Photographer Hans Namuth extensively documented Pollock's unique painting techniques. Hans Namuth (March 17 1915 – October 13 1990 was a German-born photographer
|Birth name||Paul Jackson Pollock|
|Born||January 28, 1912|
|Died||August 11, 1956 (aged 44)|
Springs, New York
Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) was an influential American painter and a major force in the abstract expressionist movement. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Springs is a hamlet (and Census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York on the South Shore of Long Island. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Abstract expressionism was an American post– World War II Art movement. Peggy Guggenheim ( August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American Art collector Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Abstract expressionism was an American post– World War II Art movement. He was married to noted abstract painter Lee Krasner. Lee Krasner ( October 27, 1908 — June 19, 1984) was an influential abstract expressionist painter in the second half of the 20th
Pollock was born in Cody, Wyoming in 1912, the youngest of five sons. Cody is a city in Park County, Wyoming, United States. It is named after William Frederick Cody primarily known as Buffalo Bill, from William His father was a farmer and later a land surveyor for the government.  He grew up in Arizona and Chico, California, studying at Los Angeles' Manual Arts High School. The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. Chico (pop 86949 is the most populous city in Butte County, California, United States, with 105000 Manual Arts High School is a secondary school in Los Angeles, California. During his early life, he experienced Native American culture while on surveying trips with his father. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States  In 1930, following his brother Charles, he moved to New York City, where they both studied under Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League of New York. The City of New York Thomas Hart Benton ( April 15, 1889 - January 19, 1975) was an American painter and Muralist. The Art Students League of New York is an Art school located on West 57th Street in New York City. Benton's rural American subject matter shaped Pollock's work only fleetingly, but his rhythmic use of paint and his fierce independence were more lasting influences.  From 1935 to 1943, Pollock worked for the WPA Federal Art Project. The Federal Art Project (FAP was the Visual arts arm of the Great Depression -era New Deal WPA Federal One program in the 
In October 1945, Pollock married another important American painter, Lee Krasner, and in November they moved to what is now known as the Pollock-Krasner House and Studio in Springs on Long Island, New York. No 5 1948 is an abstract Painting by Jackson Pollock ( January 28, 1912 &ndash August 11, 1956 Lee Krasner ( October 27, 1908 — June 19, 1984) was an influential abstract expressionist painter in the second half of the 20th In November 1945 Jackson Pollock and his wife Lee Krasner moved to what is now known as the "Pollock-Krasner House" in Springs in the town of Springs is a hamlet (and Census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York on the South Shore of Long Island. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Peggy Guggenheim loaned them the down payment for the wood-frame house with a nearby barn that Pollock made into a studio. Peggy Guggenheim ( August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American Art collector It was there that he perfected the technique of working spontaneously with liquid paint.
Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936, at an experimental workshop operated in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. The City of New York José David Alfaro Siqueiros ( December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca He later used paint pouring as one of several techniques in canvases of the early 1940s, such as "Male and Female" and "Composition with Pouring I. " After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor, and developed what was later called his "drip" technique. The drip technique required paint with a fluid viscosity so Pollock turned to then new synthetic resin-based paints, called alkyd enamels. Pollock described this use of household paints, instead of artist’s paints, as "a natural growth out of a need".  He used hardened brushes, sticks and even basting syringes as paint applicators. Pollock's technique of pouring and dripping paint is thought to be one of the origins of the term action painting. Action painting, sometimes called "gestural abstraction", is a style of Painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled splashed or smeared onto the canvas With this technique, Pollock was able to achieve a more immediate means of creating art, the paint now literally flowing from his chosen tool onto the canvas. By defying the conventional way of painting on an upright surface, he added a new dimension, literally, by being able to view and apply paint to his canvases from all directions.
In the process of making paintings in this way he moved away from figurative representation, and challenged the Western tradition of using easel and brush, as well as moving away from use only of the hand and wrist; as he used his whole body to paint. In 1956 Time magazine dubbed Pollock "Jack the Dripper" as a result of his unique painting style. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and
|“||My painting does not come from the easel. I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor. I need the resistance of a hard surface. On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting.||”|
|“||I continue to get further away from the usual painter's tools such as easel, palette, brushes, etc. I prefer sticks, trowels, knives and dripping fluid paint or a heavy impasto with sand, broken glass or other foreign matter added. In English the borrowed Italian word impasto most commonly refers to a technique used in Painting, where Paint is laid on an area of the surface (or the entire||”|
|“||When I am in my painting, I'm not aware of what I'm doing. It is only after a sort of 'get acquainted' period that I see what I have been about. I have no fear of making changes, destroying the image, etc. , because the painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through. It is only when I lose contact with the painting that the result is a mess. Otherwise there is pure harmony, an easy give and take, and the painting comes out well.||”|
Pollock observed Indian sandpainting demonstrations in the 1940s. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Sandpainting is the art of pouring colored sands onto a surface to make a painting Other influences on his dripping technique include the Mexican muralists and also Surrealist automatism. A mural is a Painting on a wall ceiling or other large permanent surface Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Pollock denied "the accident"; he usually had an idea of how he wanted a particular piece to appear. It was about the movement of his body, over which he had control, mixed with the viscous flow of paint, the force of gravity, and the way paint was absorbed into the canvas. The mix of the uncontrollable and the controllable. Flinging, dripping, pouring, spattering, he would energetically move around the canvas, almost as if in a dance, and would not stop until he saw what he wanted to see. Studies by Taylor, Micolich and Jonas have explored the nature of Pollock's technique and have determined that some of these works display the properties of mathematical fractals; and that the works become more fractal-like chronologically through Pollock's career. A fractal is generally "a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts each of which is (at least approximately a reduced-size copy of the whole" They even go on to speculate that on some level, Pollock may have been aware of the nature of chaotic motion, and was attempting to form what he perceived as a perfect representation of mathematical chaos - more than ten years before Chaos Theory itself was discovered. Chaos (derived from the Ancient Greek, Chaos) typically refers to Unpredictability, and is the antithesis of Cosmos. In Mathematics, chaos theory describes the behavior of certain dynamical systems – that is systems whose state evolves with time – that may exhibit dynamics that Even though some experts have pointed to the possibility that he (Pollock) could have simply been imitating popular theories of the time in order to give his paintings a depth not previously seen.
In 1950 Hans Namuth, a young photographer, wanted to photograph and film Pollock at work. Hans Namuth (March 17 1915 – October 13 1990 was a German-born photographer Pollock promised to start a new painting especially for the photographic session, but when Namuth arrived, Pollock apologized and told him the painting was finished. Namuth's comment upon entering the studio:
|“||A dripping wet canvas covered the entire floor. . . . There was complete silence. . . . Pollock looked at the painting. Then, unexpectedly, he picked up can and paint brush and started to move around the canvas. It was as if he suddenly realized the painting was not finished. His movements, slow at first, gradually became faster and more dance like as he flung black, white, and rust colored paint onto the canvas. He completely forgot that Lee and I were there; he did not seem to hear the click of the camera shutter. . . My photography session lasted as long as he kept painting, perhaps half an hour. In all that time, Pollock did not stop. How could one keep up this level of activity? Finally, he said 'This is it. '||”|
|“||Pollock’s finest paintings… reveal that his all-over line does not give rise to positive or negative areas: we are not made to feel that one part of the canvas demands to be read as figure, whether abstract or representational, against another part of the canvas read as ground. There is not inside or outside to Pollock’s line or the space through which it moves…. Pollock has managed to free line not only from its function of representing objects in the world, but also from its task of describing or bounding shapes or figures, whether abstract or representational, on the surface of the canvas. (Karmel 132)||”|
Pollock's most famous paintings were during the "drip period" between 1947 and 1950. He rocketed to popular status following an August 8, 1949 four-page spread in Life Magazine that asked, "Is he the greatest living painter in the United States?" At the peak of his fame, Pollock abruptly abandoned the drip style. Events 1220 - Sweden is defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula. Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Pollock's work after 1951 was darker in color, including a collection in black on unprimed canvases, followed by a return to color and he reintroduced figurative elements. During this period Pollock had moved to a more commercial gallery and there was great demand from collectors for new paintings. In response to this pressure, along with personal frustration, his alcoholism deepened. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions
Pollock wanted an end to the viewer's search for representational elements in his paintings, thus he abandoned naming them and started numbering them instead. Of this, Pollock commented: ". . . look passively and try to receive what the painting has to offer and not bring a subject matter or preconceived idea of what they are to be looking for. " Pollock's wife, Lee Krasner, said Pollock "used to give his pictures conventional titles. . . but now he simply numbers them. Numbers are neutral. They make people look at a picture for what it is - pure painting. "
Pollock did not paint at all in 1955.  After struggling with alcoholism his whole life, Pollock's career was cut short when he died in an alcohol-related, single car crash in his Oldsmobile convertible, less than a mile from his home in Springs, New York on August 11, 1956 at the age of 44. Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. One of his passengers, Edith Metzger, died, while the other passenger, Pollock's girlfriend Ruth Kligman, survived. Ruth Kligman is most commonly known as the girlfriend of several important American Artists of the mid 20th century ( Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning After his death, Pollock's wife, Lee Krasner, managed his estate and ensured that Pollock's reputation remained strong in spite of changing art-world trends. They are buried in Green River Cemetery in Springs with a large boulder marking his grave and a smaller one marking hers. Green River Cemetery is cemetery in the hamlet of Springs New York in within the Town of East Hampton.
The Pollock-Krasner House and Studio is owned and administered by the Stony Brook Foundation, a non-profit affiliate of the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Blue Poles is an abstract painting from 1952 by the American artist Jackson Pollock, more properly known as Blue Poles Number 11 1952. The National Gallery of Australia is the premier art gallery and museum in Australia, holding over 120000 works of Art. In November 1945 Jackson Pollock and his wife Lee Krasner moved to what is now known as the "Pollock-Krasner House" in Springs in the town of State University of New York at Stony Brook, commonly known as Stony Brook University, is a public research university located in Stony Brook, New York There are regular tours of the house and studio from May - October.
In 2000, the biographical film Pollock was released. Pollock is a 2000 biographical film which tells the life story of painter Jackson Pollock. Marcia Gay Harden won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of Lee Krasner. Marcia Gay Harden (born August 14, 1959) is an Academy Award -winning and Tony Award and Emmy Award-nominated American Actress. Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS The movie was the project of Ed Harris who portrayed Pollock and directed it. Edward Allen "Ed" Harris (born November 28 1950 is a four-time Academy Award -nominated and Golden Globe -winning American actor writer and director He was nominated for Academy Award for Best Actor. Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to recognize
In 1973, Blue Poles (Blue Poles: Number 11, 1952), was purchased by the Australian Whitlam Government for the National Gallery of Australia for US$2 million (A$1. Blue Poles is an abstract painting from 1952 by the American artist Jackson Pollock, more properly known as Blue Poles Number 11 1952. Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916 known as Gough Whitlam (ˈɡɒf goff is an Australian former politician and 21st The National Gallery of Australia is the premier art gallery and museum in Australia, holding over 120000 works of Art. 3 million at the time of payment). At the time, this was the highest price ever paid for a modern painting. In the conservative climate of the time, the purchase created a political and media scandal.
The painting is now one of the most popular exhibits in the gallery, and now is thought to be worth between $100 and $150 million, according to the latest news.  It was a centerpiece of the Museum of Modern Art's 1998 retrospective in New York, the first time the painting had returned to America since its purchase. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth
In November 2006 Pollock's "No. 5, 1948" became the world's most expensive painting, when it was sold privately to an undisclosed buyer for the sum of $140,000,000. No 5 1948 is an abstract Painting by Jackson Pollock ( January 28, 1912 &ndash August 11, 1956 The previous owner was film and music-producer David Geffen. David Geffen (born February 21, 1943) is an American Record executive, Film producer, Theatrical producer and philanthropist It is rumored that the current owner is a German businessman and art collector.
An ongoing debate rages over whether 24 paintings and drawings found in a Wainscott, New York locker in 2003 are Pollock originals. Wainscott is a hamlet (and Census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York on the South Shore of Long Island. Physicists have argued over whether fractals can be used to authenticate the paintings. A fractal is generally "a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts each of which is (at least approximately a reduced-size copy of the whole" Analysis of the pigments shows some were not yet patented at the time of Pollock's death. The debate is still inconclusive. 
In 2006 a documentary, Who the Fuck Is Jackson Pollock?, was released which featured a truck driver named Teri Horton who bought what may be a Pollock painting worth millions at a thrift store for five dollars. Who the Fuck Is Jackson Pollock? (usually displayed as Who the #$&% Is Jackson Pollock? due to the Profanity in the title is a documentary
Pollock stated: “I feel nearer, more a part of the painting, since this way I can walk round it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting. This is akin to the methods of the Indian sand painters of the West. ” 
Pollock's work has always polarized critics and has been the focus of many important critical debates.
In a famous 1952 article in ARTnews, Harold Rosenberg coined the term "action painting," and wrote that "what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event. Harold Rosenberg ( February 2, 1906, New York City - July 11, 1978, New York City was an American writer educator philosopher The big moment came when it was decided to paint 'just to paint. ' The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value — political, aesthetic, moral. " Many people assumed that he had modeled his "action painter" paradigm on Pollock.
Clement Greenberg supported Pollock's work on formalistic grounds. Clement Greenberg ( January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American It fit well with Greenberg's view of art history as being about the progressive purification in form and elimination of historical content. He therefore saw Pollock's work as the best painting of its day and the culmination of the Western tradition going back via Cubism and Cézanne to Monet. Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder
Posthumous exhibitions of Pollock's work had been sponsored by the Congress for Cultural Freedom, an organization to promote American culture and values backed by the CIA. The Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF was an anti-communist advocacy group founded in 1950. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all Certain left wing scholars, most prominently Eva Cockcroft, argue that the U. S. government and wealthy elite embraced Pollock and abstract expressionism in order to place the United States firmly in the forefront of global art and devalue socialist realism. Socialist realism is a teleologically -oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of Socialism and Communism  In the words of Cockcroft, Pollock became a 'weapon of the Cold War'. 
Painter Norman Rockwell's work Connoisseur also appears to make a commentary on the Pollock style. Norman Percevel Rockwell ( February 3, 1894 &ndash November 8, 1978) was a 20th century American painter and Illustrator The painting features what seems to be a rather upright man in a suit standing before a Jackson Pollock-like splatter painting. The contrast between the man and the painting, along with the construction of the scene, seems to emphasize the disparity between the comparatively unrecognizable Jackson Pollock style and traditional figure and landscape based art styles, as well as the monumental changes in the cultural sense of aesthetics brought on by the modern art movement.
Others such as artist, critic, and satirist Craig Brown, have been "astonished that decorative 'wallpaper', essentially brainless, could gain such a position in art history alongside Giotto, Titian, and Velázquez. Craig Edward Moncrieff Brown (born 23 May 1957, Hayes, Middlesex) is a British Artist, Critic, Satirist Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez ( June 6, 1599 &ndash August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter who was the leading "
Reynolds News in a 1959 headline said, "This is not art — it's a joke in bad taste. " 
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Pollock, Paul Jackson|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American painter and a major force in the abstract expressionist movement|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 28, 1912|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Cody, Wyoming|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 11, 1956|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Springs, New York|