome, and decided not to build his settlement there. The St Lawrence Iroquoians lived until the late 16th century along the shores of the St Sailing a few miles up-river to a spot he had previously observed, he decided to settle on the site of present-day Cap-Rouge, Quebec. The convicts and other colonists were landed, the cattle that had survived three months aboard ship were turned loose, earth was broken for a kitchen garden, and seeds of cabbage, turnip and lettuce were planted. A fortified settlement was thus created and was named Charlesbourg-Royal. Another fort was also built on the cliff overlooking the settlement, for added protection.
The men also began collecting what they thought were diamonds and gold, but which turned out, when later back in France, to be quartz crystals and iron pyrites, respectively - which gave rise to a French expression: "faux comme les diamants du Canada" ("As false as Canadian diamonds"). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Two of the ships were dispatched home with some of these minerals on September 2.
Having set tasks for everyone, Cartier left with the longboats for a reconnaissance in search of "Saguenay" on September 7. Having reached Hochelaga, he was prevented by bad weather and the numerous rapids from continuing up to the Ottawa River. This is about the river in Canada For other uses see Ottawa River (disambiguation.
Returning to Charlesbourg-Royal, Cartier found the situation ominous. The Iroquoians no longer made friendly visits or peddled fish and game, but prowled about in a sinister manner. No records exist about the winter of 1541-1542 and the information must be gleaned from the few details provided by returning sailors. It seems the natives attacked and killed about 35 settlers before the Frenchmen could retreat behind their fortifications. Even though scurvy was cured through the native remedy (Thuja occidentalis infusion), the impression left is of a general misery, and of Cartier's growing conviction that he had insufficient manpower either to protect his base or to go in search of Saguenay Kingdom. Thuja occidentalis (Eastern Arborvitae Northern Whitecedar is an Evergreen coniferous Tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cartier left for France in early June 1542, encountering Roberval and his ships along the Newfoundland coast. Despite Roberval's insistence that he accompany him back to Saguenay, Cartier slipped off under the cover of darkness and continued on to France, still convinced his vessels contained a wealth of gold and diamonds. He arrived there in October, in what proved to be his last voyage. Meanwhile, Roberval took command at Charlesbourg-Royal, but it was abandoned in 1543 after disease, foul weather and hostile natives drove the would-be settlers to despair.
Cartier spent the rest of his life in Saint-Malo and his nearby estate, where he often was useful as an interpreter in Portuguese language, and he died aged 65 or 66 on September 1, 1557 from an epidemic. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal.  No permanent European settlements were made in Canada before 1608, when Samuel Champlain founded Quebec City. Samuel de Champlain (c 1575 - 25 December 1635) "The Father of New France " was a French navigator geographer cartographer Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province
Cartier was the first to document the name Canada to designate the territory on the shores of the St-Lawrence River. The name of Canada has been in use since the earliest European settlement in Canada, with the Name originating from a First Nations word The name is derived from the Huron-Iroquois word "kanata", or village, which was incorrectly interpreted as the native term for the newly-discovered land. "Huron" redirects here For other uses see Huron (disambiguation. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse  Cartier used the name to describe Stadacona, the surrounding land and the river itself. And Cartier named "Canadiens" the inhabitants (Iroquoians) he had seen there. The Iroquoian languages are a Native American Language family. Thereafter the name Canada was used to designate the small French colony on these shores, and the French colonists were called Canadiens, until the mid-nineteenth century, when the name started to be applied to the loyalist colonies on the Great Lakes and later to all of British North America. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary In this way Cartier is not strictly the European discoverer of Canada as this country is understood today, a vast federation stretching a mari usque ad mare (from sea to sea). Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Coat of Arms of Canada (also known as the Royal Arms of Canada or more properly the Arms of His/Her Majesty in Right of Canada) is since 1921 the official Eastern parts had previously been visited by the Norse, as well as Basque, Galician and Breton fishermen, and perhaps the Corte-Real brothers and John Cabot (in addition of course to the Natives who first inhabited the territory). Corte-Real is common surname of Portuguese origin which means literally "Royal Court" Giovanni Caboto ( c 1450 - c 1498 known in English as John Cabot, was an Italian Navigator and explorer commonly credited as the Cartier's particular contribution to the discovery of Canada is as the first European to penetrate the continent, and more precisely the interior eastern region along the St. Lawrence River. His explorations consolidated France's claim of the territory that would later be colonized as New France, and his third voyage produced the first documented European attempt at settling North America since the time of the Norse. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove" is an Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island But even to this extent, the title of discoverer is perhaps too enthusiastic, as the two sons of Donnacona guided Cartier in his first exploration of the inner continent (in the second voyage) through the St. Lawrence estuary up to the village of Stadacona.
Cartier's professional abilities can be easily ascertained. Considering that Cartier made three voyages of exploration in dangerous and hitherto unknown waters without losing a ship, and that he entered and departed some 50 undiscovered harbors without serious mishap, he may be considered one of the most conscientious explorers of the period.
Cartier was also one of the first to formally acknowledge that the New World was a separate land mass from Europe/Asia.
On August 18, 2006, Quebec Premier Jean Charest announced that Canadian archaeologists had discovered the precise location of Cartier's lost first colony of Charlesbourg-Royal. Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. John James Charest PC MNA (known as Jean Charest) ʒɑ̃ ʃɑʀe (born June 24, 1958) is a Canadian  The colony was built where the Cap Rouge river runs into the St. Lawrence River and is based on the discovery of burnt wooden timber remains that have been dated to the mid-16th century and a fragment of a decorative Istoriato plate manufactured in Faenza, Italy, between 1540 and 1550 that could only have belonged to a member of the French aristocracy in the colony--probably the Sieur de Roberval, who replaced Cartier as the leader of the settlement.  This colony was the first European settlement in modern day Canada. Its discovery has been hailed by archaeologists as the most important find in Canada since the c. 1000 AD L'Anse aux Meadows Viking village was unearthed in northern Newfoundland. L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove" is an Archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of
In 2005, Cartier's Bref récit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI was named the most important book in Canadian history by the Literary Review of Canada. The Saint-Charles River is a river in Quebec, Canada that empties into the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River in the Vieux-Port section of Quebec Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province Jacques Cartier (December 31 1491&ndashSeptember 1 1557 was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France The Saint-Charles River is a river in Quebec, Canada that empties into the north bank of the Saint Lawrence River in the Vieux-Port section of Quebec Place Jacques-Cartier is a square located in Old Montreal in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and an entrance to the Old Port of ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec The Jacques-Cartier River is a river in the province of Quebec Canada The Jacques Cartier Bridge (pont Jacques-Cartier is a Steel Truss Cantilever Bridge crossing the Saint Lawrence River from Jacques Cartier State Park is located in the Town of Morristown in Saint Lawrence County New York.
Jacques Cartier Island, located on the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador in the town of Quirpon, is said to have been named by Jacques Cartier himself on one of his voyages through the Straits of Belle Isle during the 1530s. The Great Northern Peninsula is the largest and longest Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, Canada, approximately 225km long and a width of 80km at Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Quirpon is a small picturesque community situated on the northern tip of the Great Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador The Strait of Belle Isle (détroit de Belle Isle (Beautiful Island sometimes referred to as Straits of Belle Isle or Labrador Straits) is a waterway in eastern
The Tragically Hip reference Jacques Cartier in their song "Looking for a Place to Happen. " The song deals with primitivism and colonialism in the context of European ideologies and mythic exploration narratives in line with Cartier's journey's to the "New World. "