|Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani|
(also known as Inno di Mameli)
The Song of the Italians
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Silvio Berlusconi|
|-||Unification||17 March 1861|
|-||Republic||2 June 1946|
|EU accession||25 March 1957 (founding member)|
|-||Total||301,318 km² (71st)|
116,346. See also List of Italian flags The flag of Italy ( La bandiera d'Italia, often referred to in Italian as Il Tricolore) is a Tricolour The Coat of Arms of the Italian Republic ( Italian, trans Stemma della Repubblica Italiana) depicted here has been the symbol of the Italian Republic A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Il Canto degli Italiani ( The Song of the Italians) is the Italian National anthem. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana is the Head of State of Italy, and as such is intended to represent national unity Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29 1925) is an Italian Politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. 5 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||2. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 4|
|-||August 2007 estimate||59,448,163 (23rd)|
|-||October 2001 census||57,110,144|
507. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² 9/sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$1. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 888 trillion  (8th)|
|-||Per capita||$32,319  (20th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$2. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita 067 trillion  (7th)|
|-||Per capita||$35,386  (21st)|
|Gini (2000)||36 (medium)|
|HDI (2005)||▲ 0. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 941 (high) (20th)|
|Currency||Euro (€)² (|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|1||French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; German and Ladin are co-official in the province of Bolzano-Bozen. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The euro sign (€ is the Currency sign used for the Euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Ladin ( Ladino in Italian Ladin in Ladin Ladinisch in German is a Rhaeto-Romance language spoken in the Dolomite mountains The Province of Bolzano-Bozen (Provincia autonoma di Bolzano Autonome Provinz Bozen Ladin: Provinzia|
|2||Before 2002: Italian Lira. The lira (plural lire) was the Currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia (but the official currency is the Swiss Franc)|
|3||The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Campione redirects here For the football song see Campione 2000 Campione d'Italia is an Italian Comune (municipality The franc ( German: Franken, French and Romansh: franc, Italian: franco; code: CHF The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in|
Italy (Italian: Italia), officially the Italian Republic, (Italian: Repubblica Italiana), is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe The term Southern Europe can have four definitions geographical political climatic phytogeographic Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Italy shares its northern Alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within the Italian Peninsula, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino is a country in the Apennine Mountains. Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Campione redirects here For the football song see Campione 2000 Campione d'Italia is an Italian Comune (municipality
Italy has been the home of many European cultures, such as the Etruscans and the Romans, and later was the birthplace of the movement of the Renaissance, that began in Tuscany and spread all over Europe. The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Italy's capital Rome has been for centuries the center of Western civilization, and is the seat of the Catholic Church. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2
Today, Italy is a democratic republic and a developed country with the 20th highest GDP per capita, the 8th-highest Quality-of-life index, and the 20th-highest Human Development Index rating in the world. The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Economist Intelligence Unit ’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of Subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP It is a founding member of what is now the European Union (having signed the Treaty of Rome in 1957), and also a member of the G8 (having the world's 7th largest nominal GDP), NATO, OECD, the Council of Europe, the Western European Union, the Central European Initiative, and a Schengen state. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The North Atlantic Treaty The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 The Western European Union ( WEU) is a partially dormant European defence and security organization established on the basis of the Treaty of Brussels of 1948 The Central European Initiative or CEI, is a political economical cultural and scientific international organisation founded in 1989 The term Schengen Agreement is used for two agreements concluded among European states in 1985 and 1990 which deal with the abolition of systematic Border controls On January 1, 2007 Italy began a two year term as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Since 1966, the UN Security Council has included 10 elected (non-permanent members
The origin of the term "Italy" (It: Italia), from Latin Italia, is uncertain. According to one of the more common explanations, the term was borrowed through Greek, from Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle" (cf. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Oscan, the language of the Osci, is in the Sabellic branch of the Italic language family, which is a branch of Indo-European that also includes Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf") and named for the god of cattle, Mars. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Umbrian is an extinct Italic language formerly spoken by the Umbri in the ancient Italian region of Umbria. Mars was the Roman Warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus.  The bull was a symbol of the southern Italian tribes and is often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Samnite Wars. The First, Second, and Third Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century involving
The name Italia applied to a part of what is now southern Italy. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel According to Antiochus of Syracuse, it originally only referred to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula (modern Calabria), but by his time Oenotrians and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. Antiochus of Syracuse, Greek historian flourished about 420 BC Nothing is known of his life but his works of which only fragments remain enjoyed a high reputation because Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of The Oenotrians (a Greek tribe led by Oenotrus) were an ancient Italic people who settled a territory of remarkably large dimensions including the region of Apulia Lucania was an ancient district of southern Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Taranto. The Greeks gradually came to use the name "Italia" for a greater region, but it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula. 
Excavations throughout Italy reveal a modern human presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period some 200,000 years ago. Italy, united in 1861, has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio The term Paleolithic (or Palaeolithic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, " Old " and λίθος Lithos, "stone"  In the 8th and 7th centuries BC Greek colonies were established all along Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula. Colonies in antiquity were City-states founded from a mother- City Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Subsequently Romans refereed to this area as Magna Graecia as it was so densely inhabited by Greeks. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions  Ancient Rome at first a small agricultural community founded circa 8th century BC grew the next centuries into a colossal empire encompassing the whole Mediterranean Sea, in which Ancient Greek and Roman cultures merged into one civilization, so influential that parts of it survive in modern law, administration, philosophy and arts forming the ground where Western civilization is based upon. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. In its twelve-century existence, it transformed from a republic to monarchy and finally to autocracy. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or An autocracy is a Form of government in which the Political power is held by a single self-appointed ruler In steady decline since 2nd century AD, the empire finally broke into two parts in 285 AD, a western and an eastern. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern The western part under the pressure of Goths finally dissolved leaving the Italian peninsula divided into small independent kingdoms and feuding city states for the next 14 centuries, and the eastern part as the sole heir to Roman legacy. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty.
Following a short recapture of the peninsula by Byzantine Emperor, Justinian at 6th cen. This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or AD from the Ostrogoths a new wave of Germanic tribes, the Lombards, soon arrived to Italy from the north. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from For several centuries the armies of the Byzantines were strong enough to prevent Arabs, Holy Roman Empire, or the Papacy from establishing a unified Italian Kingdom, but at the same time too weak to fully unify the former Roman lands. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Nevertheless during early Middle Ages Imperial orders such as the Carolingians, the Ottonians and Hohenstaufens managed to impose their overlordship in Italy. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of Germanic Kings (919-1024 named after its first emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin
Eventually Italy interlocked to its neighboring empires' conflicting interests would remain divided up to 19th century. It was during this vacuum of authority that the region saw the rise of Signoria and Comune. A Signoria (from Signore or Lord) was an abstract noun meaning (roughly 'government governing authority de facto sovereignty lordship in many of the Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city In the anarchic conditions that often prevailed in medieval Italian city states, people looked to strong men to restore order and disarm the feuding elites. In times of anarchy or crisis, cities sometimes offered the Signoria to individuals perceived as strong enough to save the state, most notably Della Scala family in Verona, Visconti in Milan and Medici in Florence. Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. Visconti was the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany
Italy during this period became notable for its merchant Republics. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its These city-states, oligarchical in reality, had a dominant merchant class which under a relative freedom nurtured academic and artistic advancement. Oligarchy' ( Greek, Oligarkhía) is a Form of government where Political power effectively rests with a small elite segment Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression The four classic Maritime Republics in Italy were Venice, Genoa, Pisa, Amalfi reflecting the temporal sequence of their dominance. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Pisa is a city in Tuscany, central Italy, on the right bank of the mouth of the Arno River on the Ligurian Sea. Amalfi is also a town in the Antioquia Departament in Colombia.
Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, with the former producer of the renown venetian glass, whilst Florence was the capital of silk, wool, banks and jewelry. Venetian glass is a type of Glass object made in Venice, Italy, primarily on the island of Murano. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Jewellery (also spelled jewelry, see spelling differences) is a personal Ornament, such as a necklace ring or bracelet made from Gemstones The Maritime Republics were heavily involved in the Crusades, taking advantage of the new political and trading opportunities, most evidently in the conquest of Zara and Constantinople funded by Venice. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea, with a population of 72717 (2001 Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
During late Middle Ages Italy was divided into smaller city states and territories: the kingdom of Naples controlled the south, the Republic of Florence and the Papal States the centre, the Genoese and the Milanese the north and west, and the Venetians the east. The Italian city states were a remarkable political phenomenon of small independent states in the northern Italian peninsula between the tenth and fifteenth centuries The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian Roman origins Florence was founded in 59 BCE as a settlement for former soldiers and was named Florentia, allotted by Julius Caesar to his veterans in The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanised areas in Europe and the birthplace of Renaissance. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Florence, in particular with the writings of Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), Francesco Petrarch (1304–1374) and Giovanni Boccaccio (c. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar 1313–1375), as well as the painting of Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) is considered the center of this cultural movement. Scholars like Niccolò de' Niccoli and Poggio Bracciolini scoured the libraries in search of works of classical authors as Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Ptolemy, Cicero and Vitruvius. Niccolò de' Niccoli (1364 &ndash 1437 was an Italian Renaissance humanist. (Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini ( February 11, 1380 – October 30, 1459) was one of the most important Italian humanists. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c 80–70 BC died after c 15 BC was a Roman Writer, Architect and Engineer (possibly praefectus fabrum
The Black Death pandemic in 1348 left its mark on Italy by killing one third of the population. The Black Death, or the Black Plague, was one of the deadliest Pandemics in human history widely thought to have been caused by a bacterium named Yersinia A pandemic (from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos people is an Epidemic of Infectious disease that spreads through  The recovery from the disaster led to a resurgence of cities, trade and economy which greatly stimulated the successive phase of the Humanism and Renaissance. Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere In 1494 the French king Charles VIII opened the first of a series of invasions, lasting up to sixteenth century, and a competition between France and Spain for the possession of the country. Charles VIII, called the Affable (l'Affable 30 June 1470 &ndash 7 April 1498 was King of France from 1483 to his death This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Ultimately Spain prevailed through the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis which recognised Spanish dominance over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. The Italian War of 1551 ( 1551 – 1559) sometimes known as the Habsburg-Valois War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy from 1394 to 1797 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian The holy alliance between Habsburg Spain and the Holy See resulted in the systematic persecution of any Protestant movement. Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700 when this country was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty (also associated to Austria succeeded Spain as hegemon in Italy under the Peace of Utrecht. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch Through Austrian domination, the northern part of Italy, gained economic dynamism and intellectual fervor. The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815) introduced the ideas of equality, democracy, law and nation. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered
The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of the efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. There have been several distinct entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe In the context of 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe an unsuccessful war was declared on Austria. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European The First Italian War of Independence was fought in 1848 between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire. Giuseppe Garibaldi popular amongst southern Italians led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy , while the northern Italian monarchy of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia whose government was led by Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour, had the ambition of establishing a united Italian state under its rule. Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso Conte di Cavour, Conte di Isolabella e Leri ( August 10 1810 &ndash June The kingdom successfully challenged Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of Independence with the help of Napoleon III, liberating the Lombardy-Venetia. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The Second War of Italian Independence, Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich was a kingdom in northern Italy, and part of the Austrian Empire. In 1866 Victor Emmanuel II aligned the kingdom to Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War waging the Third Italian War of Independence which allowed Italy to annex Venice. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state The Austro-Prussian The Third Italian War of Independence was a conflict which paralleled the Austro-Prussian War, and was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire In 1870, as France during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War abandoned its positions in Rome, Italy rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal State from French sovereignty. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa Italian unification finally was achieved, and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome.
As Northern Italy, was industrialized and modernized the south, became overcrowded, forcing millions of people to emigrate for a better life abroad. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one The idea of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard Evolutionary pattern as described in the Social evolutionism theories Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel The Sardinian Statuto Albertino of 1848, extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in 1861, provided for basic freedoms, but the electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting. The Statuto Albertino or Albertine Statute was the Constitution that King Charles Albert I of Sardinia conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom In 1913 male universal suffrage was allowed. The Socialist Party became the main political party, outclassing the traditional liberal and conservative organisations. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Starting from the last two decades of the nineteenth century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing Somalia, Eritrea and later Libya and Dodecanese under its rule. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Eritrea () ( Ge'ez: ኤርትራ ʾErtrā, Arabic: إرتريا Iritriya) officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab The Dodecanese ( Greek Δωδεκάνησα Dodekánisa 'twelve islands' are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean  During World War I Italy stayed at first neutral, but in 1915, signed the London Pact entering Entente, promised Trento, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia and parts of Ottoman Empire. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All London Pact ( Italian Patto di Londra) or more correctly the Treaty of London, 1915 was a secret Pact between Italy and Triple Trento (traditional English Trent; Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish During the war, 600,000 Italians died and the economy collapsed. Under the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain, Italy obtained just Bolzano-Bozen, Trento, Trieste and Istria in a victory defined as "mutilated" by public. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new The Province of Bolzano-Bozen (Provincia autonoma di Bolzano Autonome Provinz Bozen Ladin: Provinzia The Province of Trento (Provincia autonoma di Trento also called Trentino, is an Autonomous province of Italy. The Province of Trieste (Provincia di Trieste Tržaška pokrajina is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy.
The turbulence that followed the devastations of World War I, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to turmoil and anarchy. Aldo Moro ( September 23, 1916 &ndash May 9, 1978) was an Italian Politician and two-time Prime Minister of Italy This article is about the Italian group "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them The liberal establishment, fearing a socialist revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of In October 1922 the fascists attempted a coup (the "Marcia su Roma", i. e. March on Rome); but the king ordered the army not to intervene, instead forming an alliance with Mussolini. The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties thus forming a dictatorship. In 1935, Mussolini subjugated Ethiopia after a surprisingly lengthy campaign. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page This resulted in international alienation and the exodus of the country from the League of nations. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 A first pact with Nazi Germany was concluded in 1936, and a second in 1938. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy strongly supported Franco in the Spanish civil war and Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The ( German: "link-up" also known as the, was the 1938 Annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
On April 7, 1939 Italy occupied Albania, a de facto protectorate for decades and entered World War II in 1940 taking part in the late stages of the Battle of France. Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In World War II, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries Mussolini wanting a quick and swift victory which would emulate Hitler's blitzkrieg in Poland and France, invaded Greece in October 1940 via Albania but was forced to a humiliating defeat after a few months. Blitzkrieg (German for "lightning war" is a popular name for an Offensive operational-level Military doctrine which involves an initial Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία At the same time Italy after initially conquering British Somalia, saw an allied counter-attack leading to the loss of all possessions in the Horn of Africa. British Somaliland was a British Protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa. The Horn of Africa (alternatively Northeast Africa, and sometimes Somali Peninsula; shortened to HOA) is a Peninsula in East Africa Italy was also defeated by British forces in North Africa and was only saved by the urgently dispatched German Africa Corps led by Erwin Rommel. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The German Afrikakorps ( German: Deutsches Afrikakorps DAK) was the original German blocking force (Sperrverband = Armored Blocking Force in Libya Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ( 15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) (also known as the " Desert Fox " Wüstenfuchs Italy was invaded by Allies in June 1943 leading to the collapse of the fascist regime and the arrest of Mussolini. In September 1943, Italy surrendered. The Armistice with Italy was an Armistice signed on September 3 and publicly declared on September 8, 1943, during World War II, between Immediately Germany invaded its former ally with the country becoming a battlefield for the rest of the war. The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. The country was liberated on April 25, 1945. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
In 1946 Vittorio Emanuele III's son, Umberto II, was forced to abdicate. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and Umberto II, occasionally anglicized as Humbert II, (September 15 1904 - March 18 1983 the last King of Italy, nicknamed the King of May ( Re Italy became a Republic after a referendum held on June 2, 1946, a day celebrated since as Republic Day. The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. The Constitution of Italy, provides for only two kinds of legally binding Referenda: a legislative referendum, which can only be called Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Republic Day is the name of a Public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became Republics January 9th in Republika This was the first election in Italy allowing women to vote.  The Republican Constitution was approved and came into force on January 1, 1948. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Under the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947, the eastern border area was lost to Yugoslavia and the free territory of Trieste was divided between the two states. The Paris Peace Conference ( July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris Peace Treaties signed on February 10, 1947 The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: The Marshall Plan in 1949 helped to revive the Italian economy which in 1950s and 1960s enjoyed a prolonged economic growth. The Marshall Plan (from its enactment officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger Italy is a founding member of European Union (EU). The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in In the 1970s and 1980s the country experienced the Years of Lead, a period characterised by widespread social conflicts and terrorist acts carried out by extra-parliamentary movements. Italy endured a period of political turmoil in the 1970s and early 1980s The assassination of the leader of the Christian Democracy , Aldo Moro, led to the end of a historic compromise between the DC and the Communist Party. Aldo Moro ( September 23, 1916 &ndash May 9, 1978) was an Italian Politician and two-time Prime Minister of Italy The term Historic Compromise ( Italian: "compromesso storico") most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia)
From 1992 to 1997, the Italian economy faced significant challenges with massive government debt, extensive corruption, and organized crime's considerable influence collectively called the political system Tangentopoli. Tangentopoli ( Italian for bribesville) was the name used to indicate the corruption -based system in politics that had its heyday in Italy The Tangentopoli scandals involved all major parties, and between 1992 and 1994 the DC underwent a severe crisis splitting up into several factions, including the Italian People's Party and the Christian Democratic Center. The Italian People's Party ( Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI was a christian-democratic political party in Italy History The party emerged The Christian Democratic Centre ( Centro Cristiano Democratico, CCD was a christian-democratic party in Italy. The PSI completely dissolved. The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa
The 1994 elections put media magnate Silvio Berlusconi into the Prime Minister's seat. (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor However he was forced to step down in December when Lega Nord withdrew its support. Lega Nord (Northern League LN whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for Independence of Padania) is an Italian In April 1996, national elections led to the victory of a centre-left coalition under the leadership of Romano Prodi. (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May Prodi's first government became the third-longest to stay in power before he narrowly lost a vote of confidence, by three votes, in October 1998. A new government was formed by Massimo D'Alema, but in April 2000 he resigned. Massimo D'Alema (born April 20 1949) is an Italian politician In 2001 the centre-right formed government and Silvio Berlusconi was able to remain in power for a complete five year mandate, but with two different governments. A national general election was held in Italy on May 13, 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor The first one (2001–2005) became the longest government in post-war Italy. Italy participated in the US-led military coalition in Iraq. Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants The elections in 2006 won by centre-left, allowed Prodi to form his second government but in early 2008, he resigned because of the collapse of his coalition. In the Italian general election 2006 for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy held on April 9 and April 10, 2006 In the ensuing new early elections in April 2008, Silvio Berlusconi convincingly won to form a government for the third time. A snap general election was held in Italy on 13 April and 14 April 2008.
Italy occupies a long, boot-shaped peninsula, surrounded on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea and on the east by the Adriatic Sea. Italy is located in southern Europe and comprises the long boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, the land between the peninsula and the Alps, Italy is a volcanically active country containing the only active volcano in mainland Europe. Asinara (Italian for "Donkey-inhabited" but its name comes from Latin "Sinuaria" and means sinus-shaped island is an Italian island of 51 Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) A boot is a type of Shoe that covers at least the Foot and the Ankle and sometimes extends up to the Knee or even the Hip. The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno is part of the Mediterranean Sea off of the western coast of Italy. It is bounded by France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia to the north. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west The Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone; the Alps form its northern boundary. The largest of its northern lakes is Garda (143 sq mi; 370 km²); the Po, its principal river, flows from the Alps on Italy's western border and crosses the great Padan plain to the Adriatic Sea. Lake Garda ( Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest Lake in Italy. The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering Po RiverThe Po Valley (Pianura Padana or Val Padana is a major geographical feature of Italy. Several islands form part of Italy; the largest are Sicily (9,926 sq mi; 25,708 km²) and Sardinia (9,301 sq mi; 24,090 km²). Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) There are several active volcanoes in Italy: Etna, the largest active volcano in Europe; Vulcano; Stromboli; and Vesuvius, the only active volcano on the mainland of Europe. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Vulcano is a small volcanic island ( in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km north of Sicily and the southernmost of the Aeolian Islands. Stromboli (Strongyle is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy Mount Vesuvius (in Italian Monte Vesuvio and in Latin Mons Vesuvius) is an active Stratovolcano east of Naples Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European
The climate in Italy is highly diverse and can be far from the stereotypical Mediterranean climate depending on the location. Po RiverThe Po Valley (Pianura Padana or Val Padana is a major geographical feature of Italy. Both the mountain chains can see up to 5&ndash10 m of snow in a year at 2000 m on the highest peaks of the Alps snow may fall even during mid summer and glaciers are present A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide Most of the inland northern areas of Italy (for example Turin, Milan and Bologna) have a continental climate often classified as Humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Continental climate is a Climate that is characterized by Winter Temperatures cold enough to support a fixed period of Snow cover each Year Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist The coastal areas of Liguria and most of the peninsula south of Florence generally fit the Mediterranean stereotype (Köppen climate classification Csa). Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist The coastal areas of the peninsula can be very different from the interior higher altitudes and valleys, particularly during the winter months when the higher altitudes tend to be cold, wet, and often snowy. The coastal regions have mild winters and warm and generally dry summers, although lowland valleys can be quite hot in summer.
The 1948 Constitution of Italy established a bicameral parliament (Parlamento), consisting of a Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) and a Senate (Senato della Repubblica), a separate judiciary, and an executive branch composed of a Council of Ministers (cabinet) (Consiglio dei ministri), headed by the prime minister (Presidente del consiglio dei ministri). The politics of Italy take place in a framework of a parliamentary, democratic Republic, and of a Multi-party system. Prime Ministers of Italy (1861-Present Presidents of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946 Presidents of the Council of Ministers Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29 1925) is an Italian Politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana is the Head of State of Italy, and as such is intended to represent national unity The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62 In Government, bicameralism (bi + Latin la ''camera'' chamber is the practice of having two legislative or Parliamentary chambers Thus a bicameral TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The Parliament of Italy ( Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. The Italian Chamber of Deputies ( Camera dei Deputati) is the Lower house of the Parliament of Italy. The Italian Senate ( Italian: Senato della Repubblica, 'Senate of the Republic' is the Upper house of the Parliament of Italy. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica) is elected for seven years by the parliament sitting jointly with a small number of regional delegates. The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana is the Head of State of Italy, and as such is intended to represent national unity The president nominates the prime minister, who proposes the other ministers (formally named by the president). The Council of Ministers must obtain a confidence vote from both houses of Parliament. Legislative bills may originate in either house and must be passed by a majority in both.
The houses of parliament are popularly and directly elected through a complex electoral system (latest amendment in 2005) which combines proportional representation with a majority prize for the largest coalition (Chamber). TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those All Italian citizens older than 18 can vote. Nationality law in Italy, like that of many European countries favors Jus sanguinis. However, to vote for the senate, the voter must be at least 25 or older. The electoral system in the Senate is based upon regional representation. The Italian Senate ( Italian: Senato della Repubblica, 'Senate of the Republic' is the Upper house of the Parliament of Italy. During the elections in 2006, the two competing coalitions were separated by few thousand votes, and in the Chamber the centre-left coalition (L'Unione; English: The Union) got 345 Deputies against 277 for the centre-right one (Casa delle Libertà; English: House of Freedoms), while in the Senate L'Unione got only two Senators more than absolute majority. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Union ( Italian: L'Unione) was an Italian Centre-left Political party coalition led by Romano Prodi, the Casa delle Libertà ( CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms) was a major Italian Center-right Political alliance led by The Chamber of Deputies has 630 members and the Senate 315 elected senators; in addition, the Senate includes former presidents and appointed senators for life (no more than five) by the President of the Republic according to special constitutional provisions. The Italian Chamber of Deputies ( Camera dei Deputati) is the Lower house of the Parliament of Italy. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. As of May 15, 2006 there are seven life senators (of which three are former Presidents). Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. A senator for life is a member of the Senate elected or appointed for lifetime Both houses are elected for a maximum of five years, but both may be dissolved by the President before the expiration of their normal term if the Parliament is unable to elect a stable government. In the post war history, this has happened in 1972, 1976, 1979, 1983, 1994, 1996 and 2008.
A peculiarity of the Italian Parliament is the representation given to Italian citizens permanently living abroad (about 2. The Parliament of Italy ( Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. Nationality law in Italy, like that of many European countries favors Jus sanguinis. 7 million people). Among the 630 Deputies and the 315 Senators there are respectively 12 and 6 elected in four distinct foreign constituencies. Those members of Parliament were elected for the first time in April 2006 and they have the same rights as members elected in Italy.
The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. Roman law is the legal system of Ancient Rome. As used in the West the term commonly refers to legal developments prior to the Roman/Byzantine state's adopting The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) is the French Civil code, established under The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte Costituzionale) rules on the conformity of laws with the Constitution and is a post—World War II innovation. The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana is a Supreme court of Italy, the other being the Court of Cassation The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62
Italy was a founding member of the European Community—now the European Union (EU). The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955 and is a member and strong supporter of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Council of Europe. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The North Atlantic Treaty The 'General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade' (typically abbreviated 'GATT' was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO The Council of Europe (Conseil de l'Europe is the oldest International organisation working towards European integration, being founded in 1949 Its recent turns as rotating Presidency of international organisations include the CSCE (the forerunner of the OSCE) in 1994 G8, the EU in 2001 and from July to December 2003.
Italy supports the United Nations and its international security activities. Italy deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. Italy deployed over 2,000 troops to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in February 2003. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Italy still supports international efforts to reconstruct and stabilize Iraq, but it has withdrawn its military contingent of some 3,200 troops as of November 2006, maintaining only humanitarian workers and other civilian personnel. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I, is a military command, led by the United States that is fighting the Iraq War against Iraqi insurgents or resistants
In August 2006 Italy sent about 3,000 soldiers to Lebanon for the ONU peacekeeping mission UNIFIL. Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Peacekeeping, as defined by the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL, was created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution  Furthermore, since 2 February 2007 an Italian, Claudio Graziano is the commander of the UN force in the country. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
Article 11 of the Italian Constitution says: "Italy rejects war as an instrument of aggression against the freedoms of others peoples and as a means for settling international controversies; it agrees, on conditions of equality with other states, to the limitations of sovereignty necessary for an order that ensures peace and justice among Nations; it promotes and encourages international organizations having such ends in view". The Alpini, meaning "the Alpines quot, are the elite Mountain warfare soldiers of the Italian Army. The 4th Alpini Regiment was a Light Infantry Regiment of the Italian Army, specializing in Mountain Combat. The Amerigo Vespucci is a Tall ship of the Marina Militare, named after the explorer Amerigo Vespucci. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Pratica di Mare Air Force Base is an Italian Air Force installation southwest of Rome, Italy. The Italian Armed forces are under the command of the Italian Supreme Defense Council presided over by the President of the Italian Republic. The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62
The Italian armed forces are under the command of the Italian Supreme Defense Council, presided over by the President of the Italian Republic. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana is the Head of State of Italy, and as such is intended to represent national unity The total number of military personnel is approximately 308,000. Italy has the eighth-highest military expenditure in the world. This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available A military budget of an entity most often a Nation or a State, is the Budget and financial resources dedicated to raising and maintaining 
The Italian armed forces are divided into four branches:
The Esercito Italiano (the Italian Army) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano is the ground defense force of the Military of Italy. It has recently (July 29, 2004) become a professional all-volunteer force of 115,687 active duty personnel. Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Active duty refers to a full-time occupation as part a military force as opposed to reserve duty. Its most famous combat vehicles are Dardo, Centauro and Ariete, and Mangusta attack helicopters, recently deployed in UN missions; but the Esercito Italiano also has at its disposal a large number of Leopard 1 and M113 armored vehicles. The Dardo is a Infantry Fighting Vehicle designed for the Italian Army as a replacement for the M113 APC The Centauro is a wheeled Tank destroyer designed for light to medium territorial defense and tactical reconnaissance The C1 Ariete is a Main battle tank developed for the Italian Army by Iveco Fiat and Oto Melara. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a German designed and produced main battle tank that first entered service in 1965 and was used as the main battle tank
The Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. The Italian Armed forces are under the command of the Italian Supreme Defense Council presided over by the President of the Italian Republic. It was created in 1946, as the Navy of the Italian Republic, from the Regia Marina. The Regia Marina ( Italian Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. Today's Marina Militare is a modern navy with a strength of 35,261 and ships of every type, such as aircraft carriers, destroyers, modern frigates, submarines, amphibious ships and other smaller ships such as oceanographic research ships. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship
The Marina Militare is now equipping herself with a bigger aircraft carrier (the Cavour), new destroyers, submarines and multipurpose frigates. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with Description The ship is designed to combine fixed wing V/STOL and helicopter air operations command and control operations and the transport of military or civil personnel and heavy In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship In modern times, the Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The North Atlantic Treaty The Marina Militare is considered the fourth strongest navy of the world.
The Aeronautica Militare Italiana (AMI) is the air force of Italy. The Aeronautica Militare is the Air force of Italy. It has held a prominent role in modern Italian military history. An air force, also known in some countries as an air army or historically an army air corps, is in the broadest sense the national military or armed service It was founded as an independent service arm on 28 March 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica (which translates to "Royal Air Force"). Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. Year 1923 ( MCMXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and The Royal Air Force ( Regia Aeronautica) was the name of the Italian Air Force established as an independent service from 1923 until the After World War II, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the Regia Aeronautica was given its current name. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Today the Aeronautica Militare has a strength of 45,879 and operates 585 aircraft, including 219 combat jets and 114 helicopters. As a stopgap and as replacement for leased Tornado ADV interceptors, the AMI has leased 30 F-16A Block 15 ADF and four F-16B Block 10 Fighting Falcons, with an option for some more. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The coming years also will see the introduction of 121 EF2000 Eurofighter Typhoons, replacing the leased F-16 Fighting Falcons. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Furthermore updates are foreseen on the Tornado IDS/IDT and the AMX-fleet. The transport capacity is guaranteed by a fleet of 22 C-130Js, also a completely new developed G222, called C-27J Spartan (12 aircraft ordered), will enter service replacing the G222's. The Italian air force is also planning on purchasing F-35, although they have not been distributed around the world yet. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
The Carabinieri are the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, providing the republic with a national police service. The Carabinieri (Italian for Carabiniers are the national-level Gendarmerie of Italy who also perform Military police duties A gendarmerie or gendarmery (dʒɛnˈdɑrməriː or /ˌʒɑndɑrməˈriː/ after the French is a Military body charged with Police duties among civilian Military police ( MPs) are normally the Police of a Military Organization. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force At the Sea Islands Conference of the G8 in 2004, the Carabinieri was given the mandate to establish a Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (CoESPU) to spearhead the development of training and doctrinal standards for civilian police units attached to international peacekeeping missions. The 30th G8 summit took place in Sea Island, Georgia, United States, on June 8 - June 10 2004. 
Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni, singular regione). In Italy, a Province (in Italian provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between Municipality ( Comune In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic Administrative division of both provinces and regions and may be properly approximated in Examples of administrative divisions English terms In many of the following terms corresponding to British cultural influence areas of relatively low mean population Five of these regions have a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on some of their local matters, and are marked by an *. Article 116 of the Italian Constitution contemplates that five of the 20 regions of Italy shall benefit of particular conditions of Autonomy It is further divided into 109 provinces (province) and 8,101 municipalities (comuni).
In May of 2007, Italy officially reached more than 59. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology L'Aquila is a city and Comune of central Italy. Laid out within medieval walls on a hill in the wide valley of the Aterno river and surrounded Basilicata is a region in the south of Italy, bordering on Campania to the west Apulia ( Puglia) to the east Calabria to Potenza (poˈtentsa is a town and Comune in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata (former Lucania Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Catanzaro (Katantheros Katastarioi Lokroi is a city in Calabria, Italy, the capital of both the Province of Catanzaro and the whole region of Calabria Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Bologna. Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Friuli-Venezia Giulia ( Friulian: Friûl-Vignesie Julie, Friaul-Julisch Venetien Furlanija - Julijska krajina Friul-Venezsia Jułia is one of the twenty Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The Marche (plural originally from le marche de Ancona, referring to the March of Ancona) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. Ancona (Ankon is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101909 (2005 Molise is a region of Southern Italy, the second smallest of the regions Campobasso (Campobassan Dialect Kambuàš) is the capital city of the Molise region in Italy. Piedmont ( Piemonte; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol ( Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut   Trento (traditional English Trent; Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. Perugia is the capital City of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river and the capital of the Province of Perugia Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Veneto or Venetia ( Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the 4 million persons. Italy currently has the fourth largest population in the European Union, and the 22nd largest population in the world. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Italy's population density at 196. 1 persons per kilometre is the 5th highest in the European Union. The highest density is in northwestern Italy, as two regions out of twenty (Lombardy and Piedmont) combined, contain one quarter of the Italian population.
After the second world war, Italy saw an economic boom which lead to rural Italians moving to the cities, and high fertility persisted until the 1980’s when it plunged below replacement. As of 2007, one in five Italians was pensioners. Despite this, Italy saw natural population growth for the first time in years. 
Italian cities with a population of 300,000 or more (ISTAT data, December 2006):
|Pos. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy||Common||Region||Prov.||Inhabitants|
|Milan||7. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Piedmont ( Piemonte; Piedmontese and Occitan: Piemont; French: Piémont) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Bologna. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Tuscany (Toscana is a region in Italy. It has an area of 22990 km² and a population of about 3 Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Catania ( Greek: &ndash Katánē; Latin: Catăna and Catĭna; Arabic: Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The Milan metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as "Greater Milan" (Grande Milano is the Urban agglomeration centred around the city of Milan, 4 million|
|Rome||3. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 8 million|
|Naples||3. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the 1 million|
|Turin||2. 4 million|
Italy is a destination for immigrants from all over the world. At the end of 2006, foreigners comprised 5% of the population or 2,938,922 persons, an increase of 270,000 since the previous year. In some Italian cities, such as Brescia, Milan, Padua, and Prato, immigrants total more than 10% of the population. Brescia ( Lombard: Brèsa) is a city in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. Prato is a city in Tuscany, Italy, the capital of the Province of Prato.
The most recent wave of migration has been from surrounding European nations, particularly Eastern Europe, replacing North Africans as a major source of migrants. Around 500,000 Romanians are officially registered as living in Italy, but unofficial estimates put the actual number at double that figure or perhaps even more.  As of 2006, migrants came from Eastern Europe (39. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. 14%), North Africa (17. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan 77%), Asia (17. 43%), Latin America (8. 90%). Smaller groups came from sub-Saharan Africa, North America and other European Union nations. Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto 
|Ethnic group||Population||% of total*|
|Ethnic Italian||56,000,000||94. 96%|
|Asian (non-Chinese)||326,000||0. 55%|
|South American||239,000||0. 41%|
|Black African||210,000||0. 36%|
|* Percentage of total population|
Roman Catholicism is by far the largest religion in the country. Catholicism is by far the largest religious group in Italy (Catholics make up for the 87 Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian Denomination in Italy. The history of Islam in Italy dates back to the 7th and 8th centuries when some of the Lombards, a Germanic people that ruled parts of northern Italy converted from Jews have been present in Italy from the Roman period until today Buddhism is the third most widespread Religion in Italy, after Christianity and Islam: it has about 100 This is a list of Italian Politicians belonging to a religious group, different from the dominant Roman Catholicism. Although the Catholic Church is no longer officially the state religion, it still plays a role in the nation's political affairs. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially 87. 8% of Italians identified as Roman Catholic , although only about one-third of these described themselves as active members (36. 8%).
Other Christian groups in Italy include more than 700,000 Eastern Orthodox Christians , including 470,000 newcomers PDF (65. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world 4 KiB) and some 180,000 Greek Orthodox, 550,000 Pentecostals and Evangelicals (0. A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International The Greek Orthodox Church ( Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) is formed by several autocephalous churches Pentecostalism is a renewalist religious movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the Baptism Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel 8%), of whom 400,000 are members of the Assemblies of God, 235,685 Jehovah's Witnesses (0. The World Assemblies of God Fellowship, or Assemblies of God for short is the world's largest Pentecostal denomination with over 283413 churches and outstations Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination 4%) , 30,000 Waldensians , 25,000 Seventh-day Adventists, 22,000 Mormons, 15,000 Baptists (plus some 5,000 Free Baptists), 7,000 Lutherans, 5,000 Methodists (affiliated to the Waldensian Church) . General description The earliest Waldensians believed in poverty and austerity promoting true poverty public preaching and the personal study of the scriptures The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations
The country's oldest religious minority is the Jewish community, comprising roughly 45,000 people. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut It is no longer the largest non-Christian group.
As a result of significant immigration from other parts of the world, some 825,000 Muslims  (1. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 4%) live in Italy, though only 50,000 are Italian citizens. Nationality law in Italy, like that of many European countries favors Jus sanguinis. In addition, there are 110,000 Buddhists (0. A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. Historical Buddhist thinkers and founders of schools Individuals are grouped by nationality except in cases where the 2%)   PDF (65. 4 KiB), 70,000 Sikhs , and 70,000 Hindus (0. A kibibyte (a contraction of ki lo bi nary byte) is a unit of Information or Computer storage, established by the International Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. 1%) in Italy.
According to GDP calculations, Italy was ranked as the seventh largest economy in the world in 2006, behind the United States, Japan, Germany, China, UK, and France, and the fourth largest in Europe. The economy of Italy has changed dramatically since the end of World War II. This is a list of Companies from Italy. Aerospace and Defence Aermacchi ( Aircraft) Alenia The Borsa Italiana Sp A, based in Milan, is Italy 's main Stock exchange. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. A stock exchange, share market or bourse is a Corporation or Mutual organization which provides "trading" facilities for Stock The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. According to the OECD, in 2004 Italy was the world's sixth-largest exporter of manufactured goods. This capitalistic economy remains divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less developed agricultural south. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
According to World Bank data, Italy has high levels of freedom to invest, do business, and trade. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e On the other hand, Italy has inefficient bureaucracy, relatively low property rights and high levels of corruption (compared to other European countries), heavy taxes, and heavy public consumption at around half of GDP.  Italy has been in economic decline compared to most other EU-15 countries.
Most raw materials needed by industry and more than 75% of energy requirements are imported. Over the past decade, Italy has pursued a tight fiscal policy in order to meet the requirements of the Economic and Monetary Union and has benefited from lower interest and inflation rates. In economics a Monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency amongst themselves Italy joined the Euro from its introduction in 1999. Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e
Italy's economic performance has at times lagged behind that of its EU partners, and the current government has enacted numerous short-term reforms aimed at improving competitiveness and long-term growth. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in It has moved slowly, however, on implementing certain structural reforms favoured by economists, such as lightening the high tax burden and overhauling Italy's rigid labour market and expensive pension system, because of the economic slowdown and opposition from labour unions. A pension is a steady income given to a person upon Retirement, typically in the form of a guaranteed annuity. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
Italy has a smaller number of world class multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size. Instead, the country's main economic strength has been its large base of small and medium size companies. Some of these companies manufacture products that are technologically moderately advanced and therefore face increasing competition from China and other emerging Asian economies which are able to undercut them on labour costs. These Italian companies are responding to the Asian competition by concentrating on products with a higher technological content, while moving lower-tech manufacturing to plants in countries where labour is less expensive. The small average size of Italian companies remains a limiting factor, and the government has been working to encourage integration and mergers and to reform the rigid regulations that have traditionally been an obstacle to the development of larger corporations in the country.
Italy's major exports are motor vehicles (Fiat Group, Aprilia, Ducati, Piaggio), chemicals, petrochemicals (Eni), electricity (Enel, Edison), home appliances (Merloni, Candy), aerospace and defense tech (Alenia, Agusta, Finmeccanica), firearms (Beretta); but the country's more famous exports are in the fields of fashion (Armani, Valentino, Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Benetton, Prada, Luxottica), food industry (Ferrero, Barilla Group, Martini & Rossi, Campari, Parmalat), luxury vehicles (Ferrari, Maserati, Lamborghini, Pagani) and motoryachts (Ferretti, Azimut). The automobile industry in Italy is a quite large employer in the country with a labour force of over 196000 (2004 working in the industry Fiat SpA (an Acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin) is an Italian automobile manufacturer For the Italian city see Aprilia Latina. Aprilia is an Italian Motorcycle company one of the seven marques owned by Ducati Motor Holding SpA ( Borsa Italiana: DMH is an Italian Motorcycle manufacturer located in Bologna Italy. Piaggio based in Pontedera, Italy encompasses seven brands producing scooters and motorcycles Eni SpA () is an Italian multinational oil and gas company with a presence in 70 countries currently Italy's largest industrial company with Enel ( E nte N azionale per l'energia EL ettrica is an Italian Energy provider and the third largest energy provider in the Edison SpA (EDN Milan Stock Exchange) is the second largest energy company in Italy in the field of electricity and Natural gas. Refrigerator1svg|left|100px]]A major appliance, or domestic appliance, is usually defined as a large Machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task which Alenia Aeronautica is an Aerospace engineering corporation in Italy, a subsidiary of Finmeccanica. Augusta Agusta (now part of AgustaWestland) is an Italian Helicopter manufacturer Finmeccanica SpA is an Italian conglomerate. Finmeccanica is the second largest industrial group and the largest of the Hi-tech industrial groups based This article is about a firearm manufacturer for the car see Chevrolet Beretta. Giorgio Armani SpA is an Italian fashion company The company designs and manufactures products in several categories including fashion accessories apparel cosmetics Valentino SpA is a clothing company founded in 1959 by Valentino Garavani. Gianni Versace SpA (ˈdʒɑnːi verˈsatʃe usually referred to as Versace, is an Italian clothier founded by Gianni Versace in 1978 Dolce & Gabbana (ˈdolt͡ʃe ænd gaˈbana is an Italian Fashion house. Benetton Group SpA is a global clothing Brand, based in Treviso, Italy. Prada SpA is an Italian high-fashion company (also referred to as fashion House or Label) specializing in Luxury goods for men and women Luxottica Group SpA () is the world's biggest eyewear company Ferrero SpA is an Italian manufacturer of Chocolate and other confectionery products founded by Confectioner Pietro Ferrero in 1946 Barilla SpA ( Barilla G e R Fratelli Società per Azioni) is a major Italian Food company Martini & Rossi is an Italian multinational Alcoholic beverage company primarily associated with the Martini brand of Vermouth and also with Sparkling Campari is an alcoholic (alcohol 205% 41 proof Aperitif obtained from the infusion of sixty ingredients combined and macerated in a blend of distilled water Parmalat SpA ( is a Multinational Italian Dairy and food corporation Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury &mdash that which is beyond strict necessity &mdash in exchange for increased cost to the buyer Ferrari SpA is an Italian Sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy Maserati is an Italian manufacturer of racing cars and Sports cars established on December 1, 1914, in Bologna. Automobili Lamborghini SpA, commonly referred to as Lamborghini, is an Italian manufacturer of Sports cars based in the small Italian Village Pagani Automobili SpA is an Italian manufacturer of Sports cars and Carbon fibre. Ferretti Group is an Italian yachtbuilding conglomerate founded in 1968 The company of Azimut was established by Paolo Vitelli in 1969
Tourism is very important to the Italian economy: with over 37 million tourists a year, Italy is ranked as the fifth major tourist destination in the world. With more than 365 million Tourists a year Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world behind France (76 The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication 
The railway network in Italy totals 19,394 kilometres (12,051 mi), ranking the country 16th in the world, and is operated by Ferrovie dello Stato. Transport in Italy Railways List of railway companies# Italy|List of tram and light-rail transit systems# Italy|List of town tramway ETR 500 ( Elettro Treno Rapido 500) is a family of Italian high-speed trains introduced in 1993 Milan Central Station (in Italian Stazione Centrale di Milano or Milano Centrale) is one of the main European Railway stations It is a "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The Ferrovie dello Stato (Italian State Railways or FS is the operator of the Italian Railway network High speed trains include ETR-class trains, of which the ETR 500 travels at 300 km/h (190 mph). ETR 500 ( Elettro Treno Rapido 500) is a family of Italian high-speed trains introduced in 1993
In 1991 Treno Alta Velocità SpA was created, a special purpose entity owned by RFI (itself owned by Ferrovie dello Stato) for the planning and construction of high-speed rail lines along Italy's most important and saturated transport routes. Treno Alta Velocità SpA is Special purpose entity owned by RFI (itself owned by Ferrovie dello Stato) for the planning and construction of a high-speed A special purpose entity ( SPE) (sometimes especially in Europe " special purpose vehicle " or simply SPV) is a body corporate (usually a Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (RFI is an Italian company fully owned by Ferrovie dello Stato. The Ferrovie dello Stato (Italian State Railways or FS is the operator of the Italian Railway network These lines are often referred as "TAV" lines. The purpose of TAV construction is to aid travel along Italy's most saturated rail lines and to add tracks to these lines, namely the Milan-Naples and Turin-Milan-Venice corridors. One of the focuses of the project is to turn the rail network of Italy into a modern and high-tech passenger rail system in accordance with updated European rail standards. A secondary purpose is to introduce high-speed rail to the country and its high-priority corridors. When demand on regular lines is lessened with the opening of dedicated high-speed lines, those regular lines will be used primarily for low-speed regional rail service and freight trains. With these ideas realised, the Italian train network can be integrated with other European rail networks, particularly the French TGV, German ICE, and Spanish AVE systems. The TGV ( t rain à g rande v itesse, French for "high-speed train" is France 's High-speed rail service The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries Ave! or aue! is a Latin phrase used by the Romans as a salutation and Greeting, meaning 'hail'
There are approximately 654,676 km(406,797 mi) of serviceable roadway in Italy, including 6,957 km (4,323 mi) of expressways .
There are approximately 133 airports in Italy, including the two hubs of Malpensa International (near Milan) and Leonardo Da Vinci International (near Rome). An airline hub is an Airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination Malpensa Airport is located in the province of Varese, about 50 km from central Milan, Italy.
There are 27 major ports in Italy, the largest is in Genoa, which is also the second largest in the Mediterranean Sea, after Marseille. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Marseille, ( English alt Marseilles mɑrˈseɪ — French: maʁsɛj locally — Provençal Occitan: Marselha maʀˈsijɔ 2,400 km (1,500 mi) of waterways traverse Italy.
Italy did not exist as a state until the country's unification in 1861. The Culture of Italy can be found in the Roman ruins remaining in much of the country the precepts of the Roman Catholic Church, the spirit of the The history of Italian cinema began just a few months after the Lumière brothers had discovered the medium when Pope Leo XIII was filmed Freedom of the press is a constitutional right in Italy, secured in 1947 History In Italy a state-wide public school system or Education System has existed since 1859 when the Legge Casati (Casati Act mandated educational responsibilities for the The following is a complete list of film directors from Italy. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Due to this comparatively late unification, and the historical autonomy of the regions that comprise the Italian Peninsula, many traditions and customs that are now recognized as distinctly Italian can be identified by their regions of origin. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe Despite the political and social isolation of these regions, Italy's contributions to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe remain immense. Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (41) to date. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. Asia Minor, Cyprus, all of the Aegean Islands, the Canaries
Italian painting is traditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light, as exemplified in the works of Caravaggio and Titian, and a preoccupation with religious figures and motifs. Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and Etruscans See also Etruscan art Etruscan bronze figures and terracotta funerary reliefs include examples of a vigorous Central Italian tradition which had waned Famous Italian painters (in alphabetical order Francesco Albani (1578–1660 Mariotto Albertinelli (1474–1515 Currently available on wikipedia are the following Italian designers B Mario Bellini Andrea Branzi C Antonio Citterio Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Italian painting enjoyed preeminence in Europe for hundreds of years, from the Romanesque and Gothic periods, and through the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the latter two of which saw fruition in Italy. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Notable artists whom fall within these periods include Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Botticelli, Fra Angelico, Tintoretto, Caravaggio, Bernini, Titian and Raphael. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Fra Angelico (c 1395 &ndash February 18 1455) born Guido di Pietro, was an Early Italian Renaissance painter referred to in Vasari Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin; September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, usually just known as Caravaggio, (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610 was an Italian Artist active in Rome "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c 1485 &ndash August 27 1576 better known as Titian, was the leading painter of the 16th-century Venetian Raphael Sanzio, usually known by his first name alone (in Italian Raffaello) (April 6 or March 28 1483 – April 6 1520 was an Italian painter and Thereafter, Italy was to experience a continual subjection to foreign powers which caused a shift of focus to political matters, leading to its decline as the artistic authority in Europe. Not until 20th century Futurism, primarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla, would Italy prove to recapture any of its former prestige as a seminal place of artistic evolution. Futurism was an Art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century Umberto Boccioni ( October 19 1882 &ndash August 17 1916) was a painter and a sculptor. Giacomo Balla ( July 18, 1871 - March 1, 1958) was an Italian painter Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow. Giorgio de Chirico ( July 10, 1888 &ndash November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist and then Surrealist Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members
With the basis of the modern Italian language established through the Florentine poet, Dante Alighieri, whose greatest work, the Divina Commedia, is considered amongst the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages, there is no shortage of celebrated literary figures; the writers and poets Giovanni Boccaccio, Giacomo Leopardi, Alessandro Manzoni, Torquato Tasso, Ludovico Ariosto, and Petrarch, whose best known vehicle of expression, the sonnet, was invented in Italy. Italian poetry is a category of Italian literature. Important Italian poets Giacomo da Lentini a 13th Century poet who is believed to A Vittorio Alfieri ( 1749 - 1803) Magdi Allam ( 1951 -) Corrado Alvaro ( Poets who wrote in Italian (or Italian dialects A Antonio Abati Luigi Alamanni Aleardo The Divine Comedy Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The Divine Comedy Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro Leopardi Conte ( June 29, 1798 &ndash June 14, 1837) was an Italian Poet, Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Manzoni ( March 7, 1785 May 22, 1873) was an Italian Poet and Novelist. Torquato Tasso ( 11 March 1544 &ndash 25 April 1595) was an Italian Poet of the 16th century best known for his poem Francesco Petrarca ( July 20, 1304 – July 19, 1374) known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar The sonnet is one of the poetic forms that can be found in Lyric poetry from Europe. Prominent philosophers include Giordano Bruno, Marsilio Ficino, Niccolò Machiavelli, and Giambattista Vico. Giordano Bruno (1548 – February 17, 1600) was an Italian Philosopher best-known as an early proponent of Heliocentrism and Marsilio Ficino ( Latin name Marsilius Ficinus; October 19 1433 - October 1 1499) was one of the most influential humanist Giambattista Vico, Giambattista Vigo or Giovanni Battista Vico ( June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian Modern literary figures and Nobel laureates are nationalist poet Giosuè Carducci in 1906, realist writer Grazia Deledda in 1926, modern theatre author Luigi Pirandello in 1936, poets Salvatore Quasimodo in 1959 and Eugenio Montale in 1975, satiryst and theatre author Dario Fo in 1997. Giosuè Carducci (pseudonym Enotrio Romano ( July 27, 1835 – February 16, 1907) was an Italian poet oft reckoned one of Italy's greatest Grazia Deledda ( September 27, 1871 — August 15, 1936) was an Italian Writer whose works won her a Nobel Prize Luigi Pirandello ( June 28, 1867 — December 10, 1936) was an Italian Dramatist Novelist, and short Salvatore Quasimodo ( August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author Eugenio Montale ( October 12, 1896 — September 12, 1981) was an Italian Poet, prose writer editor and translator Dario Fo (born March 24, 1926) is an Italian satirist, Playwright, Theater director, Actor, and Composer 
In science, Galileo Galilei made advancements toward the scientific revolution, and Leonardo da Vinci was the quintessential Renaissance Man. Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Italy has been the home of scientists and inventors: the physicist Enrico Fermi, leader of the team that built the first nuclear reactor; the astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini; the physicist Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery; the mathematicians Lagrange and Fibonacci; Nobel Prize in Physics laureate Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the radio; and Antonio Meucci, candidate for inventor of the telephone. Chicago Pile-1 ( CP-1) was the world's first artificial Nuclear reactor. Giovanni Domenico Cassini ( June 8, 1625 &ndash September 14, 1712) was an Italian Mathematician, Astronomer Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was a Lombard physicist known especially for the development of the first electric cell in In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy Leonardo of Pisa (c 1170 – c 1250 also known as Leonardo Pisano, Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo Fibonacci, or most commonly simply Fibonacci Marchese Guglielmo Marconi mar'koni (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937 was an Italian inventor best known for his development of a Radiotelegraph system This article covers the main arguments about who had what part in the early development of radio Antonio Meucci ( Florence, April 13, 1808 &ndash October 18, 1889) was an Italian -born inventor who developed a form of The modern telephone is the result of work done by many people all worthy of recognition of their contributions to the field
From folk music to classical, music has always played an important role in Italian culture. See also Music history of Italy The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of Opera and instrumental Classical music, the traditional The modern state of Italy did not come into being until 1861 though the roots of music on the Italian peninsula can be traced back to the music of Ancient Rome. Born 1450–1650 Bartolomeo Tromboncino (c1470–c1535 Composer of Frottola, favored of Isabella d'Este; murdered his wife renee Italian folk music has a deep and complex history National unification came quite late to the Italian peninsula, so its many hundreds of separate cultures remained Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Having given birth to opera, Italy provides many of the foundations of the classical music tradition. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of the prevailing classical music forms can trace their roots back to innovations of sixteenth and seventeenth century Italian music (such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata). The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member A symphony is a Musical composition, often extended and usually for Orchestra. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra Usage of sonata The Baroque applied the term sonata to a variety of works though most works in the Baroque Period were fugues and toccatas Italy's most famous composers include the Renaissance composers Palestrina and Monteverdi, the Baroque composers Alessandro Scarlatti, Corelli and Vivaldi, the Classical composers Paganini and Rossini, and the Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini. This is a list of Composers active during the Renaissance period of European history. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526 - 2 February 1594 was an Italian Composer of the Renaissance. Composers of the Baroque era ordered by date of birth Brief Timeline Early Baroque era composers (born 1550–1600 Composers of the Early Baroque Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2 1660 &ndash October 24 1725 was an Italian Baroque Composer especially famous for his Operas and chamber Cantatas WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arcangelo Corelli (February 17 1653 &ndash January 8 1713 was a French Violinist This is a list of composers mostly European of the Classical music era, roughly from 1730 to 1820 Niccolò Paganini ( October 27, 1782 &ndash WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( December 22, 1858 Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music. Luciano Berio, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( October 24, 1925 &ndash May 27, 2003) was an Italian Composer. Luigi Nono ( January 29, 1924 – May 8, 1990) was an Italian Avant-garde Composer of Classical music Experimental music is a term introduced by composer John Cage in 1955 Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production
While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan, and San Carlo of Naples, and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini, and the late tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene. The Teatro alla Scala (or La Scala, as it is known in Milan, Italy, is one of the world's most famous Opera houses The theatre was Maurizio Pollini (born January 5, 1942) is an Italian classical Pianist. WikipediaWikiProject Opera#Infoboxes. Thank you--> Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( October 12, Introduced in the early 1920s, Jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the anti-American cultural policies of the Fascist regime. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Today, the most notable centers of Jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. Later, Italy was at the forefront of the progressive rock movement of the 1970s, with bands like PFM and Goblin. Progressive rock (often shortened to " progressive " " prog " or " prog rock " is a form of Rock music that evolved Premiata Forneria Marconi (PFM is an Italian Progressive rock band that achieved a high level of popularity in the 1970s with success in both the British Goblin are an Italian Progressive rock band known for their soundtracks for Dario Argento films (including Deep Red Today, Italian pop music is represented annually with the Sanremo Music Festival, which served as inspiration for the Eurovision song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto. The Festival della canzone italiana (in English Italian song festival) is a popular Italian song contest running since 1951 and held annually in the city of Sanremo For the Spoleto Festival USA see Spoleto Festival USA and for the Spoleto Festival Melbourne see Melbourne International Arts Festival. For the festival in South Carolina see Spoleto Festival USA. Spoleto ( Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Singers such as the Grammy winner Laura Pausini, classical crossover artist Andrea Bocelli, and European chart topper Eros Ramazzotti have attained international acclaim. The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards)—or Grammys —are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Laura Pausini (born May 16, 1974) is an Italian pop Singer, popular in several European Latin American and Andrea Bocelli, Grande Ufficiale Ordine al merito della Repubblica Italiana OMRI (born 22 September 1958 is an Italian Operatic pop Tenor Eros Luciano Walter Ramazzotti (born on October 28, 1963) known simply as Eros Ramazzotti, is an Italian Singer and Songwriter
Popular sports include football, basketball (2nd national team sport since the 1950s), volleyball, waterpolo, fencing, rugby, cycling, ice hockey (mainly in Milan, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), roller hockey and F1 motor racing. Italy has a long sporting tradition In almost all sports both individual and team Italy has good representative and many successes The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th instance of the FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Water polo is a team water sport A team consists of six field players and one Goalkeeper. Fencing is the art of armed Combat involving Cutting, Stabbing, or slapping bludgeoning Weapons directly manipulated by hand Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Cycling is the use of Bicycles or - less commonly - Unicycles Tricycles Quadricycles and other similar wheeled Human powered vehicles Ice hockey, often referred to simply as hockey, is a team Sport played on Ice. Roller hockey is a form of Hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels Winter sports are most popular in the Northern regions, with Italians competing in international games and Olympic venues. A winter sport is a Sport commonly played during Winter. As a formal term it refers to a sport played on Snow or Ice, but informally can refer Sports are incorporated into Italian festivities like Palio (see also Palio di Siena), and the Gondola race (regatta) that takes place in Venice on the first Sunday of September. See Fiat Palio for the car Palio is the name given in Italy to an annual athletic contest very often of a historical character The Palio di Siena (known locally simply as Il Palio) the most famous Palio in Italy is a horse race held twice each year on July 2 and A Gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing Boat. Gondolas were for centuries the chief means of transportation within Venice and still have A regatta is a term used to describe either a Boat race or series of boat races Sports venues have extended from the Gladiatorial games of Ancient Rome in the Colosseum to the Stadio Olimpico of contemporary Rome, where football clubs compete. Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Gladiators (gladiatores "swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword" from la ''gladius'' "sword" were professional fighters in Ancient Rome who fought Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio Stadio Olimpico, located on the Foro Italico, is the major stadium of Rome, Italy. The most popular sport in Italy is football, the Serie A being one of the most famous competitions in the world. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Serie A (officially known as the Lega Calcio Serie A TIM for Sponsorship reasons is a professional league competition for football clubs located Italy's national football team is the second most winning team in the world (with four world championships won, the first one of whose in 1934) and the actual FIFA world champion. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (French for International Federation of Association Football)
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