|Directed by||Oliver Stone|
|Produced by||A. William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Kitman Ho|
|Written by||Jim Marrs (book Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy)|
Jim Garrison (book On the Trail of the Assassins)
Oliver Stone &
Zachary Sklar (screenplay)
Tommy Lee Jones
Jay O. Sanders
|Music by||John Williams|
|Editing by||Joe Hutshing|
|Distributed by||Warner Brothers|
|Release date(s)||December 20, 1991|
|Running time||189 min. William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Jim Marrs (born 5 December 1943) is a Conspiracy reporter, news reporter and author of books and articles on a wide range of assorted Conspiracy Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison ( November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) &mdash who changed his first name to Jim in the William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American Actor, producer and Academy Award -winning director Kevin Norwood Bacon (born July 8 1958 is a Golden Globe - and Screen Actors Guild Award -nominated American Film and Theater Tommy Lee Jones (born September 15, 1946) is an Academy Award - Golden Globe - Screen Actors Guild - and Emmy Award -winning Lauren Ophelia "Laurie" Metcalf (born June 16 1955 is an American three-time Emmy Award -winning Actress. Gary Leonard Oldman (born 21 March 1958 is an English actor writer director, producer, Voice-over artist and occasional Musician who Michael Rooker (born April 6, 1955) is an American Actor, known for playing the title role in Henry Portrait of a Serial Killer Jay Olcutt Sanders (born 16 April 1953) is an American Character actor. Joseph Frank "Joe" Pesci (born February 9, 1943) is an Academy Award -winning American Actor, Comedian, Singer Mary Elizabeth "Sissy" Spacek (born December 25, 1949) is an Academy Award &ndashwinning American Actress and singer Walter John Matthau ( October 1, 1920 – July 1, 2000) was an American award-winning Actor best known for his role John Franklin Candy (October 31 1950 &ndash March 4 1994 was a Canadian Comedian and Actor. John Uhler "Jack" Lemmon III (February 8 1925 &ndash June 27 2001 was an American Actor known principally for his comedic roles Donald McNicol Sutherland OC (born July 17, 1935) is a Canadian Actor with a film career spanning over 50 years Edward Asner (born November 15, 1929) is an American Actor primarily known for his Emmy -winning role as Lou Grant on Vincent Phillip D'Onofrio (born June 30, 1959) is an American Actor and producer. John Towner Williams (born February 8 1932) is an American Composer, conductor and Pianist. Robert Bridge Richardson (born August 27, 1955 in Hyannis Massachusetts) is an American Cinematographer. Joe Hutshing is an American Film editor who grew up in San Diego, California and is most well known for working multiple times with film director Pietro Scalia (born March 17 1960) is an Academy Award winning Italian-American Film editor. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. / 206 min. (director's cut)|
|Gross revenue||$205,400,000 (Worldwide)|
JFK is a 1991 American film directed by Oliver Stone. A director's cut is a specially edited version of a Film, and less often TV series, Music video, commercials or Video games The United States of America —commonly referred to as the English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been The year 1991 in film involved some significant events Events April 28 - Bonnie United States cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century William Oliver Stone (born 15 September) is an American Film director and Screenwriter. The film was released on December 20, 1991. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The film examines the events leading to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and alleged subsequent cover-up through the eyes of former New Orleans district attorney, Jim Garrison (played by Kevin Costner. The assassination of John F Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday November 22 1963 in Dallas Texas New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana A district attorney (DA is in some US jurisdictions the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of alleged criminals Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison ( November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) &mdash who changed his first name to Jim in the Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American Actor, producer and Academy Award -winning director ) Garrison filed charges against New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw (Tommy Lee Jones) for his alleged participation in a conspiracy to assassinate the President. This is an article about the New Orleans businessman See E Clay Shaw Jr Tommy Lee Jones (born September 15, 1946) is an Academy Award - Golden Globe - Screen Actors Guild - and Emmy Award -winning The film was adapted by Stone and Zachary Sklar from the books On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison and Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs. Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison ( November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) &mdash who changed his first name to Jim in the Jim Marrs (born 5 December 1943) is a Conspiracy reporter, news reporter and author of books and articles on a wide range of assorted Conspiracy
Stone's film became embroiled in controversy even before it was finished filming when Washington Post national security correspondent George Lardner showed up on the set and wrote a scathing article attacking the film based on the first draft of the screenplay. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D See also Pre-production Screenwriting A screenplay or script is a written plan authored by a Screenwriter, for a Film or Television Upon JFK's theatrical release many of the major newspapers in the United States of America ran editorials criticizing what they perceived as liberties that Stone took with historical facts, including the film's implications of President Lyndon B. Johnson as part of a coup d'etat to kill Kennedy. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Initially, Stone's film performed slowly at the box office but it gradually picked up momentum, earning over USD $205 million in worldwide gross; Garrison's estate subsequently sued Warner Bros. for their share of the film's profits, alleging Hollywood accounting. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and In Accountancy, Hollywood accounting is the practice of distributing the Profit earned by a large project to corporate entities which though technically  JFK went on to win two Academy Awards and was nominated for eight in total, including Best Picture. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working
The film opens first with newsreel footage including the farewell address in 1961 of outgoing President Dwight Eisenhower warning about the buildup of the "military-industrial complex" and then with a summary of John F. Kennedy's years as President — emphasizing the events that, in Stone's thesis, would lead to his assassination — which finally builds to a reconstruction of the assassination on November 22, 1963. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general A military-industrial complex (MIC is a concept commonly used to refer to Policy relationships between Governments national Armed forces, and industrial John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The film then switches to following New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison as he learns about the assassination, and of potential links between the assassination and New Orleans. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana A district attorney (DA is in some US jurisdictions the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of alleged criminals Attempting to help the government's investigation, Garrison and his team investigate the New Orleans links and bring in several potential accomplices, including private pilot David Ferrie (Joe Pesci), before being forced to let them go, as their investigation is publicly rebuked by the federal government. David William Ferrie ( March 28, 1918 - February 22, 1967) was a private investigator and Joseph Frank "Joe" Pesci (born February 9, 1943) is an Academy Award -winning American Actor, Comedian, Singer As suspected assassin Lee Harvey Oswald (Gary Oldman) is himself assassinated by Jack Ruby (Brian Doyle Murray) before he can go to trial, Garrison closes the investigation, but he still remains uneasy about what has happened. Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18 1939 &ndash November 24 1963 was according to three United States government investigations the assassin of U Gary Leonard Oldman (born 21 March 1958 is an English actor writer director, producer, Voice-over artist and occasional Musician who Jacob Rubenstein (March 25 1911 – January 3 1967 who legally changed his name to Jack Leon Ruby in 1947 was an American Nightclub operator from Brian Doyle-Murray (born October 31, 1945) is an American Comedian, Screenwriter and Character actor.
The investigation is later reopened in 1967 after Garrison is encouraged to read through the Warren Report and notices what he feels to be multiple inaccuracies. The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963 He and other members of the staff interrogate several witnesses of the Kennedy assassination and others involved with Oswald, Ruby, and Ferrie at some point or another. Their first witness is Willie O'Keefe (Kevin Bacon), a gay, Fascist male prostitute inmate serving five years in prison for soliciting, who reveals he witnessed Ferrie discussing a coup d'etat. Kevin Norwood Bacon (born July 8 1958 is a Golden Globe - and Screen Actors Guild Award -nominated American Film and Theater In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology A gigolo, hustler or male prostitute is a male who engages in the sale of their sexual services by Prostitution. In the United States, solicitation is a Crime; it is an Inchoate offense that consists of a person offering money or something else of value in order to As well as briefly meeting Oswald, O'Keefe was romantically involved with an enigmatic man called "Clay Bertrand. " Another important person is teacher Jean Hill (Ellen McElduff) who witnessed some shots fired at Kennedy coming from the Grassy knoll, and she states that upon giving her story, the Secret Service threatened her into saying only three shots came from the book depository and nothing else. Norma Jean Lollis Hill ( February 11, 1931, Oklahoma – November 7, 2000, Dallas Texas was a witness to the assassination of U Dealey Plaza (ˈdiːli in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas ( U She proves this by revealing the changes to her testimony made by the Warren Commission during their "investigation" into the case. The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963 The D. A staff tests the Single bullet theory by trying to aim an empty rifle from the same alleged window where Oswald shot JFK, but they also realize that Oswald was a poor marksman, indicating that the shots were fired by someone else. The Single-Bullet Theory (or Magic-Bullet Theory, as
Garrison secretly meets a shadowy high-level figure in Washington D. C. who identifies himself only as X (Donald Sutherland) and who suggests a conspiracy at the highest levels of government, implicating members of the CIA, the Mafia, the military-industrial complex, Secret Service, FBI, and Kennedy's vice-president Lyndon Baines Johnson as co-conspirators with motives for Kennedy's assassination and/or the cover-up afterwards. Donald McNicol Sutherland OC (born July 17, 1935) is a Canadian Actor with a film career spanning over 50 years near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century A military-industrial complex (MIC is a concept commonly used to refer to Policy relationships between Governments national Armed forces, and industrial X explains that the President was killed because he wanted to pull out of the Vietnam War and destroy the CIA. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all X encourages Garrison to keep digging and prosecute New Orleans based international businessman Clay Shaw (Tommy Lee Jones) for his alleged involvement in the conspiracy to murder Kennedy. This is an article about the New Orleans businessman See E Clay Shaw Jr Tommy Lee Jones (born September 15, 1946) is an Academy Award - Golden Globe - Screen Actors Guild - and Emmy Award -winning Upon interrogating Shaw, the businessman denies any knowledge of meeting Ferrie, O'Keefe or Oswald at all, but he is soon charged with conspiring to murder the President.
As Garrison gets closer to his court date and case against Shaw, some of his staff begin to doubt his motives and leave the investigation when they start to disagree with his methods. Garrison's marriage begins to show signs of strain when his wife Liz (Sissy Spacek) complains that he is spending more time on the case then with his own family. Mary Elizabeth "Sissy" Spacek (born December 25, 1949) is an Academy Award &ndashwinning American Actress and singer Even his oldest son is convinced that his father does not keep his promises at family engagements. After a sinister phone call is made endangering the life of their daughter, Liz accuses him of being selfish and attacking Shaw only because of his homosexuality. In addition, the media launch several broadcasts on television and articles in newspapers attacking Garrison's character and criticizing the way his office is spending the taxpayers' money on their investigation. Some key witnesses become scared and refuse to testify while others are killed, such as Ferrie, under suspicious circumstances. Before his death, a panicked Ferrie tells Garrison that "they" are after him and reveals there was a conspiracy around Kennedy's death, but he dies of an apparent suicidal overdose. The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the Ingestion or application of a Drug or other substance in quantities
In March 1969, a jury acquitted Shaw of the charges after less than an hour of deliberation. On March 1, 1967, New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison arrested and charged New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw with conspiring The film reflects that members of that jury stated publicly that they believed there was a conspiracy behind the assassination but not enough evidence to link Shaw to that conspiracy. Shaw died of lung cancer in 1974 but five years later in 1979, Richard Helms testified under oath that Clay Shaw had been a part-time contact of the Domestic Contacts Division of the CIA. Richard McGarrah Helms ( March 30, 1913 &ndash October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI from 1966 to 1973 Although it states that such documents will not be shown until 2029, the FBI files about Kennedy's assassination will be released in 2017.
Kevin Costner stars as Jim Garrison, New Orleans District Attorney who initially attempted to help the government's investigation of the New Orleans links and the JFK assassination and New Orleans. Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American Actor, producer and Academy Award -winning director Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison ( November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) &mdash who changed his first name to Jim in the For the role of Garrison, Stone sent the copies of the script to Kevin Costner, Mel Gibson, and Harrison Ford. Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson, AO (born January 3 1956 Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an Academy Award - and BAFTA -nominated as well as Golden Globe -winning American  Initially, Costner turned Stone down. However, the actor's agent, Michael Ovitz, was a big fan of the project and helped the director convince the actor to take the role. Michael S Ovitz (b December 14 1946, Los Angeles California) is a former talent agent and Hollywood powerhouse who served as the head of the 
Before accepting the role, Costner conducted extensive research on Garrison including meeting the man, his friends and enemies. Two months after finally signing on to play Garrison in January 1991; his film Dances with Wolves won seven Academy Awards and so his presence greatly enhanced JFK's bankability in the studio's eyes. Dances with Wolves is a 1990 Epic film which tells the story of a United States Lieutenant who travels to the American Frontier to find a military post "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film.  Costner was only the beginning of a star-studded cast that Stone envisioned for his film:
|“||Darryl Zanuck's The Longest Day was one of my favorite films as a kid. Darryl Francis Zanuck ( September 5, 1902 &ndash December 22, 1979) was an Academy Award -winning producer, Writer The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long War film with a very large cast based on the 1959 history The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan It was realistic, but it had a lot of stars. . . the supporting cast provides a map of the American psyche: familiar, comfortable faces that walk you through a winding path in the dark woods. ||„|
Many actors were willing to waive their normal fees because of the nature of the project and to lend their support.  Martin Sheen provided the opening narration. Martin Sheen (born Ramón Gerardo Antonio Estévez on August 3, 1940) is a Golden Globe and Emmy Award winning American Actor who earned The real Jim Garrison, a severe critic of the Warren Commission, ironically played Supreme Court Chief Justice, Earl Warren himself, during the scene in which he questions Jack Ruby in prison about his retrial. Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison ( November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) &mdash who changed his first name to Jim in the The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963 The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. This is a list of past and present justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Earl Warren ( March 19, 1891 July 9, 1974) was the 14th Chief Justice of the United States and the only person ever elected thrice Supposed assassination witness Beverly Oliver, who claimed to be the Babushka lady, also appeared in a cameo role. The Babushka Lady is a nickname for an unknown woman who might have filmed the presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza during the John F The Babushka Lady is a nickname for an unknown woman who might have filmed the presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza during the John F A cameo role or cameo appearance (often shortened to just cameo) is a brief appearance of a known person in a work of the Performing arts, such as Sean Stone, Oliver Stone's son, plays a secondary role as Garrison's oldest son Jasper.
Zachary Sklar, a journalist and a professor of journalism at the Columbia School of Journalism, met Jim Garrison in 1987 and helped him rewrite a manuscript about the Kennedy assassination. Academic Programs Columbia’s Journalism School offers three degree programs Master of Science in journalism (full and part-time He essentially changed it from a scholarly book in the third person to "a detective story — a whydunit" in the first person.  Sklar edited the book and it was published in 1988. While attending the Latin American Film Festival in Havana, Cuba, Stone met Sheridan Square Press publisher Ellen Ray on an elevator. Havana ( IPA: aˈβana officially Ciudad de La Habana, is the Capital city, major port and leading The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la She had published Jim Garrison's book On the Trail of the Assassins. Ray had gone to New Orleans and worked with Garrison in 1967. She gave Stone a copy of Garrison's book and told him to read it. He did and quickly bought the film rights with his own money.
The Kennedy Assassination had always had a profound effect on his life as he said, "The Kennedy murder was one of the signal events of the postwar generation, my generation. Kevin Michael Costner (born January 18, 1955) is an American Actor, producer and Academy Award -winning director Earling Carothers "Jim" Garrison ( November 20, 1921 - October 21, 1992) &mdash who changed his first name to Jim in the " The filmmaker eventually met Garrison and grilled him with a variety of questions for three hours. The man stood up to Stone's questioning and then got up and left. His hubris impressed the director. Hubris, sometimes spelled hybris ( Ancient Greek ὕβρις is a term used in modern English to indicate overweening Pride, self-confidence Stone's impressions from their meeting were that Garrison "made many mistakes. He trusted a lot of weirdoes and followed a lot of fake leads. But he went out on a limb, way out. And he kept going, even when he knew he was facing long odds. "
Stone wasn’t interested in making a film about Garrison's life but rather the story behind the conspiracy to kill Kennedy. To this end, he also bought the film rights to Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs. Jim Marrs (born 5 December 1943) is a Conspiracy reporter, news reporter and author of books and articles on a wide range of assorted Conspiracy One of the filmmaker's primary goals with JFK was to provide an antidote to the Warren Commission Report that he believed was "a great myth. And in order to fight a myth, maybe you have to create another one, a countermyth. " Even though Marrs’ book collected many theories, Stone was hungry for more and hired Jane Rusconi, a recent Yale University graduate, to head up a team of researchers and assemble as much information about the assassination as possible while finishing Born on the Fourth of July. Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 Film adaptation of the Autobiography of the same name by Vietnam War veteran Stone read two dozen books on the JFK assassination while Rusconi read upwards of 100-200 books on the subject. 
By December 1989, Stone began approaching studios to back his film. He met with three executives at Warner Brothers while in pre-production on The Doors who wanted him to make a film about Howard Hughes. Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and The Doors is a 1991 Biopic about the 1960s rock band of the same name which emphasizes the life of its lead singer Jim Morrison Howard Robard Hughes Jr (December 24 1905 – April 5 1976 was an American Aviator, Industrialist, Film producer / director, Philanthropist However, Warren Beatty owned the rights and so Stone pitched JFK. Warren Beatty (born Henry Warren Beaty; March 30 1937 is an American Academy Award - and Golden Globe -winning Actor, producer Studio president and Chief Operating Officer Terry Semel liked the idea. He had a reputation for making political and controversial films with All the President's Men, The Parallax View and The Killing Fields. All the President's Men is a 1976 film based on the 1974 non-fiction book by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, the two journalists investigating This article is about the film not the book by Slavoj Žižek. The Killing Fields is a 1984 British film drama about the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia. Stone made a handshake deal with Warner Bros. and the studio would get all the rights to the film and put up 20 million dollars for the budget. The director did this so that the screenplay would not be widely read and bid on, and he also knew that the material was potentially dangerous and wanted only one studio to finance it. Finally, Stone liked Semel's track record. 
When Stone set out to write the screenplay, he asked Sklar (who edited Marrs’ book) to co-write it with him and distill the Garrison book, the Marrs book and Rusconi's research into a script that would resemble what he called "a great detective movie. " Stone told Sklar his vision of the movie: "I see the models as Z and Rashomon, I see the event in Dealey Plaza taking place in the first reel, and again in the eighth reel, and again later, and each time we're going to see it differently and with more illumination. Z is a 1969 French language political thriller directed by Costa Gavras, with a screenplay by Gavras and Jorge Semprún, based on is a 1950 Japanese film directed by Akira Kurosawa, working in close collaboration with Cinematographer Kazuo Miyagawa. "
Sklar worked on the Garrison side of the story while Stone added the Oswald story, the events at Dealey Plaza and the "Mr. X" character. Sklar spent a year researching and writing a 550 triple-spaced page screenplay. Stone rewrote it and condensed it closer to normal screenplay length. To tell as much of the story as they could, Stone and Sklar used composite characters, a technique that would be criticized in the press, most notably the "Mr. X" character played by Donald Sutherland. He was a mix of several witnesses and retired Air Force colonel Fletcher Prouty, another adviser for the film. Leroy Fletcher Prouty ( January 24, 1917 - June 5, 2001)was a Colonel in the United States Air Force, author banker and However, unlike "Mr. X", Prouty had no connection to Presidential security at the time of the assassination. Prouty was a former Colonel in the Air Force, and military liaison between the CIA and the Pentagon. The Pentagon is the Headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. He wrote the 1975 book The Secret Team: The CIA and Its Allies in Control of the United States and the World, (republished in 1992). According to Stone, "I feel this was in the spirit of the truth because Garrison also met a deep throat type named Richard Case Nagell, who claimed to be a CIA agent and made Jim aware of a much larger scenario than the microcosm of New Orleans. Deep Throat is the Pseudonym given to the secret source who provided information to the Washington Post about the involvement of U Richard Case Nagell is a former military officer who claimed to have had foreknowledge of the Kennedy Assassination and to have gotten himself arrested in a bank shooting weeks near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all "
Early drafts of the screenplay suggested a four and a half-hour film with a potential budget of $40 million – double what Stone had agreed to with Warner Bros. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  The director knew film mogul Arnon Milchan and met with him to help finance the film. Milchan was eager to work on the project and launch his new company, Regency Films, with a high profile film like JFK.  Milchan made a deal with Warner Bros. to put up the money for the film. Stone managed to pare down the script from 190 page first draft to a 156 page shooting script. 
Cinematographer Robert Richardson was a week and a half into shooting City of Hope for John Sayles when he got word that Stone was thinking about making JFK. Robert Bridge Richardson (born August 27, 1955 in Hyannis Massachusetts) is an American Cinematographer. John Thomas Sayles (born September 28 1950) is an American Independent film director and Screenwriter who frequently By the time principal photography wrapped on City of Hope, he was ready to make his movie. To prepare, Richardson read up on various JFK assassination books starting with On the Trail of the Assassins and Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy. 
The original idea was to film the opening sequence in 1. 33:1 aspect ratio in order to simulate the TV screens that were available at the time of the assassination, then transition to 1. 85:1 when Garrison began his investigation, and finally switch to 2. 35:1 for scenes occurring in 1968 and later. However, because of time constraints and logistics, Richardson was forced to abandon this approach. 
Stone ambitiously wanted to recreate the Kennedy Assassination in Dealey Plaza and his producers had to pay the Dallas City Council a substantial amount of money to hire police to reroute traffic and close streets for three weeks.  He only had ten days to shoot all of the footage he needed and so he used a total of seven cameras (two 35 mm and five 16 mm) and 14 film stocks.  Getting permission to shoot in the Texas School Book Depository was more difficult. The Texas School Book Depository (now the Dallas County Administration Building) is the former name of a seven-floor building located on Dealey Plaza in downtown They had to pay fifty thousand dollars to put someone in the window that Lee Harvey Oswald was supposed to have shot Kennedy from.  They were allowed to film in that location only between certain hours with only five people on the floor at one time: the camera crew, an actor, and Stone. Co-producer Clayton Townsend has said that the hardest part was getting the permission to restore the building to the way it looked back in 1963. It took five months of negotiation. 
The production spent four million to restore Dealey Plaza back to 1963 conditions. In addition to the challenging subject matter, the filmmaker utilized a variety of film stocks as Richardson said, "It depends whether you want to shoot in 35 or 16 or Super 8. In many cases the lighting has to be different. For some shots, you could have multiple crews shooting at once, five cameras at the same time in different formats. " Richardson said of Stone's style of direction, "Oliver disdains convention, he tries to force you into things that are not classic. There's this constant need to stretch, which forces your lighting into very diverse positions. Rarely do you resort to classic lighting modes. "
Stone employed extensive use of flashbacks within flashbacks for a specific effect. As he commented in an interview, "I wanted to do the film on two or three levels - sound and picture would take us back, and we'd go from one flashback to another, and then that flashback would go inside another flashback. . . I wanted multiple layers because reading the Warren Commission Report is like drowning. "
Among the many advisers for the film were Gerald Hemming, a former Marine who claimed involvement in various CIA activities, Robert Groden, a photographic expert and longtime JFK assassination researcher and author, and actual assassination witness Jean Hill. Robert J Groden (born November 22 1945 is an American Author and photographer, and a self-proclaimed and widely acknowledged expert on the assassination Norma Jean Lollis Hill ( February 11, 1931, Oklahoma – November 7, 2000, Dallas Texas was a witness to the assassination of U 
Filming was going smoothly until several attacks on the film and Stone began to surface in the mainstream media. On May 14, 1991, Jon Margolis in the Chicago Tribune wrote that JFK was "an insult to the intelligence. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The Chicago Tribune is a major daily Newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, and owned by the Tribune Company " This article was published while the film was only in its first weeks of shooting. Five days later, the Washington Post ran a scathing article by national security correspondent George Lardner entitled, "On the Set: Dallas in Wonderland" that used the first draft of the JFK screenplay to blast it for "the absurdities and palpable untruths in Garrison's book and Stone's rendition of it. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D " The article pointed out that Garrison lost his case against Clay Shaw and claimed that he inflated his case by trying to use Shaw's homosexual relationships to prove guilt by association.  Stone responded to Lardner's article by hiring a public relations firm that specialized in political issues. Other attacks in the media soon followed. Anthony Lewis in the New York Times claimed that the film "tells us that our government cannot be trusted to give an honest account of a Presidential assassination. " Washington Post columnist George Will attacked Stone, calling him, "a man of technical skill, scant education and negligible conscience. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize -winning conservative American newspaper Columnist, journalist "
Time magazine took Stone to task for doing this and then ran their own critique of the film-in-progress on June 10, 1991. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. They also claimed that Stone was trying to suppress a rival JFK assassination film based on Don DeLillo's 1988 novel Libra. Don DeLillo (born November 20 1936 is an American author best known for his Novels which paint detailed portraits of American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries Libra ( 1988) is a novel written by Don DeLillo. It focuses on the life of Lee Harvey Oswald and offers a speculative account of the Stone refuted these claims in a letter to the magazine. The filmmaker ended up splitting his time between making his film and responding to attacks from the press. However, the Lardner Post piece stung the most because he had stolen a copy of the script. Stone recalls, "He had the first draft, and I went through probably six or seven drafts. "
Once the film was released in theaters, it polarized critics. The New York Times ran an article by Bernard Weinraub entitled, "Hollywood Wonders If Warner Brothers let JFK Go Too Far. " In it, he called for studio censorship and wrote, "At what point does a studio exercise its leverage and blunt the highly charged message of a film maker like Oliver Stone?" The newspaper also ran a review of the film by Vincent Canby who wrote, "Mr. Vincent Canby ( July 27 1924 &ndash September 15 2000) was an American film critic. Stone's hyperbolic style of film making is familiar: lots of short, often hysterical scenes tumbling one after another, backed by a soundtrack that is layered, strudel-like, with noises, dialogue, music, more noises, more dialogue. " Veteran movie critic for The Washingtonian, Pat Dowell had her 34-word capsule review for the January issue rejected by her editor John Limpert on the grounds that he didn't want a positive review for a movie he felt was "preposterous" associated with the magazine.  Dowell resigned in protest. 
The Miami Herald said, "the focus on the trivialities of personality conveniently prevents us from having to confront the tough questions his film raises. The Miami Herald is a daily Newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company headquartered in Downtown Miami Florida. " However, Roger Ebert praised the film in his review for the Chicago Sun-Times, saying, "The achievement of the film is not that it answers the mystery of the Kennedy assassination, because it does not, or even that it vindicates Garrison, who is seen here as a man often whistling in the dark. Roger Joseph Ebert (iːbɝt born June 18, 1942) is an American film critic and Screenwriter. The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. Its achievement is that it tries to marshal the anger which ever since 1963 has been gnawing away on some dark shelf of the national psyche. " Rita Kempley in the Washington Post wrote, "Quoting everyone from Shakespeare to Hitler to bolster their arguments, Stone and Sklar present a gripping alternative to the Warren Commission's conclusion. The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D William Shakespeare ( baptised Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately A marvelously paranoid thriller featuring a closetful of spies, moles, pro-commies and Cuban freedom-fighters, the whole thing might have been thought up by Robert Ludlum. Robert Ludlum ( May 25, 1927 New York City  – March 12, 2001 Naples Florida) was an American Author "
On Christmas Day, the Los Angeles Times ran an article entitled, "Suppression of the Facts Grants Stone a Broad Brush" attacking the film. The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed New York Newsday followed suit the next day with two articles — "The Blurred Vision of JFK" and "The Many Theories of a Jolly Green Giant. " A few days later, the Chicago Sun-Times ran an article entitled, "Stone's Film Trashes Facts, Dishonors J. The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily Newspaper published in Chicago, Illinois. F. K. " Stone even received death threats as he recalled in an interview, "I can't even remember all the threats, there were so many of them. " Roger Ebert went on to name Stone's movie as the best film of the year and one of the top ten films of the decade.  It currently has a rating of 82% on Rotten Tomatoes (increasing to 86% for their "Cream of the Crop" designation). Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies.
Years after its release, Stone said of the film that it "was the beginning of a new era for me in terms of filmmaking because it's not just about a conspiracy to kill John Kennedy. It's also about the way we look at our recent history. . . It shifts from black and white to color, and then back again, and views people from offbeat angles. "
JFK was released in theaters on December 20, 1991. Events 69 - Vespasian, formerly a general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of Emperor. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The box office for the film started slow but picked up momentum and by the first week in January 1992, it had grossed over USD $50 million worldwide. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Stone started to get support for his film. Warner Brothers executives pointed out that because of the film's long running time, it had fewer screenings. 
On its first week of release, JFK tied Beauty and the Beast for fifth place in the U. BATB redirects here If you were looking for Back at the Barnyard which is abbreviated as BATB see here. S. box office and its critics began to say it was a failure.  However, JFK eventually earned over US $205 million during its initial run. 
JFK was nominated for eight Academy Awards including Best Picture, Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Tommy Lee Jones), Best Director (Oliver Stone), Best Original Score (John Williams), Best Sound, Best Cinematography (Robert Richardson), Best Film Editing, and Best Adapted Screenplay (Stone and Zachary Sklar). "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to artists working Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts The Academy Award for Achievement in Directing (Best Director is one of the Awards of Merit presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS to The Academy Award for Original Music Score is presented to the best substantial body of music in the form of dramatic underscoring written specifically The Academy Award for Sound Mixing is an Academy Award that recognizes the finest or most euphonic Sound mixing or recording The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a Cinematographer for work in one particular Motion picture. The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934 The Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay is one of the Academy Awards, the most prominent Film awards in the United States It won two awards for Best Cinematography and Best Film Editing. The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a Cinematographer for work in one particular Motion picture. The Academy Award for Film Editing was first given for films issued in 1934 
The popularity of JFK led to the passage of The President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992 (also known as the JFK Act) and the formation of the U. S. Assassination Records Review Board. The Assassination Records Review Board was created as a result of an act passed by the US Congress in 1992 entitled the "President John F The Act was signed into law by President George H. W. Bush in late October 1992. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993  The ARRB worked until 1998. Witnesses were interviewed (some for the first time), the U. S. government purchased the Zapruder film, and previously-classified documents relating to the assassination were finally made available to public scrutiny. The Zapruder film is a silent 8 mm color home movie of the presidential motorcade of John F By ARRB law, all existing assassination-related documents will be made public by 2017.  Vincent Bugliosi, in his book Reclaiming History, contends that this law is largely superfluous, as virtually all documents relating to the Warren Commission have long been available to the public. Vincent Bugliosi (ˌbuːliˈoʊsi with a silent g (born August 18, 1934, in Hibbing Minnesota) is an American Attorney and Reclaiming History The Assassination of President John F Kennedy is a book by attorney Vincent Bugliosi (Norton 2007 1632 p
Stone responds to such criticisms and acknowledges some inaccuracies in his DVD audio commentary. The assassination of John F Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday November 22 1963 in Dallas Texas There are many conspiracy theories regarding the '''assassination of United States President John F On March 1, 1967, New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison arrested and charged New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw with conspiring On disc based video formats an audio commentary is an additional audio track consisting of a lecture or comments by one or more speakers that plays in real time with video Two principal criticisms of the film were the depiction of Jim Garrison as not historically accurate, and Stone's combination of simulated documentary footage with actual historical footage. Stone answered his critics by releasing a 593-page book, JFK — The Book of the Film with Sklar, which included the complete annotated screenplay, 97 commentaries by supporters and detractors and 340 research notes.
The scene where David Ferrie admits to Jim Garrison and his team that there was indeed a conspiracy against the president was entirely fictional. In reality, Ferrie never confessed that he was involved in a conspiracy, nor did he confirm that an underground effort was ever organized against Kennedy. 
Stone's claims of a telephone "blackout" in Washington, D.C., prior to the assassination have been proven false. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D There was no telephone "blackout" at the time, but instead a rolling brownout caused by the massive volume of calls. Similar overloads happened in Boston and Chicago. 
The famous "Magic Bullet" scene has also been proven to be untrue. The scene indicates that Governor Connally was directly in front of the president, sitting straight, and seated at the same height when he was actually six inches closer to the middle while shifted in his seat more to the left and seated three inches lower than the president, making the bullet's path through both men straighter and completely plausible. 
According to John McAdams, a Political Science professor at Marquette University, and a researcher on the Kennedy assassination, the film is rife with inaccuracies and misrepresentations. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Marquette University is a private coeducational Jesuit, Roman Catholic University located in Milwaukee Wisconsin.  Researcher Dave Reitzes has identified a hundred instances of what he considers an inaccuracy or misrepresentation in the film.  The History Channel's documentary, Kennedy Assassination: Beyond Conspiracy also notes many of the inconsistencies of the film,.
"The bigger the lie, the more people will believe it" is not a Hitler quotation, as is stated by Garrison in the film, but a quotation from Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels. The Big Lie is a Propaganda technique It was defined by Adolf Hitler in his 1925 autobiography Mein Kampf as a lie so "colossal" that Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation ˈɡœbəls English generally ˈɡɝbəlz (29 October 1897 1 May 1945 was a German politician and Reich Minister of Public Nevertheless, Hitler thoroughly explains this same theory in high detail in his book Mein Kampf, chapter X "Why the Second Reich Collapsed. Mein Kampf ( English: My Struggle/My Battle) is a book by Adolf Hitler. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification "
Lee Harvey Oswald qualified as a "sharpshooter" at Marine Marksmanship School. This is in contrast with the film's claims that Oswald was a below average marksman.
In one scene of the grassy knoll on the day of the assassination, there is a shot of several parked cars, includind a Ford Mustang. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963; Ford Mustangs were first sold in 1964.
To date, there have been three separate releases of Stone's film on DVD. The first edition was released in 2000 on a single disc with the movie split over both sides. It was a director's cut that added 17 minutes to the film. A director's cut is a specially edited version of a Film, and less often TV series, Music video, commercials or Video games Due to an error on the packaging, this version states it features an anamorphic widescreen transfer. However, the DVD itself contains a non-anamorphic widescreen print, further compounded by a rather poor transfer. 
In 2001, the "Director's Cut" was released again, this time part of the Oliver Stone Collection box set with the movie on one disc and supplemental material on the second. Stone contributed several extras to this edition, including an audio commentary, two multi-media essays, and 54 minutes worth of deleted or expanded scenes with optional commentary by Stone.  Finally, in 2003, a two-DVD "Special Edition" was released with all of the extras on the 2001 edition in addition to a 90-minute documentary entitled, Beyond JFK: The Question of Conspiracy. 
Robert Brent Toplin (1996). History by Hollywood "JFK: Fact, Fiction, and Supposition",pp. 45-78. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252065360
Allmovie (previously All Movie Guide) is a commercial database of information about Movie stars movies and television shows. Rotten Tomatoes is a Website devoted to reviews information and news of Movies. The Progressive Review, or ProRev is an American online alternative publication that started in 1964 as the Idler newspaper