The Italian resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups dedicated to fighting an Invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation A partisan is a member of an Irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
After Italy's armistice on 8 September 1943, the Italian resistance movement became massive. The Armistice with Italy was an Armistice signed on September 3 and publicly declared on September 8, 1943, during World War II, between Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Italian partisans, as military formations of the Italian resistance movement, fought German occupying forces in Italy and Greece and the Mussolini-led Fascist Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or RSI). Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the All opposition to Nazi-Fascism in Italy during the final period of World War II can be broadly defined as Resistenza. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
More than 300,000 armed fighters (among them 35,000 women) took part in the fighting forces. The Italian resistance movement included elements in the country as well as among Italian armed forces abroad. Participants in the 1944-1945 strike movement in the factories of Turin, Milan, and other industrial cities are considered to be a part of the Italian resistance movement as well; many of the strikers were later deported to German concentration camps as a result of their "sabotage" of the war effort. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial Italian soldiers who refused to cooperate with the German armed forces (Wehrmacht) after the Armistice are considered as Italian resistance heroes. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 One of the best known example of such behaviour was the Italian garrison in Cefalonia, who refused to surrender the base to overwhelming German forces, right after the Allied armistice with Italy in September 1943; six thousand prisoners were shot by a German firing squad after the struggle. The island of Kefalonia, also known as Cephallenia, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia (Ancient Greek Κεφαλληνία Modern
The 1948 democratic Constitution of the Italian Republic declared itself to be "built on the Resistance". The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62
The movement was initially composed of independent troops, spontaneously formed by members of political parties previously outlawed by the Fascist regime, or by former officers of the disbanded Royal Army loyal to the monarchy. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral A monarchy is a Form of government in which supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in an individual who is the Head of state, often for life or Later, the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (CNL; Committee of National Liberation) created by the Italian Communist Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Partito d'Azione (a republican liberal party), Democrazia Cristiana and other minor parties took control of the movement, in accordance with King Victor Emmanuel III's ministers and the Allies. The Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale (CLN was the underground political entity of Italian Partisans during the German occupation of Italy in the last years of the The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa The Action Party ( Partito d'Azione, Pd'A was an Italian Political party. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty Social liberalism, also called new liberalism (as it was originally termed high liberalism radical liberalism, modern liberalism, or Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War.
The formations were eventually divided between three main groups, the communist Garibaldi Brigades, Giustizia e Libertà Brigades (related to Partito d'Azione), and socialist Matteotti Brigades. Giustizia e Libertà ( English: Justice and Liberty) was an Italian anti- fascist organization active from 1929 to 1945 Giacomo Matteotti ( 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician Smaller groups included Catholic sympathizers and monarchists (like the Green Flames, Di Dio and Mauri), and some anarchist formations. Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment preservation or restoration of a Monarchy as a Form of government in a nation Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Relations between the different groups were not always good. For example, in 1945 in Porzus (in the province of Udine), Garibaldi Brigade partisans under Yugoslav command attacked and killed partisans of the Catholic and azionista Osoppo band. The Province of Udine (It Provincia di Udine, Friulian Provincie di Udin) is a province in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani Osoppo is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 90 km northwest The Garibaldi Brigade partisans claimed that the Catholic and azionista Osoppo band partisans had refused to accept the authority of Josip Broz Tito, the Yugoslavian partisan leader. Osoppo is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 90 km northwest They were also accused of sharing intelligence with the fascist enemy. This famous fratricide, today often quoted for the purpose of smearing Communists and their political heirs, was preceded by several instances were the reverse was true. For example, in the Maritime Alps near Mondovì in autumn 1943 some Communists partisans, fugitive after killing German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) officers in an ambush, were traded to the Nazi-Fascists by monarchist military officers from the so called azzurri or badogliani who exerted command there in an uneasy truce with the enemy. The Maritime Alps are a Mountain range in the south-western part of the Alps. Mondovì is a town and comune (township of Piedmont, northern Italy, ~70 km from Turin. The Heer was the land forces component of the German armed forces ( Wehrmacht) from 1935 to 1945, which also included the Navy ( The Heer was the land forces component of the German armed forces ( Wehrmacht) from 1935 to 1945, which also included the Navy ( An ambush is a long-established military tactic, in which the aggressors (the ambushing force use Concealment to attack a passing enemy Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician
While the largest contingents operated in mountainous districts of the Alps and the Apennine Mountains, there were also large formations in the Po plain; in the main towns of Northern Italy, the Gruppi di azione patriottica (G. The Po ( Latin: Padus, Po Ligurian: Bo, Greek: Eridanus) is a river that flows 652 km(405 miles (682 km by considering A. P. , Patriotic Action Groups) regularly carried out acts of sabotage and guerrilla warfare, and the Squadre di azione patriottica (S. Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening an enemy oppressor or employer through subversion obstruction disruption and/or destruction Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc A. P. , Patriotic Action Squads) arranged massive strike actions and campaigns of propaganda. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Not unlike the French Resistance, women were important leaders and couriers both in the armed groups, as well as in the industrial areas
In 1944, with the Allied forces nearby, the partisan resistance in Italy staged an uprising behind German lines, led by the Committee of National Liberation of Upper Italy (CLNAI). The French Resistance is the collective name used for the French Resistance movements which fought against the Nazi German A partisan is a member of an Irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation This rebellion led to the establishment of a number of provisional partisan governments throughout the mountainous regions of northern Italy, of which Ossola was the most important and received recognition from Switzerland and from Allied consulates in Switzerland. Ossola is an area of Italy situated North of the Lago Maggiore. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation By the end of 1944, German reinforcements and Benito Mussolini's remaining forces had crushed the uprising, and the area's liberation had to wait until the final offensives of 1945.
On April 19, 1945, concurrent with the renewal of the Allied offensive, the CLN called out a general insurrection. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Bologna was liberated on April 21 by Polish and Brigata Maiella troops. Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Parma and Reggio Emilia were liberated on April 24. Parma is a City in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna near Modena famous for its Architecture and the fine countryside around it For the city in the southern Italy See Reggio Calabria. For the basketball club "Bipop Carire Reggio Emilia" see Pallacanestro Reggiana. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Milano and Torino were liberated on April 25. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Last German troops left Genoa on April 26, when General Meinhold surrendered to the CLN. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy.
Allied troops arrived in the liberated cities in the next days.
The April uprising showed to the world that not all Italians agreed with the Fascist rule. Furthermore, it proved that Italians were even prepared to fight against Fascist rule at great cost to themselves. Casualties from the uprising amounted to:
During the war, German and Italian Fascist soldiers committed a number of other war crimes including:
Most of these were common practices. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
Some of the most notorious events were the Ardeatine massacre, the Marzabotto massacre, and the Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre. The Fosse Ardeatine massacre (Eccidio delle Fosse Ardeatine was a mass execution carried out in Rome on 24 March 1944 by Nazi The Marzabotto massacre was a World War II Mass murder that took place in the territory around the small village of Marzabotto in the mountainous area Sant'Anna di Stazzema is a village in Tuscany in central Italy Captured partisans or civilians were often tortured. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally The Decima Flottiglia MAS, an Italian unit under German command, is now remembered as one of the most ruthless military corps of the war. The Decima Flottiglia MAS ( Decima Flottiglia M ezzi d' As salto also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) ( Italian for "10th
The Germans profited greatly from the weakness of the Fascist puppet state in Northern Italy. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy The Germans determined that they would annex Italian territories into the Third Reich. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Two new German regions were to be established. One was the Alpenvorland and it was to comprise the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and the Province of Belluno. Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol ( Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige; German: Trentino-Südtirol; Ladin: Trentin-Adesc Aut   The Province of Belluno ( Provincia di Belluno) is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. The other was Adriatisches Kustenland and it was to comprise Istria, Quarnero, and most of today's region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. This article is about a geographical region bordering the Adriatic Sea The Kvarner Gulf ( Croatian: Kvarnerski zaljev, Italian: Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner Bay) is a Friuli-Venezia Giulia ( Friulian: Friûl-Vignesie Julie, Friaul-Julisch Venetien Furlanija - Julijska krajina Friul-Venezsia Jułia is one of the twenty In the valley of Carnia, anti-Communist forces from the Soviet Union under the command of ataman Timofey Ivanovich Domanov were used; they were promised the establishment of a Cossack republic in Northeastern Italy, to be called Kosakenland. Carnia ( Cjargne in standard Friulian, Cjargna / Cjargno in local variants of Friulian Karnien in German) is a historical-geographic The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Ataman (variants wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian ватаман (Russian regional отаман (Ukrainian was The Cossacks (Каза́ки́ Kazaki; Козаки́ Kozaki; Kozacy are a group of martial people living in the southern Steppe regions of Eastern 
Around 27 April 1945, Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were captured by partisans while trying to escape to Switzerland. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Clara Petacci ( Claretta Petacci) ( 28 February 1912 &ndash 28 April 1945) was an upper class Roman who became Italian dictator Upon the arrival of Communist partisans under "Lieutenant-Colonel Valerio" (Walter Audisio), Mussolini, Petacci, several high-ranking Fascist officials, and some other Fascist hanger-ons were taken to Dongo. Dongo is the name of several places Dongo (CO, on Lake Como in Italy Dongo Huila Angola and other places in Angola On April 28 they were summarily executed. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Many of the corpses, including those of Mussolini and Petacci, were later taken to Milan and hung up-side down in a square in the centre of the city, called "Piazzale Loreto". A total of fifteen Fascists were thus exhibited.
The Fascists executed in Dongo included: Benito Mussolini (Il Duce), Francesco Barracu (Undersecretary in cabinet office), Fernando Mezzasoma (Ministry of Popular Culture - Propaganda), Nicola Bombacci (A personal friend of Mussolini), Luigi Gatti (Mussolini's private secretary), Pisenti Liverani (Minister of Communications), Alessandro Pavolini (ex-Ministry of Popular Culture), Paolo Zerbino (Minister of Interior), Ruggero Romano (Minister Public Works), Paolo Porta (Head of Fascist Party in Lombardy), Alfredo Coppolo (Rector of the Bologna University), Ernesto Daquanno (Director of Stefani agency), Mario Nudi (President of Fascist Agriculture Association), Colonel Vito Casalinuovo (Mussolini's adjutant), Pietro Calistri (Air Force pilot), Idreno Utimperghe (possibly a journalist or Black Shirt leader), and Clara Petacci (Mussolini's mistress). Fernando Mezzasoma ( August 3, 1907 &ndash April 28, 1945) was an Italian fascist journalist and political figure Alessandro Pavolini ( September 27, 1903 &ndash April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician journalist and essayist notable for his Clara Petacci ( Claretta Petacci) ( 28 February 1912 &ndash 28 April 1945) was an upper class Roman who became Italian dictator
Achille Starace (Secretary of Fascist Party 1931-1939) was arrested and executed earlier in Milan. He was one of the fifteen Fascists exhibited in the square.
Marcello Petacci (Clara Petacci's brother) was captured with the others. But, rather than being executed in Dongo, he was shot trying to escape.