Italian Socialist Party
max: 860,300 (1946)
min: 430,258 (1949) 
|Ideology||Democratic Socialism, Social Democracy|
|European affiliation||Party of European Socialists|
The Italian Socialist Party (Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI) was a socialist/social democratic political party founded in Genoa in 1892. Avanti! ("Forward!" is an Italian daily Newspaper, born as the official voice of the Italian Socialist Party, published since Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left The Party of European Socialists (PES is a European political party comprising of thirty-three socialist, social democratic and labour Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Once the dominant leftist party in Italy, it was eclipsed in status by the Italian Communist Party following World War II. The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It dissolved in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandal, an investigation into political corruption by the Italian government. Tangentopoli ( Italian for bribesville) was the name used to indicate the corruption -based system in politics that had its heyday in Italy
The Italian Socialist Party was founded in 1892 by delegates of several workers' associations. It was part of a wave of new socialist parties at the end of the nineteenth century, and had to endure persecution by the Italian government during its early years. At the start of the twentieth century, however, the PSI chose not to oppose the governments led by five-time prime minister Giovanni Giolitti. Giovanni Giolitti ( October 27, 1842 &ndash July 17, 1928) was an Italian statesman This conciliation with the existing governments, and its improving electoral fortunes, helped to establish the PSI as a mainstream Italian political party by the 1920s. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada
Despite the party's improving electoral results, however, the PSI remained divided into two major branches, the Reformists and the Maximalists. The Reformists, led by Filippo Turati, were strong mostly in the unions and the parliamentary group. Filippo Turati ( November 26, 1857 &ndash March 29, 1932) was an Italian sociologist, poet and Socialist A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming The Maximalists, led by Benito Mussolini, were affiliated with the London Bureau of socialist groups, an international association of left-socialist parties. The International Revolutionary Marxist Centre was an international association of left-socialist parties The schism between these factions made it difficult for the PSI to make decisions with one voice.
In 1912, Mussolini and the Maximalists prevailed at the party convention. Despite this, they were not to separate themselves from the Reformists until the 20s, after Amadeo Bordiga and the abstentionists split, creating the Communist Party of Italy. Amadeo Bordiga (also misspelt "Amedeo" 13 June 1889 &ndash 23 July 1970) was an Italian Marxist, a contributor The Communist Party of Italy (Partito Comunista d’Italia was an Italian Political party which existed from 1921 to 1926 At the outbreak of World War I, the PSI remained firmly pacifistic in the face of Nationalist violence, unlike other European Socialist Parties, and Mussolini was thrown out. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The PSI never accepted Lenin's ideology of transforming the "imperialist war" into civil war (revolution). A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state A revolution (from the Latin revolutio, "a turnaround" is a fundamental change in power or organizational structures that takes place in a relatively
The party's leadership remained in exile during the Fascist years. After World War II, the party returned to stand in Italy's first post-war elections in 1946, and obtained 22. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including 6 % of the popular vote.
In 1948, the Socialist Party ran for elections as part of a Popular Front, the Fronte Democratico Popolare, in alliance with the Italian Communist Party, or PCI. A popular front is a broad Coalition of different political groupings often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group The Popular Democratic Front (FDP Fronte Democratico Popolare per la libertà la pace il lavoro was a Coalition of Italian political parties for the The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) However, it lost at the polls, with many of the party's supporters choosing instead to vote for the PCI.
Nonetheless, the PSI continued its alliance with the PCI until 1956, when Soviet repression in Hungary caused a major split between the two parties. The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 ( Hungarian: 1956-os forradalom) was a spontaneous nationwide Revolt against the Stalinist government of
After 1962, the Italian Socialists participated in the centre-left governments, in alliance with the Christian Democrats and other smaller parties. Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise The party failed to achieve most of their reformist objectives with this new alliance.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the PSI lost much of its influence, despite actively participating in the government. The PCI gradually replaced it as the strongest party of the left. In 1963, the PSI formed a coalition with the Italian Democratic Socialist Party (PSDI) under the name of the Unified Socialist Party (PSU). The Italian Democratic Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano, PSDI is a minor social-democratic Italian political party. The Unified PSI–PSDI ( PSI–PSDI Unificati) was the name of the party formed by the union of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI and the Italian Democratic However, the parties disbanded their after a dismaying loss in the 1968 elections, in which the PSU gained far fewer seats in total than each of the two parties had obtained separately in the 1963 elections. The Italian general elections of 1968 were held on 1968-05-19. The Italian general elections of 1963 were held on 1963-04-28. The elections of 1972, underlined the PSI's precipitate decline. The Italian general elections of 1972 were held on 1972-05-07. The party received less than 10% of the vote compared to 14. 5% in 1958.
In 1976, Bettino Craxi was elected the new Secretary of the Party. Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party From 1976-1983, Craxi tried to undermine the PCI, which until then had been continuously increasing its votes in elections, and to consolidate the PSI as a modern, strongly pro-European reformist social-democratic party . This strategy called for ending most of the party's historical traditions as a working-class trade-union based party, and attempting to gain new support among white collar and public sector employees. At the same time, the PSI increased its presence in the big state-owned enterprises, and became heavily involved in corruption and illegal party funding which would eventually result in the Mani Pulite scandals. Mani pulite ( Italian for clean hands) was a nationwide Italian judicial investigation into Political corruption held in the 1990s following
In 1978 Craxi decided to change the symbol of the PSI: he chose a red carnation to represent the new course of the party, in honour of the Carnation Revolution in Portugal. The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos was an almost bloodless military-led pro-democratic Coup d'état, started on April 25, 1974, in Lisbon Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The party shrank the size of the old hammer and sickle in the lower part of the symbol. It was eliminated altogether in 1985.
Even if the PSI never became a serious electoral challenger either to the PCI or the Christian Democrats, its pivotal position in the political arena allowed it to claim the premiership after the 1983 elections. The Christian Democrats' electoral support significantly weakened, leaving it with 32% of the vote, compared to the 38% it gained in 1979. The PSI, which had obtained only 11%, threatened to leave the parliamentary majority unless Craxi was made prime minister. The Christian Democrats accepted this compromise to avoid new elections. Bettino Craxi became the first Socialist in the history of the Republic of Italy to be named President of the Council, and thus head of the Italian government. The politics of Italy take place in a framework of a parliamentary, democratic Republic, and of a Multi-party system.
Unlike many of its predecessors, Craxi's government proved to be durable, lasting three-and-a-half years thanks in part to the support of the President of the Republic Sandro Pertini, who was a fellow member of the Socialist Party. Alessandro (Sandro Pertini ( September 25, 1896 - February 24, 1990) was an Italian socialist, probably the most popular
During Craxi's presidency, the PSI gained popularity. He successfully boosted the country's GNP to a high level and controlled inflation. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time He demonstrated Italy's independence and nationalism during the clash with the United States during the Sigonella incident. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the All of these were attributed to the reforms which the PSI had long wanted to initiate. The PSI looked like the driving force behind the bulk of reforms initiated by the 'Pentapartito'. Craxi, however, lost his post in March 1987 due to a conflict with the Pentapartito over the proposed budget for 1987.
However, because that legislature did not end until 1988, Craxi was able to arrange for a Christian Democrat to take the reins of government: Amintore Fanfani remained president for 11 days and was left alone after the PSI left the Pentapartito. Amintore Fanfani ( February 6 1908 - November 20, 1999) was an Italian career Politician and former interim President
From 1987-1992 the PSI participated in four governments, allowing Giulio Andreotti to take power in 1989 and to govern until 1992. Giulio Andreotti (born 14 January 1919 in Rome) is an Italian Politician of the centrist Christian Democratic party It held a strong balance of power, which made it more powerful than the Christian Democrats, who had to depend on it to form a majority in Parliament. The PSI kept tight control of this advantage.
In the 1987 general election the PSI gained 14. The Italian general elections of 1987 were held on 1987-06-14. 3% of the vote, but this time it was the Christian Democrats' turn to govern. However, the PSI created immense institutional confusion by not allowing governments to govern for more than 11 months, which eventually precipitated an economic crisis.
The alternative which Craxi had wanted so much was taking shape: the idea for 'Social Unity' proposed by Craxi in 1989 after the fall of communism. He believed that the collapse of communism in eastern Europe undermined PCI and made 'Social Unity' inevitable. Indeed, until the Tangentopoli scandal, the PSI was in line to become the Italy's second party. Tangentopoli ( Italian for bribesville) was the name used to indicate the corruption -based system in politics that had its heyday in Italy
In February 1992, the Socialist hospital administrator Mario Chiesa was caught taking a bribe of some 3,600 Euros, which was only 50% of the total expected bribe. Mario Chiesa was an Italian politician and member of the Italian Socialist Party. The PSI, or more likely Bettino Craxi, did not see this as dangerous and denounced Chiesa by calling him an isolated thief, who had nothing to do with the party as a whole. However, this was technically not true. The former mayor of Milan Carlo Tognoli had received many bribes according to Chiesa. Chiesa also admitted the fact that he had also financed the brother in law of Craxi, Paolo Pilliteri who himself had been Mayor of Milan (1986-1992).
Although Craxi did not see the danger, many Milanese industrials quickly confessed their crime. Consequently other Socialists as well as Christian Democrats and Social Democrats entered the tempest of the judicial investigation named Mani Pulite (Clean Hands). Mani pulite ( Italian for clean hands) was a nationwide Italian judicial investigation into Political corruption held in the 1990s following The investigation was carried out by three Milanese magistrates among whom Antonio Di Pietro quickly stood out becoming a national hero thanks to his charismatic character and his ability to extract confessions. Antonio Di Pietro (born on 2 October 1950 is an Italian politician
The investigations were suspended for four weeks in order for the 1992 Italian general election to take place in an uninfluenced atmosphere. The Italian general elections of 1992 were held on the April 5 1992. The Socialist Party managed to garner 13. 6% of the votes in spite of the corruption scandals. Many in the PSI thought the scandal had been brought under control but failed to realize that investigations would eventually be launched against ministers and party leaders. Furthermore, as early as May 1992, public opinion unconditionally supported the magistrates against a political system that the majority of Italians already distrusted.
Soon after the elections, Mani Pulite started the investigations at full speed. In May 1992, the Socialist deputy Paolo Pilliteri received an avviso di garanzia, a letter informing him he was under criminal investigation. Craxi himself was to receive one of those letters in December 1992. Later, the Parliament, under pressure, abolished the need for authorization by the magistrates to continue the investigation, although in April 1993, Parliament denied it four times. Italian newspapers shouted 'scandal', and Craxi was besieged at his Rome residence by a crowd of young people, who threw coins at him and shouted "Bettino, do you want these as well?". This scene was to become one of the many symbols of corruption within the Italian political scene.
Between 1992-1993, many Socialist regional, provincial and municipal councillors, MPs, mayors and even ministers found themselves overwhelmed with accusations and arrests. A famous but scandalous episode happened in Calabria where the Socialist mayor and all the Socialist councillors were placed under arrest. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of At this point, public opinion turned against the Socialists. Many regional headquarters of the PSI were besieged by those people who wanted an honest party with true socialist values.
Between January 1993 and February 1993, Claudio Martelli (former Justice Minister and former Vice-Prime Minister) started to contend for the leadership of the party. Claudio Martelli ( Gessate, MI, 24 September 1943) is an Italian politician Martelli stepped forward as a candidate, emphasizing the need to clean the party of corruption and make it electable. Although he had many supporters, Martelli and Craxi were both caught in a scandal dating back to 1982, when the Banco Ambrosiano gave to the two of them around 7 million dollars. Martelli's candidacy disappeared and he resigned from the party and from the government. A few days later, Bettino Craxi too tendered his resignation.
Craxi resigned as Party Secretary in February 1993. Many other important leaders left the party, including Claudio Martelli and Paolo Pillitteri. Between 1992 and 1993, three Socialist deputies committed suicide and stated before dying 'the veil of hypocrisy which had covered the wrongdoings concerning financing their party'. Craxi was succeeded by two Socialist trade-unionists, first Giorgio Benvenuto and then by Ottaviano Del Turco. Ottaviano Del Turco (born November 7, 1944 in Collelongo, Province of L'Aquila) is an Italian politician He was a simple person who had no link with the old dirigents of the party which had nearly all vanished.
At the administrative and communal elections of December 1993, the PSI was virtually wiped out, receiving around 3% of the vote. In Milan, where the PSI had won 20% in 1990, the PSI received a mere 2%, which was not even enough to elect a councillor. The last secretary of the PSI Ottaviano Del Turco tried in vain to regain credibility for the party. Ottaviano Del Turco (born November 7, 1944 in Collelongo, Province of L'Aquila) is an Italian politician Giuliano Amato, a Socialist and a close friend of Bettino Craxi, resigned as Prime Minister in April 1993. Giuliano Amato (born May 13, 1938) is an Italian politician He was Prime Minister of Italy twice first from 1992 to 1993 and then His government was succeeded by a technocratic government which sought to govern without political influence.
In the General Elections of 1994, what was left of PSI allied itself to the alliance of the Progressives under the leadership of post-Communist Democratic Party of the Left (PDS). The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) The Democratic Party of the Left ( Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS was a post- communist democratic-socialist political party in Italy Del Turco had quickly changed the party symbol to reinforce the idea of innovation. However, this did not stop the PSI gaining only 2. 2% of the votes compared to 13. 6% in 1992. The party's candidates were mostly from the left-wing of the party, as Del Turco himself, while many Socialists left politics. Some of them joined other parties: Antonio Guidi, Monica Stefania Baldi, Umberto Scapagnini and Emiddio Novi joined Forza Italia, Giulio Tremonti joined the Patto Segni, Giorgio Benvenuto joined the Democratic Alliance, while Carlo Ripa di Meana joined the Greens. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio Giulio Tremonti (born August 18, 1947) is an Italian politician and economist The Patto Segni (Segni Pact PATTO was a Christian-democratic and liberal political party in Italy. The Democratic Alliance ( Alleanza Democratica, AD was an Italian Political party founded in 1993 with the intent of becoming the container of an The Federation of the Greens ( Federazione dei Verdi, or just Verdi) is a green and eco-socialist Italian political party.
The PSI elected 16 deputies (Giuseppe Albertini, Enrico Boselli, Carlo Carli, Ottaviano Del Turco, Fabio Di Capua, Vittorio Emiliani, Mario Gatto, Luigi Giacco, Gino Giugni, Alberto La Volpe, Vincenzo Mattina, Valerio Mignone, Rosario Olivo, Corrado Paoloni, Giuseppe Pericu and Valdo Spini) and 14 senators (Paolo Bagnoli, Orietta Baldelli, Francesco Barra, Luigi Biscardi, Guido De Martino, Gianni Fardin, Carlo Gubbini, Maria Rosaria Manieri, Cesare Marini, Maria Antonia Modolo, Michele Sellitti, Giancarlo Tapparo, Antonino Valletta and Antonio Vozzi), down from 92 deputies and 49 senators of 1992. Enrico Boselli (born 7 January 1957 in Bologna) is an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Democratic Socialists party Carlo Carli ( Pietrasanta, LU, December 13 1945) is an Italian politician Ottaviano Del Turco (born November 7, 1944 in Collelongo, Province of L'Aquila) is an Italian politician Rosario Olivo ( Catanzaro, April 18 1940) is an Italian politician Giuseppe Pericu ( Genova, October 20 1937) is an Italian politician Valdo Spini ( Florence, January 20 1946) is an Italian politician and writer
The party was disbanded on 13 November 1994 after two years of agony, in which almost all of its longtime leaders, especially Bettino Craxi, were involved in Tangentopoli or decided to leave politics. The 100-year old party closed down, partially thanks to its leaders for their personalization of the PSI.
The Socialists who did not align with the other parties organized themselves in two groups: the Italian Socialists (SI) of Enrico Boselli, Ottaviano Del Turco, Roberto Villetti, Riccardo Nencini, Cesare Marini and Maria Rosaria Manieri, who decided to be autonomous from PDS, and the Labour Federation (FL) of Valdo Spini, Antonio Ruberti, Giorgio Ruffolo, Giuseppe Pericu, Carlo Carli and Rosario Olivo, who entered in close alliance with it. The Italian Socialists ( Socialisti Italiani, SI were a social-democratic political party active in Italy from 1994 to 1998 Enrico Boselli (born 7 January 1957 in Bologna) is an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Democratic Socialists party Ottaviano Del Turco (born November 7, 1944 in Collelongo, Province of L'Aquila) is an Italian politician Roberto Villetti ( Rome, August 24 1944) is an Italian politician Riccardo Nencini ( Barberino di Mugello, FI, October 19 1959) is an Italian politician The Democratic Party of the Left ( Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS was a post- communist democratic-socialist political party in Italy The Labour Federation ( Federazione Laburista, FL was an social-democratic party in Italy. Valdo Spini ( Florence, January 20 1946) is an Italian politician and writer Antonio Ruberti ( January 24, 1927 Giuseppe Pericu ( Genova, October 20 1937) is an Italian politician Carlo Carli ( Pietrasanta, LU, December 13 1945) is an Italian politician Rosario Olivo ( Catanzaro, April 18 1940) is an Italian politician The SI eventually merged with other Socialist components to form the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) in 1998, while the FL merged with PDS to form the Democrats of the Left (DS) in the same year. The Italian Democratic Socialists ( Socialisti Democratici Italiani, SDI was a small social-democratic party in Italy. The Democrats of the Left ( Democratici di Sinistra, DS was a left-wing Italian political party and part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition
Between 1994 and 1996, many former Socialists joined Forza Italia, as did Giulio Tremonti, Franco Frattini, Massimo Baldini and Luigi Cesaro. Giulio Tremonti (born August 18, 1947) is an Italian politician and economist Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957 in Rome) is an Italian politician currently serving as Italy's Foreign Minister in the Gianni De Michelis, Ugo Intini and several politicians closer to Bettino Craxi formed the Socialist Party, while others like Fabrizio Cicchitto and Enrico Manca launched the Reform Socialist Party. Gianni De Michelis (born on 26 November 1940 in Venice) is an Italian Politician. Ugo Intini ( Milan, June 30 1941) is an Italian politician A long-time member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI and close aide of Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party The Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista, PS was a tiny social-democratic party in Italy. Fabrizio Cicchitto ( Rome, October 26, 1940) is an Italian politician The Reform Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Riformista, PSR was a tiny social-democratic party in Italy. As of today, at least two minor formations claim to be the party's successor: the Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI), that evolved from the Italian Socialists (SI), and the New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) founded by Gianni De Michelis, Claudio Martelli and Bobo Craxi in 2001. The New Italian Socialist Party ( Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano, NPSI is a small Italian party which professes a social-democratic ideology and Gianni De Michelis (born on 26 November 1940 in Venice) is an Italian Politician. Claudio Martelli ( Gessate, MI, 24 September 1943) is an Italian politician Vittorio Craxi, commonly known as Bobo, ( Milan, June 6 1964) is an Italian politician son of Bettino Craxi.
However, both SDI and NPSI are much minor political forces. Most Socialist members and voters joined Forza Italia (FI), a centre-right party (see membership and factions of Forza Italia), while others joined the Democrats of the Left (DS) and Democracy is Freedom – Daisy (DL). Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio The Democrats of the Left ( Democratici di Sinistra, DS was a left-wing Italian political party and part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition Democracy Is Freedom – The Daisy ( Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita, DL was a centrist Italian political party. 
The Socialists who joined Forza Italia include Giulio Tremonti, Franco Frattini, Fabrizio Cicchitto, Renato Brunetta, Amalia Sartori, Francesco Musotto, Margherita Boniver, Francesco Colucci, Raffaele Iannuzzi, Maurizio Sacconi, Luigi Cesaro and Stefania Craxi. Giulio Tremonti (born August 18, 1947) is an Italian politician and economist Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957 in Rome) is an Italian politician currently serving as Italy's Foreign Minister in the Fabrizio Cicchitto ( Rome, October 26, 1940) is an Italian politician Renato Brunetta ( Venice, May 26 1950) is an Italian economist and politician and as from May 2008 a minister in the Berlusconi government Amalia Sartori (born 2 August 1947 in Valdastico) is an Italian Politician. Francesco Musotto (born on 1 February 1947 in Palermo) is an Italian Politician and Member of the European Parliament for Margherita Boniver (marge'rita boni'vɛr born in Rome, March 11 1938) is an Italian Politician. Valdo Spini, Giorgio Benvenuto, Gianni Pittella and Guglielmo Epifani joined the DS and Enrico Manca, Tiziano Treu, Laura Fincato and Linda Lanzillotta joined DL. Valdo Spini ( Florence, January 20 1946) is an Italian politician and writer Giovanni Pittella (born on 19 November 1958 in Lauria, Province of Potenza) is an Italian Politician and Member of Giuliano Amato is now an independent in the Olive Tree federation, which unites DS and DL. Giuliano Amato (born May 13, 1938) is an Italian politician He was Prime Minister of Italy twice first from 1992 to 1993 and then
In 2007 many former Socialists, including the Italian Democratic Socialists, the faction of the New Italian Socialist Party led by Gianni De Michelis, The Italian Socialists of Bobo Craxi, Socialism is Freedom of Rino Formica and splinters from the Democrats of Left, decided to join forces and to form a new Socialist Party. The Italian Socialists ( I Socialisti Italiani) was a minor Italian political party born on February 7, 2006 as the result of a split Vittorio Craxi, commonly known as Bobo, ( Milan, June 6 1964) is an Italian politician son of Bettino Craxi. The Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista, PS is a social-democratic political party in Italy. Although this party, whose foundation is scheduled in January 2008, is open also to many ex-Communist Democrats of Left disappointed with the Democratic Party, it is considered as a sort of an end of the "Socialist diaspora" and will become the second biggest gathering of former PSI members, after Forza Italia. The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) The Democratic Party ( Partito Democratico, PD is a Centre-left political party in Italy.
National secretaries of PSI from 1943:
|Historical Italian political parties (active parties: simple version, in 2007)|
Communist: Communist Party of Italy, Italian Communist Party, Organisation of Communists of Italy (Marxist-Leninists), Proletarian Unity Party, Proletarian Democracy, Movement of Unitarian Communists
Leftist coalition: Popular Democratic Front, Alliance of Progressives,
Liste civetta: For the Abolition of Scorporo, New Country