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Italian Fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest German Nazism, under Adolf Hitler, was inspired by Italian Fascism but only came to power ten years later in 1933. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Similar movements appeared throughout the world including Europe, Japan, and Latin America between World War I and World War II. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Although Fascism, strictly speaking, refers only to Italian fascism, the word is often used to describe similar ideologies and movements. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Italian Fascism is often considered to be a proper noun and thus denoted by a capital letter "F", whereas generic fascism is conventionally represented with the lower-case character "f". Italian Fascism is considered a model for other forms of fascism, yet there is disagreement over which aspects of structure, tactics, culture, and ideology represent a "fascist minimum" or core.
Fascism combined elements of corporatism, nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-Communism. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology. The position of fascism on the political spectrum is a point of contention Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Militarism is the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and After World War II, several authors forged the concept of totalitarianism to refer both to Fascism and Nazism and, in some cases, Stalinism (although the latter point, in particular, has been controversialcitation needed). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953 A citation is a reference to a source (not always the original source published or unpublished(citation needed Another central theme of Italian fascism was the struggle against what it described as the corrupt "plutocracies" of the time, France and Britain in particular. Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth
Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile wrote in 1932, in the Enciclopedia Italiana, an article titled "The Doctrine of Fascism," which has been later attributed to Benito Mussolini. Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist The Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze lettere ed arti ("Italian Encyclopaedia of Science Letters and Arts" best known as Enciclopedia Treccani or simply " The Doctrine of Fascism " (" La dottrina del fascismo " is a seminal essay signed by Benito Mussolini and officially attributed to him although Gentile had previously coined the term "statolatry" to refers to his doctrine. Statolatry, which combines Idolatry with the State, first appeared in Giovanni Gentile 's Doctrine of Fascism, published in 1931 under In this 1932 article, written a year before Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Fascism is described as a system in which:
|“||The State not only is authority which governs and molds individual wills with laws and values of spiritual life, but it is also power which makes its will prevail abroad. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately [. . . ] For the Fascist, everything is within the State and [. . . ] neither individuals nor groups are outside the State. [. . . ] For Fascism, the State is an absolute, before which individuals or groups are only relative. [. . . ] Liberalism denied the State in the name of the individual; Fascism reasserts the rights of the State as expressing the real essence of the individual. ||”|
The article discussed other political and social doctrines of the time by describing fascism as "the resolute negation of the doctrine underlying so-called scientific and Marxian socialism" [. . . ] and as rejecting in democracy "the absurd conventional lie of political equalitarianism, the habit of collective irresponsibility, the myth of felicity and indefinite progress". 
|“||Fascism is absolutely opposed to the doctrines of liberalism, both in the political and economic sphere. [. . . ] The Fascist State lays claim to rule in the economic field no less than in others; it makes its action felt throughout the length and breadth of the country by means of its corporate, social, and educational institutions, and all the political, economic, and spiritual forces of the nation, organised in their respective associations, circulate within the State. ||”|
In the essay, French anarcho-syndicalists Georges Sorel and Hubert Lagardelle, and the writer Charles Peguy (close to the socialist movement before turning to Catholicism after a mystical revelation) are invoked as the sources of fascism. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Georges Eugène Sorel ( 2 November, 1847 &ndash 29 August, 1922) was a French Philosopher and theorist of Revolutionary Hubert Lagardelle (1874–1958 was a French Syndicalist thinker influenced by Proudhon and Georges Sorel. Charles Péguy ( January 7, 1873 - September 5, 1914) was a noted French Poet, Essayist and editor. Sorel's ideas concerning syndicalism and violence are much in evidence in this document. Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front It also quotes from Ernest Renan who it says had "pre-fascist intuitions". Ernest Renan ( February 28, 1823 &ndash October 12, 1892) was a French Philosopher and writer deeply attached to his native Both Sorel and Peguy were influenced by the philosopher Henri Bergson. Bergson rejected the scientism, mechanical evolution and materialism of Marxist ideology. The term scientism can be used as a neutral term to describe the view that Natural science has authority over all other interpretations of life such as philosophical The Philosophy of materialism holds that the only thing that can be truly proven to exist is Matter, and is considered a form of Physicalism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Also, Bergson promoted the élan vital energetic and vitalist concept as an evolutionary process. For other meanings see Elan Vital Élan vital, coined by French Philosopher Henri Bergson in his 1907 Vitalism, as defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary is a doctrine that the functions of a living organism are due to a vital principle distinct from physicochemical Such spiritualism ideas have had a role in the ideological formation of Fascism (see Zeev Sternhell). Spiritualism is a Religion founded in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772 Zeev Sternhell (born 1935 is an Israeli historian and one of the world's leading experts on Fascism. Mussolini stated that Fascism negated Marxism and its theory of historical materialism. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society economics and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx ( 1818 - 1883
Ironically, some of the strongest anti-fascist movements were formed in the anarcho-syndicalist movement. Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideologies organizations governments and people In terms of ideology, Anarchism is generally regarded as the polar opposite of Fascism. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i
Fascism also borrowed from Gabriele D'Annunzio's Charter of Carnaro for his ephemeral Regency of Carnaro in the city of Fiume. Gabriele d'Annunzio ( 12 March 1863 &ndash 1 March 1938) was an Italian Poet, Journalist, Novelist The Charter of Carnaro ( Carta del Carnaro in Italian) was the constitution of the Italian Regency of Carnaro, a short-lived government in Fiume The Italian Regency of Carnaro ( Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro in Italian) was proclaimed as a state by Gabriele D'Annunzio in Fiume now the city of Rijeka (other Croatian dialects Rika and Reka, Reka Italian and Hungarian: Fiume, Sankt Veit am Pflaumb is
Sergio Panunzio, a major theoretician of Fascism in the 1920s, had a syndicalist background, but his influence waned as the movement shed all connection to the working-class autonomy of syndicalism. Sergio Panunzio ( July 20, 1886 - October 8, 1944) was an Italian Theoretician of Revolutionary Syndicalism Syndicalism is a type of movement which aims to degrade capitalist societies through action by the Working class on the industrial front
Revolutionary syndicalism had a strong influence on Fascism as well, particularly as some syndicalists intersected with D'Annunzio's ideas. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Before the First World War, syndicalism had stood for a militant doctrine of working-class revolution. It distinguished itself from Marxism because it insisted that the best route for the working class to liberate itself was the trade union rather than the party. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
The Italian Socialist Party ejected the syndicalists in 1908. The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa The syndicalist movement split between anarcho-syndicalists and a more moderate tendency. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Some moderates began to advocate "mixed syndicates" of workers and employers. In this practice, they absorbed the teachings of Catholic theorists and expanded them to accommodate greater power of the state, and diverted them by the influence of D'Annunzio to nationalist ends.
When Henri De Man's Italian translation of Au-delà du marxisme (Beyond Marxism) emerged, Mussolini was excited and wrote to the author that his criticism "destroyed any scientific element left in Marxism". Henri De Man (in Dutch: Hendrik de Man) ( Antwerp, 17 November 1885, Greng, Switzerland, 20 June Mussolini was appreciative of the idea that a corporative organization and a new relationship between labour and capital would eliminate "the clash of economic interests" and thereby neutralize "the germ of class warfare. '"
Thinkers such as Robert Michels, Sergio Panunzio, Ottavio Dinale, Agostino Lanzillo, Angelo Oliviero Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, and Edmondo Rossoni played a part in this attempt to find a third way that rejected both capitalism and Marxism. Robert Michels ( 9 January 1876, Cologne, Germany — 3 May 1936, Rome, Italy) was a German Agostino Lanzillo (1886-1952 was an Italian anarcho-syndicalist leader who became a member of Benito Mussolini 's Fascist movement Michele Bianchi ( 22 July 1883 &ndash 3 February 1930) was an eminent Italian revolutionary syndicalist leader Edmondo Rossoni (1884 &ndash June 8, 1965) was an Italian Fascist politician
The reality of corporatism and of class collaboration in Fascism is, however, disputed. Daniel Guérin, for example, categorically reject it in the classic opus Fascism and Big Business (1936), claiming it was only an ideological claim, invalidated by the reality of the economic policies of Fascism. Daniel Guérin ( May 19, 1904 - April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author best known for his work Anarchism Fascism and Big Business is a book first written in 1936 by the French historian Daniel Guérin. He underscored the absence of real representation of workers in such Fascist labour organizations, and the nomination by the state of representants of workers instead of their election.
During the 19th century, the bundle of rods, in Latin called fasces and in Italian fascio, came to symbolize strength through unity, the origin of which rested with the Roman empire, where servants of republican officials would carry a number of fasces indicative of their master's executive authority. Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Fasces (ˈfæsiːz a Plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle" symbolize summary power and Jurisdiction Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. The word fascio came in modern Italian political usage to mean group, union, band or league. During the Great War, Mussolini led a nationalist group, the Milan fascio, which was reorganized in 1919 under the new name Fasci italiani di combattimento ("League of Combat"). World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political Other fasci of the same name were created, with the common goal of opposing all those — including the king and state — whose pacific leanings were deemed to be depriving Italy of the fruits of victory in the war. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy had not again been united until its final unification in 1870. The Decline of the Roman Empire, leading to the Fall of the Roman Empire, or the Fall of Rome, was the end of the Western Roman Empire. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Mussolini desired to affirm an Italian national identity and therefore saw the unification as the first step towards returning Italy to greatness and often exploited the unification and the achievements of leading figures such as Garibaldi to induce a sense of Italian national pride. Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. The Fascist cult of national rebirth through a strong leader has roots in the romantic movement of the 19th century, as does the glorification of war. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the For example, the loss of the war with Abyssinia had been a great humiliation to Italians and consequently it was the first place targeted for Italian expansion under Mussolini. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page
The last time Italy had been a great nation was under the banner of the Roman Empire and Italian nationalists always saw this as a period of glory. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Given that even other European nations with imperial ambitions had often invoked ancient Rome in their foreign policy, architecture and vocabulary, it was perhaps inevitable that Mussolini would do the same. This included creating a new Roman empire by demolishing medieval Rome to create grand vistas of ancient monuments (e. g. , connecting Piazza Venezia and the Colosseum with the Via dei Fori Imperiali), co-opting original sites (for example, the Ara Pacis) and using ancient Roman architectural styles, with or without a modern twist (for example, the Museum of Roman Civilization at the EUR). The Piazza Venezia is a Piazza in central Rome, Italy at. It takes its name from the adjacent Palazzo Venezia. The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre ( Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio The Via dei Fori Imperiali is a road in the centre of the city of Rome that runs in a straight line from the Piazza Venezia to the Colosseum, which is itself The Ara Pacis Augustae ( Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace" commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an Altar to Peace The Museum of the Roman Civilization (Italian "Museo della Civiltà Romana" is a Museum in Rome ( Esposizione Universale The Esposizione Universale Roma ( EUR, originally called E42 is a large complex now a suburban area and business centre in Rome, Italy.
Mussolini's use of systematic propaganda to pass on simple slogans such as "believe, obey, fight" and his exploitation of the radio developed under the influence of Italian Futurism. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Futurism was an Art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century Futurism was an intellectual movement which forcefully emphasized three main ideas: technology, speed, and violence. The leader of the Futurists, Filippo Marinetti, joined Mussolini in the formation of the Fasci italiani di combattimento in March 1919, though, as the movement grew, the Futurists remained a small and isolated element. Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti ( December 22, 1876 – December 2, 1944) was an Italian ideologue More than that, some of his clownish antics, like the so-called Battle of Via Mercanti, did more harm than good to the emerging movement, which was almost destroyed in the elections of November 1919.
The kind of direct action, the energizing myth favoured by Marinetti was bringing Mussolini no political benefits whatsoever. What did was the emergence in 1920 of rural Squadrismo, a reactionary force that represented everything that Futurism did not. Squadrismo was the use of violence by Italian Fascists gangs from 1918 - 1922 It was this turn towards rural conservatism that caused Marinetti to resign from the party in a mood of disgust. Of this Mussolini said that Marinetti was "an eccentric buffoon who wants to play politics and whom no one in Italy, least of all me, takes seriously. " Though he broke with Mussolini politically in 1920, Marinetti went on to support his regime, claiming that it had fulfilled Futurism's minimum programme. In 1929 he even became the secretary of the Fascist Writer's Union, and remained loyal to Mussolini up to his death in 1944.
Many historians claim that the March 23, 1919 meeting at the Piazza San Sepolcro was the historic “birthplace” of the fascist movement. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Year 1919 ( MCMXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common However, this would imply that the Italian Fascists “came from nowhere” which could be considered false. Mussolini revived his former group, Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, in order to take part in the 1919 elections in response to an increase in Communist activity occurring in Milan. The Fascist party was the result of this continuation (not creation) of the Fasci di Combattimento. Fascio (plural fasci) is an Italian word that effectively means "league" in English and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to Political The result of the meeting was that Fascism became an organized political movement. Among the founding members were the revolutionary syndicalist leaders Agostino Lanzillo and Michele Bianchi.
In 1919, the fascists developed a program that called for:
As the movement evolved, several of these initial ideas were abandoned and rejected.
Mussolini capitalized on fear of a Communist revolution, finding ways to unite Labour and Capital to prevent class war. Class War was a UK Class struggle based group and Newspaper originally set up by Ian Bone and others in 1983 In 1926 he created the National Council of Corporations, divided into guilds of employers and employees, tasked with managing 22 sectors of the economy. The guilds subsumed both labor unions and management, and were represented in a chamber of corporations through a triad comprised of a representative from management, from labour and from the Partito Nazionale Fascista. The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Together they would plan aspects of the economy for mutual advantage. The movement was supported by small capitalists, low-level bureaucrats, and the middle classes, who had all felt threatened by the rise in power of the Socialists. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Fascism also met with great success in rural areas, especially among farmers, peasants, and in the city, the lumpenproletariat. Lumpenproletariat (a German word meaning "raggedy proletariat" is a term first defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in
Mussolini's fascist state was established more than a decade before Hitler's rise to power (1922 and the March on Rome). Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Both a movement and a historical phenomenon, Italian Fascism was, in many respects, an adverse reaction to both the apparent failure of laissez-faire economics and fear of Communism. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based
Fascism was, to an extent, a product of a general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle class of postwar Italy. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This fear arose from a convergence of interrelated economic, political, and cultural pressures. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Under the banner of this authoritarian and nationalistic ideology, Mussolini was able to exploit fears regarding the survival of capitalism in an era in which postwar depression, the rise of a more militant left, and a feeling of national shame and humiliation stemming from Italy's 'mutilated victory' at the hands of the World War I postwar peace treaties seemed to converge. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where A recession is a contraction phase of the Business cycle. The U World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Such unfulfilled nationalistic aspirations tainted the reputation of liberalism and constitutionalism among many sectors of the Italian population. Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal For the revolt in Brazil, see Constitutionalist Revolution. The term Constitutionalism is a word with a variety of meanings In addition, such democratic institutions had never grown to become firmly rooted in the young nation-state. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy
This same postwar depression heightened the allure of Marxism among an urban proletariat who were even more disenfranchised than their continental counterparts. But fear of the growing strength of trade unionism, Communism, and socialism proliferated among the elite and the middle class. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" In a way, Benito Mussolini filled a political vacuum. A power vacuum is an expression for a political situation that can occur when a Government has no identifiable central Authority. Fascism emerged as a "third way" — as Italy's last hope to avoid imminent collapse of the 'weak' Italian liberalism, and Communist revolution. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Liberalism is a broad array of related ideas and theories of Government that consider individual Liberty to be the most important political goal A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively
In this fluid situation, Mussolini took advantage of the opportunity and, rapidly abandoning the early syndicalist and republican program, put himself at the service of the antisocialist cause. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty The fascist militias, supported by the wealthy classes and by a large part of the state apparatus which saw in him the restorer of order, launched a violent offensive against the syndicalists and all political parties of a socialist or Catholic inspiration, particularly in the north of Italy (Emiglia Romagna, Toscana, etc. The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary Citizens to provide defense emergency law enforcement or Paramilitary service Is a concept in Sociology that refers to the group of people at the top of a Social hierarchy. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described ), causing numerous victims though the substantial indifference of the forces of order. These acts of violence were, in large part, provoked by fascist squadristi who were increasingly and openly supported by Dino Grandi, the only real competitor to Mussolini for the leadership of the fascist party until the Congress of Rome in 1921. For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, Dino Grandi ( June 4 1895 — May 21 1988) Conte ( Count) di Mordano was an Italian Fascist politician minister
The violence increased considerably during the period from 1920-1922 until the March on Rome. The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista Confronted by these badly armed and badly organized fascist militias attacking the Capital, King Victor Emmanuel III, preferring to avoid any spilling of blood, decided to appoint Mussolini, who at that moment had the support of 35 deputies in Parliament, President of the Council. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Victor Emmanuel continued to maintain control of the armed forces: if he had wanted to, and he did consider it, he would have had no difficulties in booting Mussolini and the completely inferior fascist forces out of Rome. For the military meaning see Armed forces. For the Soviet sports society see Armed Forces (sports society Armed Forces Therefore, it is not appropriate to refer to Mussolini's rise as a "coup d'état" since he obtained his post legally with the blessing of the sovereign of the nation. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself
As Prime Minister, the first years of Mussolini's reign were characterized by a coalition government composed of nationalists, liberals and populists and did not assume dictatorial connotations until the assassination of Matteotti. Giacomo Matteotti ( 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician In domestic politics, Mussolini favoured the complete restoration of State authority, with the integration of the Fasci di Combattimento into the armed forces (the foundation in January 1923 of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale) and the progressive identification of the Party with the State. He supported the wealthy industrial and agrarian classes through the introduction of legislation that provided for privatization, the liberalization of rent laws, and the banning of unions.
In June of 1923, a new majoritarian electoral law - the Acerbo Law - was approved which assigned two thirds of the seats in Parliament to the coalition which had obtained at least 25% of the votes. The Acerbo Law was punctually applied in the elections of 6 April 1924, in which the fascist "listone" obtained an extraordinary success, aided by the use of shenanigans, violence and intimidatory tactics against opponents. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The assassination of the socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti, who had requested the annulment of the elections because of the irregularities committed, provoked a momentary crisis of the Mussolini government. Giacomo Matteotti ( 22 May 1885 – 10 June 1924) was an Italian socialist politician The weak response of the opposition (the Aventine Secession), incapable of transforming their posturing into a mass antifascist action, was not sufficient to distance the ruling classes and the Monarchy from Mussolini who, on 3 January 1925, broke open the floodgates and, in a famous discourse in which he took upon himself all of the responsibility for the assassination of Matteotti and the other squadrist violence, proclaimed a de facto dictatorship, suppressing every residual liberty and completing the identification of the Fascist Party with the State. The Aventine Secession is the common reference to an Italian movement reuniting parties in opposition to Fascism and Benito Mussolini Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
From 1925 until the middle of the 1930s, fascism experienced little and isolated opposition, although that which it experienced was memorable, consisting in large part of communists such as Antonio Gramsci, socialists such as Pietro Nenni and liberals such as Piero Gobetti and Giovanni Amendola. Antonio Gramsci ('ɡramʃi ( January 23, 1891 &ndash April 27, 1937) was an Italian Philosopher, Writer, Pietro Sandro Nenni ( February 9, 1891 &mdash January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist Politician, the Piero Gobetti ( June 19, 1901 – February 15, 1926) was an Italian journalist intellectual and radical liberal Giovanni Amendola ( April 15 1882 – April 7 1926) was an Italian journalist and politician noted as an opponent of Fascism
While failing to outline a coherent program, fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-Communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system. This was a new capitalist system, however, one in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesize the glorious Roman past with a futuristic utopia.
Despite the themes of social and economic reform in the initial Fascist manifesto of June 1919, the movement came to be supported by sections of the middle class fearful of socialism and communism. The Manifesto of the Fascist Struggle ( Il manifesto dei fasci di combattimento) was the initial declaration of the political stance of the founders of Italian Fascism Industrialists and landowners supported the movement as a defense against labour militancy. Under threat of a fascist March on Rome, in October 1922, Mussolini assumed the premiership of a right-wing coalition Cabinet initially including members of the pro-church Partito Popolare (People's Party). The March on Rome ( Marcia su Roma) was a Coup d'état by which Mussolini 's National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. In April 1926 the Rocco Law outlawed strikes and lockouts and suppressed trade-unions, replaced by Fascist syndicates grouped into corporations. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. A lockout is a Work stoppage in which an Employer prevents employees from working Headed by Arturo Bocchini, the OVRA secret police was created in September 1926, and the Casellario Politico Centrale filing system on political opponents generalized. Arturo Bocchini ( 12 February 1880 - 20 November 1940) was head of the Italian police ( Polizia di Stato) from 1927 under The Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell'Antifascismo ( OVRA; Italian for " Organisation for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism  In October 1926 a "Law for the Defense of the State" banned all political parties apart of the Fascist Party, established a Special Tribunal for the Security of the State and reinstated the death penalty. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Furthermore, in September 1928 a new electoral law decreed that the whole composition of parliament should be determined by the Fascist Grand Council headed by Mussolini. The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy.
The regime's most lasting political achievement was perhaps the Lateran Treaty of February 1929 between the Italian state and the Holy See. The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Under this treaty, the Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over the Vatican City and guaranteed the free exercise of Roman Catholicism as the sole state religion throughout Italy in return for its acceptance of Italian sovereignty over the Pope's former dominions. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory It must be said that some (not all) laws of the lateran treaty where kept alive until 1984 , when all of the lateran treaty was fully dismissed.
In the 1930s, Italy recovered from the Great Depression, and achieved economic growth in part by developing domestic substitutes for imports (Autarchia). An autarky is an economy that is self-sufficient and does not take part in International trade, or severely limits trade with the outside world The draining of the malaria-infested Pontine Marshes south of Rome was one of the regime's proudest boasts. But growth was undermined by international sanctions following Italy's October 1935 invasion of Ethiopia (the Abyssinia crisis), and by the government's costly military support for Franco's Nationalists in Spain. NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page The Abyssinia Crisis was a diplomatic crisis during the interwar period originating in the conflict between Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of See Economy of Italy under Fascism, 1922-1943 for further information.
The moderate Socialist Carlo Rosselli was assassinated in 1937 in France by members of the Cagoule terrorist group, probably on orders of Mussolini himself. Carlo Rosselli ( 16 November 1899 - 9 June 1937) was an Italian political leader journalist historian and anti-fascist activist
The invasion of Ethiopia (formerly Abyssinia) was accomplished rapidly (the proclamation of Empire took place in May of 1936) and involved several atrocities such as the use of chemical weapons (mustard gas and phosgene) and the indiscriminate slaughter of much of the local population to prevent opposition. See also First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War (also referred to as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) was a See also First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Second Italo–Abyssinian War (also referred to as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War) was a NOTE This intro is the result of careful NPOV work Please do not make potentially controversial edits to it without first discussing on the talk page Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The sulfur mustards, of which mustard gas ( Bis (2-chloroethyl sulfide is a member are a class of related Cytotoxic, Vesicant Chemical Phosgene is the Chemical compound with the formula COCl2 This colorless gas gained infamy as a Chemical weapon during World War I
The Fascists passed anti-Semitic laws in autumn 1938, which excluded foreign Jews, prohibited all Jews from teaching and excluded them from the Fascist Party. Legislation enacting racial discrimination were progressively put in place, in accordance to the "scientific racism" theories upheld in Fascist political reviews, such as La Difesa della Razza. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Scientific racism denotes the use of scientific or ostensibly scientific findings and methods to support or validate racist attitudes and worldviews Jews were excluded from the military and from the administration, while an "aryanisation" of Jewish goods was put in place — actually, an expropriation of their goods. The " Aryan race " is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Expropriation refers to Confiscation of Private property with the stated purpose of establishing social equality. An anti-Semitic hate campaign was put in place, while the legislation was strictly applied. Hate speech is a term for speech intended to degrade intimidate or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, Gender As it had little or nothing to do with them, neither the monarchy nor the Church protested against the latter.
Many authors have interpreted these anti-Semitic laws as an imitation by Mussolini of Nazi racist legislation. The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called " Aryan race " and However, historian Marie-Anne Matard-Bonucci (2007) has upheld, to the contrary, the idea that anti-Semitism founded its roots in the Fascist movement itself: with the establishment of the Fascist state and Mussolini's anthropological project of creating a "new (Italian) man," the needs arose of creating the figure of the "anti-Italian," symbolized by the Jewish people. "The persecution of the Italian Jews was one of the inner components of the totalitarian logic," thus wrote Matard-Bonucci. 
50,000 Jews then lived in Italy. Despite this anti-Semitic policy, Mussolini did not implement an extermination program similar to Hitler's decision, the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish Problem. The Final Solution ( Die Endlösung) was Nazi Germany 's plan and execution of its systematic Genocide against European Jewry during World " Thus, 3/4 of the Italian Jews survived World War II. 8,000 Jews died in extermination camps, deported by Nazis, but only after Italy's switch to the Allied side and during the Salo Republic starting in December 1943. Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the 
International isolation and their common involvement in Spain brought about increasing diplomatic collaboration between Italy and Nazi Germany. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers This was reflected also in the Fascist regime's domestic policies as the first anti-semitic laws were passed in 1938. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility From that year on, with the publication of the Manifesto degli scienziati razzisti (Manifesto of the Racist Scientists) (in reality about 90% written by Mussolini himself), fascism declared itself explicitly anti-Semite. The Manifesto of Race ( Manifesto della razza) sometimes known as the Charter of Race was a set of Laws enacted in Fascist Italy during July 1938
Italy's intervention (June 10, 1940) as Germany's ally in World War II brought military disaster, and resulted in the loss of her north and east African colonies and the American-British-Canadian invasion of Sicily in July 1943 and southern Italy in September 1943. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
After a fateful gathering of the Gran Consiglio del Fascismo (Italy's wartime Cabinet) Mussolini was forced to submit his resignation as prime minister in the hands of King Victor Emmanuel III on July 25th 1943. Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler He hoped that the King would reappoint him and allow him to reshuffle the Cabinet, but he was instead arrested on the King's orders as he was leaving the Quirinale palace. The Quirinal Hill (Latin Collis Quirinalis) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center He was freed in September by German paratroopers under command of Otto Skorzeny and installed as head of a puppet "Italian Social Republic" at Salò in German-occupied northern Italy. Otto Skorzeny ( June 12 1908 – July 6 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS The Italian Social Republic ( Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a Puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the For other meanings of Salò or Salo see Salo (disambiguation. His association with the German occupation regime eroded much of what little support remained to him. His summary execution on April 28th 1945 during the war's violent closing stages by the northern partisans was widely seen as a fitting end to his regime. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II.
After the war, the remnants of Italian fascism largely regrouped under the banner of the neo-Fascist "Italian Social Movement" (MSI). The Italian Social Movement, later Italian Social Movement–National Right ( Movimento Sociale Italiano–Destra Nazionale, MSI-DN was a neo-fascist The MSI merged in 1994 with conservative former Christian Democrats to form the "National Alliance" (AN), which proclaims its commitment to constitutionalism, parliamentary government and political pluralism. Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise National Alliance ( Alleanza Nazionale, AN is a conservative Italian political party. For the revolt in Brazil, see Constitutionalist Revolution. The term Constitutionalism is a word with a variety of meanings A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which
The Italian model of fascism was influential outside of Italy in the inter-war period and a number of groups and thinkers looked directly to Italy for their impiration rather than developing an indigenous form of the ideology. Groups that sought to copy the Italian model of fascism included the Russian Fascist Organization, the Romanian National Fascist Movement (an amalgam of the National Romanian Fascia and the National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement) and the Dutch group based around the Verbond van Actualisten journal of H. A. Sinclair de Rochemont and Alfred Haighton. Russian Fascist Organization (RFO was the name adopted by a Russian emigre group active in Manchuria before World War II. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The National Fascist Movement ( Romanian: Mişcarea Naţională Fascistă, MNF) was a Romanian political movement formed in 1923 by the merger The National Romanian Fascia (Fascia Naţională Română was a small fascist group that was active in Romania for a short time during the 1920s The National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement (Mişcarea Naţională Culturală şi Economică Italo-Română or National Italo-Romanian Fascist Movement ( The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Hugues Alexandre Sinclair de Rochemont ( Hilversum, January 6 1901 - March 13 1942) was a Dutch Fascist and later Coenraad Alfred Augustus Haighton (born Rotterdam, October 26 1896 - died Beekbergen, April 13 1943) was a millionaire
In Switzerland Colonel Arthur Fonjallaz, who had previously been associated with the more pro-Nazi National Front, became an ardent admirer of Mussolini after visiting Italy in 1932. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Arthur Fonjallaz ( January 2 1875 - January 24 1944) was a Swiss military figure publisher and Fascist. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The National Front was a Far right Political party in Switzerland that flourished during the 1930s He came to advocate the annexation of Switzerland by his idol, whilst also receiving some financial aid from the Italian leader.  The country also hosted the International Centre for Fascist Studies (CINEF) and the 1934 congress of the Action Committee for the Universality of Rome (CAUR), two Italian-led initiatives. 
In Spain early fascist writer Ernesto Giménez Caballero called for Italy to annex Spain in his 1932 book Genio de España, with Mussolini at the head of an international Latin Roman Catholic empire. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Ernesto Giménez Caballero (born Madrid, August 2 1899 - died Madrid May 14 1988) also known as Gecé, was a Spanish He would later become more closely associated with Falangism, leading to his ideas of Italian annexation being put aside. This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party.