In typography, italic type /ɪˈtælɪk/ or /aɪˈtælɪk/ refers to cursive typefaces based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. Typography is the art and techniques of arranging type, Type design, and modifying type Glyphs Type glyphs are created and modified using a variety In Typography, a typeface is a set of one or more Fonts designed with stylistic unity each comprising a coordinated set of Glyphs A typeface usually comprises "Handwriting" redirects here For scripts for writing down notes by hand see " Cursive " The influence from calligraphy can be seen in their usual slight slanting to the right. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 Different glyph shapes from roman type are also usually used—another influence from calligraphy. A glyph is an element of writing Two or more glyphs representing the same symbol whether interchangeable or context-dependent are called Allographs the abstract unit they In Typography, "roman" type has two principal meanings both stemming from the stylistic origin of text typefaces from inscriptional capitals used in
It is distinct therefore from oblique type, in which the font is merely distorted into a slanted orientation. Oblique type (or slanted, sloped) is a form of type that slants slightly to the right used in the same manner as Italic type. However uppercase letters are often oblique type or swash capitals rather than true italics. A swash is a typographical flourish on a Glyph, like an exaggerated Serif.
An example of normal (roman) and true italics text:
The same example, as oblique text:
Some examples of possible differences between roman and italic type, besides the slant, are below. The transformations from roman to italics are illustrated.
None of these differences are required in an italic; some, like the p variant, don't show up in the majority of italic fonts, while others, like the a and f variants, are in almost every italic. Other common differences include:
Less common differences include a descender on the z and a ball on the finishing stroke of an h, which curves back to resemble a b somewhat. Sometimes the w is of a form taken from old German typefaces, in which the left half is of the same form as the n and the right half is of the same form as the v in the same typeface. There also exist specialized ligatures for italics, such as a curl atop the s which reaches the ascender of the p in sp.
In addition to these differences in shape of letters, italic lowercases usually lack serifs at the bottoms of strokes, since a pen would bounce up to continue the action of writing. Origins & etymology Serifs are thought to have originated in the Roman alphabet with inscriptional lettering —words carved into stone in Roman antiquity Instead they usually have one-sided serifs that curve up on the outstroke (contrast the flat two-sided serifs of a roman font). One uncommon exception to this is Hermann Zapf's Melior. Hermann Zapf (born November 8, 1918) is a German Typeface designer who lives in Darmstadt, Germany (Its outstroke serifs are one-sided, but they don't curve up. )
Outside the regular alphabet, there are other italic types for symbols:
Oblique type (or slanted, sloped) is roman type which is optically skewed, but lacking the individual letter forms and cursive accoutrements of true italics. Oblique type (or slanted, sloped) is a form of type that slants slightly to the right used in the same manner as Italic type.
In many computing interfaces, the text leaning effect is called Italic, whether or not an italic font is used to render the text. The start of this confusion possibly appeared when Adrian Frutiger named the slanted versions of his typefaces Univers and Frutiger as italic. Adrian Frutiger (b 24 May 1928 is one of the prominent typeface designers of the twentieth century who continues influencing the direction of digital typography in the twenty-first Univers (ynivɛʀ French: "universe" is the name of a realist Sans-serif Typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1954 Frutiger (pronounced with a hard g) is a series of Typefaces named after its designer Adrian Frutiger. In the case of Univers, only Univers 65 Bold has a italic-named counterpart. Since then, many font families, primarily sans-serif fonts, have called the oblique fonts italic. Although updated version of those font families begin to incorporate italic features, some font families, such as Avenir Next, Linotype Univers, Neue Helvetica, do not.
Although oblique font can be generated by simply tilting base font, some designers use optical correction to correct the distorted curves introduced by the tilting alone. In addition, the tilting angle used by GUI may be different than the oblique or italic font. Some font families even have fonts in both italic and oblique variants, regardless of the presence of italic type. In addition, the oblique font can have different tilting angle from the italic font. For example, Univers 65 Bold Oblique has a smaller leaning angle than the Univers 66 Bold Italic.
If something within a run of italics needs to be italicized itself, the type is switched back to non-italicized (roman) type: "That sounds like something from The Scarlet Letter, thought Mary. In Typography, "roman" type has two principal meanings both stemming from the stylistic origin of text typefaces from inscriptional capitals used in " In this example, we have a title ("The Scarlet Letter") within an italicized thought process and therefore this title is non-italicized. It is followed by the main narrative that is outside both. It is also non-italicized and therefore not obviously separated from the former. The reader must find additional criteria to distinguish between these. Here, apart from using the attribute of italic–non-italic styles, the title also employs the attribute of capitalization.
In certain Arabic fonts (eg: Adobe Arabic, Boutros Ads), the italic font has the top of the letter leaning to the left, instead of leaning to the right. Some font families, such as Venus, Roemisch, Topografische Zahlentafel, include left leaning fonts and letters designed for German cartographic map production, even though they do not support Arabic characters.
The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that to avoid problems such as overlapping and unequally spaced characters, parentheses and brackets surrounding text that begins and ends in italic or oblique type should also be italicized. The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMS or CMOS or verbally as Chicago) is a Style guide for American English Brackets are Punctuation marks used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text Brackets are Punctuation marks used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text Oblique type (or slanted, sloped) is a form of type that slants slightly to the right used in the same manner as Italic type. An exception to this rule applies when only one end of the parenthetical is italicized (in which case roman type is preferred). In Typography, "roman" type has two principal meanings both stemming from the stylistic origin of text typefaces from inscriptional capitals used in
In media where italicization is not possible, alternatives are used as substitutes:
In HTML, the
i element is used to produce italic (or oblique) text. HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant Markup language for Web pages It provides a means to describe the structure Oblique type (or slanted, sloped) is a form of type that slants slightly to the right used in the same manner as Italic type. When the author wants to indicate emphasized text, modern Web standards recommend using the
em element, because it conveys that the content is to be emphasized, even if it can't be displayed in italics. Conversely, if the italics are purely ornamental rather than meaningful, then semantic markup practices would dictate that the author use the Cascading Style Sheets declaration
font-style: italic; instead of an
em element. HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant Markup language for Web pages It provides a means to describe the structure
Italic type was first produced by Aldus Manutius and the Aldine Press in 1501 as a condensed type for simple, compact volumes. Aldus Manutius (1449/1450 – February 6, 1515) the Latinized name of Teobaldo Mannucci, sometimes called Aldus Manutius the Elder to distinguish Aldine Press was the Printing office started by Aldus Manutius in 1494 in Venice, from which were issued the celebrated Aldine editions of the  The punches for these types were cut by Francesco da Bologna (whose name was Griffi). In 1501 Aldus wrote to his friend Scipio:
We have printed, and are now publishing, the Satires of Juvenal and Persius in a very small format, so that they may more conveniently be held in the hand and learned by heart (not to speak of being read) by everyone.
The Aldine italic was modeled on the handwriting of Italian humanist Poggio Bracciolini who wrote in a beautiful and legible style, who was himself emulating the cursive handwriting of blackletter, which Poggio Bracciolini (mistakenly) believed to be the style of Ancient Rome. (Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini ( February 11, 1380 – October 30, 1459) was one of the most important Italian humanists. Blackletter, also known as Gothic script or Gothic minuscule, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 When we read italic type to this day we are basically reading the handwriting of Poggio Bracciolini. 
Unlike the italic type of today, the capital letters were upright roman capitals which were shorter than the ascending lower-case italic letters and used about 65 tied letters (ligatures) in the Aldine Dante and Virgil of 1501.
This Aldine italic became the model for most italic types. It was very popular in its own day and was widely (and inaccurately) imitated. The Venetian Senate gave Aldus exclusive right to its use, a patent confirmed by three successive Popes, but it was widely counterfeited.  The Italians called the character Aldino, while others called it Italic.
The slanting italic capital was first introduced by printers in Lyons, and is now used in nearly all italic fonts.