|James William Fulbright|
January 3, 1945 – December 31, 1974
|Preceded by||Hattie Caraway|
|Succeeded by||Dale Bumpers|
|Born||April 9, 1905|
Sumner, Missouri, USA
|Died||February 9, 1995 (aged 89)|
Washington, D.C., USA
|Spouse||Elizabeth Williams, Harriett Mayor Fulbright|
|Religion||Disciple of Christ|
James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a United States Senator representing Arkansas from 1945 to 1975. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway ( February 1, 1878 – December 21, 1950) was the first woman elected to serve as a United States Senator Dale Leon Bumpers (born 12 August 1925) is an American Politician who served as Governor of Arkansas from 1971 to 1975 and then in the Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Sumner is a city in Chariton County, Missouri, United States. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. The Christian Church (Disciples of Christ is a Mainline Protestant denomination in North America Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Fulbright was a Southern Democrat and a royally staunch multilateralist, supported the creation of the United Nations and opposed the House Un-American Activities Committee. Southern Democrats are members of the US Democratic Party who reside in the U The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The House Committee on Un-American Activities ( HUAC or HCUA 1938–1975 was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. He is remembered for his efforts to establish an international exchange program, which thereafter bore his name, the Fulbright Fellowships. The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of grants for international educational exchange for scholars educators graduate Fulbright was the longest serving chairman in the history of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. Fulbright supported racial segregation and opposed the civil rights movement during the 1950s and 1960s. See also Protests of 1968 Historically the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980 in
Born in Sumner, Missouri, he obtained a political science degree from the University of Arkansas in 1925, becoming a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. Sumner is a city in Chariton County, Missouri, United States. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems The University of Arkansas, often shortened to U of A or just UA, is a public Co-educational Land-grant university Sigma Chi ( ΣΧ) is one of the largest and oldest all-male college Greek-letter social fraternities and a Secret society. He later studied at Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar at Pembroke College graduating in 1928, and received his law degree from The George Washington University Law School in 1934. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Rhodes Scholarship Rhodes scholar redirects here Rhodes Scholar redirects here Rhodes scholars Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located in Pembroke Square. The George Washington University Law School, commonly referred to as GW Law, is the Law school of The George Washington University. In 1934, Fulbright was admitted to the bar in Washington, D.C. and became an attorney in the anti-trust division of the US Department of Justice. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department
Fulbright was a lecturer in law at the University of Arkansas from 1936 until 1939. The University of Arkansas, often shortened to U of A or just UA, is a public Co-educational Land-grant university He was appointed president in 1939, making him the youngest university president in the country. He held this post until 1941. The School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Arkansas is named in his honor. The University of Arkansas, often shortened to U of A or just UA, is a public Co-educational Land-grant university
Fulbright's great-nephew is the conservative pundit Tucker Carlson, who is a grandson of Fulbright's sister, Roberta; she married Gilbert C. Tucker Swanson McNear Carlson (born May 16, 1969) is an American political news correspondent and commentator who formerly co-hosted CNN 's Carlson, the head of the Swanson frozen-foods conglomerate. Swanson is a brand of TV dinners Broths and canned Poultry made for the North American market 
Fulbright was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1942, where he served one term. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. During this period, he became a member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. The House adopted the Fulbright Resolution which supported international peace-keeping initiatives and encouraged the United States to participate in what became the United Nations in September 1942. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security This brought Fulbright to national attention. He was elected to the Senate in 1944, where he served five six-year terms.
He promoted the passage of legislation establishing the Fulbright Program in 1946, a program of educational grants (Fulbright Fellowships and Fulbright Scholarships), sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State, governments in other countries, and the private sector. The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of grants for international educational exchange for scholars educators graduate The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs ( ECA) of the United States Department of State fosters mutual understanding between the people of the United States The program was established to increase mutual understanding between the peoples of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. It is considered one of the most prestigious award programs and it operates in 144 countries.
Fulbright became a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1949, and served as chairman from 1959 to 1974 — he was the longest-serving chair in that committee's history. US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
He was the only senator to vote against an appropriation for the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1954, which was chaired by Senator Joseph McCarthy. The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations ( PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14 1908 – May 2 1957 was an American politician who served as a Republican U McCarthy in turn, repeatedly called him "Senator Halfbright. "
For most of his life and public service, Fulbright was a supporter of racial segregation. He signed The Southern Manifesto opposing the Supreme Court's historic 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision. The Southern Manifesto was a document written in February-March 1956 by legislators in the United States Congress opposed to racial integration in public Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, 347 US 483 (1954 was a Landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier He subsequently joined with the Dixiecrats in filibustering the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as voting against the 1965 Voting Rights Act. The States' Rights Democratic Party (commonly known as the Dixiecrats) was a segregationist, socially conservative Political party A filibuster, or "talking out a bill", is a form of obstruction in a Legislature or other decision-making body The Civil Rights Act of 1957, primarily a voting rights bill was the first Civil rights legislation enacted by Congress in the United States since Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving Background See also [[Disfranchisement after the Civil War]] The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865 after the Civil War, abolished and prohibited However, during the Nixon administration Fulbright voted for a civil rights bill and led the charge against confirming Nixon's conservative Supreme Court nominees Clement Haynsworth and Harold Carswell. Clement Furman Haynsworth Jr ( October 30, 1912 – November 22, 1989) was a United States judge and an unsuccessful nominee for George Harrold Carswell ( December 22, 1919 – July 13, 1992) was a Federal Judge and an unsuccessful nominee to the United States 
Fulbright raised serious objections to President John F. Kennedy about the impending Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of For the United States invasion at the Bay of Pigs see Bay of Pigs Invasion. On 30 July 1961, two weeks before the erection of the Berlin Wall, Fulbright said in a television interview, "I don't understand why the East Germans don't just close their border, because I think they have the right to close it. Events 1419 - First Defenestration of Prague. 1502 - Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including " It has been suggested that President Kennedy asked Fulbright to make this statement as a way of signaling to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that the building of a wall would be viewed by the United States as an acceptable way of defusing the Berlin Crisis. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following
Testimony to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1963, Fulbright claimed five million tax-deductible dollars from philanthropic Americans was sent to Israel and then recycled back to the US for distribution to organizations seeking to influence public opinion in favor of Israel. This statement led to friction with organized pro-Israeli Zionist Jewish communities in the U. S.
Perhaps his most notable case of dissent was his public condemnation of foreign and domestic policies, in particular, his concern that right-wing radicalism, as espoused by the John Birch Society and wealthy oil-man H.L. Hunt, had infected the United States military. Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group The John Birch Society is a political education and action organization founded by Robert W Haroldson Lafayette Hunt Jr ( February 17, 1889 – November 29, 1974) known throughout his life as "H He was, in turn, denounced by ultra-conservative Senators J. Strom Thurmond and Barry M. Goldwater. James Strom Thurmond ( December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and Goldwater and Texas Senator John Tower announced that they were going to Arkansas to campaign against Fulbright, but Arkansas voters reelected him. John Goodwin Tower ( September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States senator from Texas
On August 7, 1964, a unanimous House of Representatives and all but two members of the Senate voted to approve the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which led to a dramatic escalation of the Vietnam War. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (officially the Southeast Asia Resolution Public Law 88-408 was addressed by Lyndon B The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Fulbright, who voted for the resolution, would later write:
Many Senators who accepted the Gulf of Tonkin resolution without question might well not have done so had they foreseen that it would subsequently be interpreted as a sweeping Congressional endorsement for the conduct of a large-scale war in Asia.
|Congressional opposition to|
U. S. wars and interventions
|1812 North America|
House Federalists’ Address
|1917 World War I|
Filibuster of the Armed Ship Bill
|1970 Southeast Asia|
Repeal of Tonkin Gulf Resolution
|1973 Southeast Asia|
War Powers Resolution
|1974 Covert Ops (General)|
House Concurrent Resolution 63
As chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, Fulbright held several series of hearings on the Vietnam War. Robert Marion La Follette Sr nicknamed "Fighting Bob" La Follette ( June 14, 1855 June 20, 1925) was an American The Neutrality Acts were a series of laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia The Ludlow Amendment was a proposed amendment to the Constitution of the United States which called for a national Referendum on any Declaration of The McGovern-Hatfield amendment (alternately Hatfield-McGovern amendment) was a proposed amendment in 1970 during the Vietnam War that if passed would have required The Cooper-Church Amendment was introduced in the United States Senate during the Vietnam War. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (officially the Southeast Asia Resolution Public Law 88-408 was addressed by Lyndon B The Case-Church Amendment was a piece of Legislation that prohibited U The War Powers Act of 1973 ( also referred to as the War Powers Resolution is a resolution of the Congress of The United States of America that stated that the President of The Hughes-Ryan Act is a 1974 United States federal law that amended the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 The Clark Amendment was an amendment to the US Arms Export Control Act of 1976 named for its sponsor Senator Dick Clark (D-Iowa The Boland Amendment was the name given to three US legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984 all aimed at limiting US government assistance to the The surge is a phrase commonly used to describe United States President George W US Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. Many of the earlier hearings, in 1966, were televised to the nation in their entirety (a rarity in the pre-C-Span era); the 1971 hearings included the notable testimony of Vietnam veteran and future-Senator John Kerry. C-SPAN (officially the Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network) is an American Cable television network dedicated to airing non-stop coverage The Fulbright Hearings refers to any of the set of US Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings on Vietnam conducted between 1966 and 1971 Vietnam Era veteran is a phrase used to describe someone who served in the armed forces of participating countries during the Vietnam War. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator
In 1966, Fulbright published The Arrogance of Power, in which he attacked the justification of the Vietnam War, Congress's failure to set limits on it, and the impulses which gave rise to it. Fulbright's scathing critique undermined the elite consensus that U. A power elite, in political and sociological theory, is a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of wealth privilege and access to decision-making S. military intervention in Indochina was necessitated by Cold War geopolitics. Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales Some critics of U. S. foreign policy argue that U. S. policy has changed little since Fulbright wrote his book, and find his words apply today.
In his book, Fulbright offered an analysis of American foreign policy:
Throughout our history two strands have coexisted uneasily; a dominant strand of democratic humanism and a lesser but durable strand of intolerant Puritanism. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, There has been a tendency through the years for reason and moderation to prevail as long as things are going tolerably well or as long as our problems seem clear and finite and manageable. But. . . when some event or leader of opinion has aroused the people to a state of high emotion, our puritan spirit has tended to break through, leading us to look at the world through the distorting prism of a harsh and angry moralism.
Fulbright also related his opposition to any American tendencies to intervene in the affairs of other nations:
Power tends to confuse itself with virtue and a great nation is particularly susceptible to the idea that its power is a sign of God's favor, conferring upon it a special responsibility for other nations — to make them richer and happier and wiser, to remake them, that is, in its own shining image. Power confuses itself with virtue and tends also to take itself for omnipotence. Once imbued with the idea of a mission, a great nation easily assumes that it has the means as well as the duty to do God's work.
He was also a strong believer in international law:
Law is the essential foundation of stability and order both within societies and in international relations. International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that bind together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards As a conservative power, the United States has a vital interest in upholding and expanding the reign of law in international relations. Insofar as international law is observed, it provides us with stability and order and with a means of predicting the behavior of those with whom we have reciprocal legal obligations. When we violate the law ourselves, whatever short-term advantage may be gained, we are obviously encouraging others to violate the law; we thus encourage disorder and instability and thereby do incalculable damage to our own long-term interests.
Fulbright retired from the Senate in 1974, after being defeated in the Democratic primary by then-Governor Dale Bumpers. The University of Arkansas, often shortened to U of A or just UA, is a public Co-educational Land-grant university Fayetteville is a city in Washington County, Arkansas, United States, and is home to the University of Arkansas. Dale Leon Bumpers (born 12 August 1925) is an American Politician who served as Governor of Arkansas from 1971 to 1975 and then in the Previously the same year Anti-Defamation League, the leading Jewish defense organization, claimed that Fulbright was "consistently unkind to Israel and our supporters in this country". The Anti-Defamation League ( ADL) is an Interest group founded in 1913 by B'nai B'rith in the United States whose stated aim is "to stop In response to this Bumpers received considerable financial support from the pro-Israel community, but it is unclear to what extent this affected the outcome of the election. At the time that he left the Senate, Fulbright had spent his entire 30 years in the Senate as the Junior senator from Arkansas, behind John Little McClellan who entered the Senate two years before him. John Little McClellan ( 25 February 1896 &ndash 28 November 1977) was a Democratic Party Politician from Arkansas
Fulbright died of a stroke in 1995 at the age of 89 in Washington, D. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain C. A year later, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary dinner of the Fulbright Program held June 5, 1996 at the White House, President Clinton said, "Hillary and I have looked forward for sometime to celebrating this 50th anniversary of the Fulbright Program, to honor the dream and legacy of a great American, a citizen of the world, a native of my home state and my mentor and friend, Senator Fulbright. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) " 
Fulbright's ashes were interred at the Fulbright Family plot in Evergreen Cemetery in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Evergreen Cemetery in Fayetteville Arkansas is one of the largest early historic cemeteries in the region Fayetteville is a city in Washington County, Arkansas, United States, and is home to the University of Arkansas.
On October 21, 2002, in a speech at the dedication of the Fulbright Sculpture at the University of Arkansas, Bill Clinton said, "I admired him. Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. I liked him. On the occasions when we disagreed, I loved arguing with him. I never loved getting in an argument with anybody as much in my entire life as I loved fighting with Bill Fulbright".
The Fulbright Program was established in 1946 under legislation introduced by then Senator J. The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of grants for international educational exchange for scholars educators graduate William Fulbright of Arkansas. The Fulbright Program is sponsored by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State.
Approximately 279,500 "Fulbrighters," 105,400 from the United States and 174,100 from other countries, have participated in the Program since its inception over sixty years ago. The Fulbright Program awards approximately 6,000 new grants annually.
Currently, the Fulbright Program operates in over 150 countries worldwide.
Clyde T. Ellis
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Arkansas's 3rd congressional district
James William Trimble
|United States Senator (Class 3) from Arkansas|
Served alongside: John Little McClellan
Theodore F. Green
|Chairman of Senate Foreign Relations Committee|