|Basic Latin alphabet|
J is the tenth letter in the modern Latin alphabet; it was the last of the 26 letters to be added. The letter A is the first letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is a (eɪ plural B is the second letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled bee or occasionally be (biː plural bees. C is the third letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled cee or occasionally ce (siː D is the fourth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled dee or occasionally de (diː E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled e (iː plural es or ees (also written E's E F is the sixth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ef or eff (ɛf G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled gee or occasionally ge (dʒiː I is the ninth letter of the Latin alphabet. Its English name is i (aɪ K is the eleventh letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled kay (keɪ L is the twelfth letter of the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is el or occasionally ell (ɛl M is the thirteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled em (ɛm N is the fourteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled en (ɛn O is the fifteenth letter of the modern Latin Alphabet. Its name in English is spelled o (oʊ plural usually o's or os; sometimes P is the sixteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled pee or occasionally pe (piː Q is the seventeenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled cue (kjuː R is the eighteenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ar (ɑr pronounced or) S is the nineteenth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ess or occasionally es (ɛs generally es- T is the twentieth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled tee or occasionally te (tiː U is the twenty-first letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled u (juː V is the twenty-second letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled vee or occasionally ve (viː W is the twenty-third letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled double-u (ˈdʌbljuː X is the twenty-fourth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ex or occasionally ecks (ɛks plural exes The letter Y is the twenty-fifth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Z is the twenty-sixth and last letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is jay (pronounced /dʒeɪ/). English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  It was formerly jy (from French ji), and in some dialects, mainly of Scottish English, it still is (pronounced /dʒaɪ/). Scottish English is the variety of English spoken in Scotland, also called Scottish Standard English. 
J was originally an alternative version of I. I is the ninth letter of the Latin alphabet. Its English name is i (aɪ Its minuscule, j, was used in the Middle Ages as a swash character to end some Roman numerals in place of i. A swash is a typographical flourish on a Glyph, like an exaggerated Serif. Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. There was an emerging distinctive use in Middle High German. Middle High German (MHG German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350  Petrus Ramus (d. Petrus Ramus, or Pierre de la Ramée (1515 &ndash August 26, 1572) French humanist, Logician, and educational reformer 1572) was the first to explicitly distinguish I and J as representing separate sounds. Originally, both I and J represented /i/, /iː/, and /j/; but Romance languages developed new sounds (from former /j/ and /g/) that came to be represented as I and J; therefore, English J (from French J) has a sound value quite different from /j/. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people
All the Germanic languages except English, Scots and Luxembourgish use J for /j/. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Scots ( The Scots leid) refers to Anglic varieties derived from early northern Middle English spoken in parts of Scotland and Northern Luxembourgish (lb Lëtzebuergesch Luxembourgeois Luxemburgisch Luxemburgs Lussimbordjwès also called Luxembourgian, also spelled Luxemburgish, is one of This is also true of Albanian, and those Uralic and Slavic languages that use the Latin alphabet, such as Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Polish, Czech, and Slovak. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - The Uralic languages (jʊˈrælɨk constitute a language family of 39 Languages spoken by approximately 20 million people The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Finnish ( or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% As of 2006) and by ethnic Finns outside Estonian (; ˈeːsti ˈkeːl is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1 Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the The Slovak language ( slovenčina, slovenský jazyk, not to be confused with Slovenščina) sometimes referred to as "Slovakian" Some languages in these families, such as Serbian, also adopted J into the Cyrillic alphabet for the same purpose. Serbian (sr-Cyrl српски језик sr-Latn ''srpski jezik'' is a South Slavic language, Je (Ј ј is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Serbian, Macedonian, Azeri, and Altai languages Because of this standard, the minuscule letter was chosen to be used in the IPA as the phonetic symbol for the sound. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA is a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic
Linguists from Germany and Central Europe also took up this letter in transliterations from those Slavic languages which use the Cyrillic alphabet. Specifically, the "Е" in Russian is sometimes transliterated "je" (with the "Ё" becoming "jo"); the "Я" is transliterated as "ja"; and the character "Ю" is transliterated "ju" - whereas the linguists from America and the English speaking world use "y" in place of "j" because of English, French, and Spanish use of Y for /j/. For the Ukrainian alphabet letter Ye (Є є see Ukrainian Ye. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Yo (Ё ё is the seventh letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet, invented in 1783 by Yekaterina Dashkova, and first used among others in 1797 by the Russian Ya (Я я is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet, representing either the combination /ja/ (a so-called Iotated vowel) or /a/ after a palatalized consonant Yu (Ю ю is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing either the combination /ju/ (a so-called iotated vowel or /u/ after a palatalized consonant European linguists also use the character Й so that their transliterations of nominative case of adjectives ("-ий") end in "-ij" whereas in American transliterations it's "-ii". The student who uses the American transliteration has to remember that the second "i" is different from the first in the original.
In modern standard Italian spelling, only Latin words or those of foreign languages have J. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Until the 19th century, J was used instead of I in diphthongs, as a replacement for final -ii, and in vowel groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict for official writing. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar In Phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (from Greek grc δίφθογγος "diphthongos" literally "with two sounds" or "with And J is also used for rendering words in dialect, where it stands for /j/, e. g. Romanesque ajo for standard aglio (garlic). The Italian Novelist Luigi Pirandello utilised J in vowel groups in his works. Luigi Pirandello ( June 28, 1867 — December 10, 1936) was an Italian Dramatist Novelist, and short
In Spanish J stands for /x ~ h/ (which developed from an earlier affricate /dʒ/), similar to the English "H" sound. Affricate Consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or) but release as a fricative (such as or or occasionally into However, the actual phonetic realization depends on dialect. When followed by an 'A' or an 'O' however, it assumes a guttural sound (fricative uvular /χ/), probably a remainder of Arabic or Hebrew influences. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
In French, Portuguese, and Romanian, former /dʒ/ is now pronounced as /ʒ/ (as in English measure). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance
In Turkish, Azerbaijani and Tatar, J always represents /ʒ/. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. The Tatar language (,, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic Language spoken by the Tatars.
Hebrew also influenced the English J, which in a few cases is used in place of the more normal Y. The classic example is Hallelujah which is pronounced the same as "Halleluyah". Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a Transliteration of the Hebrew word he הַלְלוּיָהּ ( Standard See the Hebrew yud for more details. Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew
Some German typefaces of the fraktur or schwabacher types, obsolete since the end of the Second World War, do not necessarily distinguish between the capital I and J. The German word Fraktur () refers to a specific sub-group of Blackletter Typefaces The word derives from the past participle fractus (“broken” The German word Schwabacher (ˈʃvaːˌbaxər refers to a specific Blackletter Typeface. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The same character, a 'J' with a top serif of the tilde form, was sometimes used for both. Origins & etymology Serifs are thought to have originated in the Roman alphabet with inscriptional lettering —words carved into stone in Roman antiquity The tilde (~ (/ˈtɪldə/ is a Grapheme with several uses The name of the character comes from Spanish, from the Latin titulus The minuscule i and j, however, were distinguished.
In Thomas Hardy's novel Tess Of The D'Urbervilles, Tess's mother writes letters to Angel Clare using "J" as the first person singular pronoun. Thomas Hardy OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928 was an English novelist Short story writer and poet of the naturalist movement though he saw Tess of the d'Urbervilles A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented is a Novel by Thomas Hardy, first published in 1891 Angel Clare is the debut album by Art Garfunkel released in 1973. In Linguistics and Grammar, a pronoun is a Pro-form that substitutes for a (including a noun phrase consisting of a single Noun) with or Although the novel is set in the 19th century, this practice apparently remained in some rural areas.
In Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Albania, this letter is often written with a long serif on top, but only to the left of the character. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Origins & etymology Serifs are thought to have originated in the Roman alphabet with inscriptional lettering —words carved into stone in Roman antiquity
J is used relatively infrequently in the English Language, though it is more commonly used than Q, X or Z. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Q is the seventeenth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled cue (kjuː X is the twenty-fourth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. Its name in English is spelled ex or occasionally ecks (ɛks plural exes Z is the twenty-sixth and last letter of the modern Latin alphabet.
|NATO phonetic||Morse code|
|Signal flag||Flag semaphore||ASL Manual||Braille|
In Unicode the capital J is codepoint U+004A and the lowercase j is U+006A. The NATO phonetic alphabet, more formally the international radiotelephony spelling alphabet, is the most widely used Spelling alphabet. Morse code is a Character encoding for transmitting telegraphic information using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters numerals Flag semaphore is a system for conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags rods disks paddles or occasionally bare or gloved hands The American Manual Alphabet is a Manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language when spelling individual letters of a word is the preferred The Braille system is a method that is widely used by blind people to read and write In Computing, Unicode is an Industry standard allowing Computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world's Capital letters or majuscules pronunciation /məˈdʒʌskyuls ˈmædʒəˌskyuls/ in the Roman alphabet A, B, C, D, Unicode also has a dotless variant, ȷ (U+0237) for use with combining diacritics. In Digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters
The ASCII code for capital J is 74 and for lowercase j is 106; or in binary 01001010 and 01101010, respectively. American Standard Code for Information Interchange ( ASCII) The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a Numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols usually 0 and 1.
The EBCDIC code for capital J is 209 and for lowercase j is 145. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code ( EBCDIC) is an 8- Bit Character encoding ( Code page) used on IBM mainframe Operating
The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "J" and "j" for upper and lower case respectively. A numeric character reference (NCR is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant Markup language for Web pages It provides a means to describe the structure Don't change "Extensible"
|The ISO basic Latin alphabet|
Letter J with diacritics