The Italian Social Republic (Italian: Repubblica Sociale Italiana or RSI) was a puppet state of Nazi Germany led by the "Duce of the Nation" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs" Benito Mussolini. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom See also List of Italian flags The flag of Italy ( La bandiera d'Italia, often referred to in Italian as Il Tricolore) is a Tricolour The Coat of Arms of the Italian Republic ( Italian, trans Stemma della Repubblica Italiana) depicted here has been the symbol of the Italian Republic A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " Giovinezza " (Italian for youth) is the official hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party, regime, and army and the unofficial National The Winter Line was a series of German Military Fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring 's last major line of defence in the final stages of Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital For other meanings of Salò or Salo see Salo (disambiguation. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or Creed officially For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The RSI exercised official sovereignty in northern Italy but was largely dependent on the Wehrmacht (German military) to maintain control. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 The state was informally known as the Salò Republic (Repubblica di Salò) because the RSI's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Mussolini) was headquartered in Salò, a small town on Lake Garda. For other meanings of Salò or Salo see Salo (disambiguation. Lake Garda ( Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest Lake in Italy. The Italian Social Republic was the second and last incarnation of a Fascist Italian state. Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology
On July 24, 1943, after the Allied landings in Sicily, the Grand Fascist Council, on a motion by Dino Grandi, voted a motion of no confidence in Mussolini. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. Dino Grandi ( June 4 1895 — May 21 1988) Conte ( Count) di Mordano was an Italian Fascist politician minister A motion of no confidence (also vote of no confidence, censure motion, no-confidence motion, or confidence motion) is a Parliamentary motion The next day, King Victor Emmanuel III dismissed Mussolini from office and ordered him arrested. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and By this time, both the monarchy, a number of Fascist government members and Italians in general had grown tired of Italy's futile war effort which had driven Italy into subordination and subjugation under Nazi Germany. The failed war effort left Mussolini humiliated at home and abroad as a "sawdust caesar. " The new government, under Marshal Pietro Badoglio, began secret negotiations with the Allied powers and made preparation for the capitulation of Italy. Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician These surrender talks implied a commitment from Badoglio not only to leave the Axis alliance but also to have Italy declare war on Germany.
While the Germans formally recognised the new status quo in Italian politics, they quickly intervened by sending some of the best units of the Wehrmacht to Italy. This was done both to resist new Allied advances and to face the predictably imminent defection of Italy. While Badoglio still swore loyalty to Germany and the Axis, Italian government emissaries had already signed an armistice at Cassibile in Allied-occupied Sicily on 3 September. The Armistice with Italy was an Armistice signed on September 3 and publicly declared on September 8, 1943, during World War II, between Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius
On 8 September, the truth finally came out and Badoglio announced Italy's surrender. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz German Führer Adolf Hitler and his staff, long aware of the betrayal, acted immediately by ordering German troops to seize control of northern and central Italy. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The Germans disarmed the stunned Italian troops and took over all of the Italian Army's materials and equipment.
Just four days later, on 12 September, a daring German paratrooper action in the mountains of Abruzzo, led by Otto Skorzeny and called Unternehmen Eiche ("Operation Oak"), succeeded in liberating Mussolini and forcing him back into power. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Otto Skorzeny ( June 12 1908 – July 6 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS The Gran Sasso raid refers to Operation Eiche ( German for 'Oak' the daring rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German Paratroopers While in captivity, the new Italian government had moved Mussolini from place to place in order to frustrate any would-be rescuers. Finally, the Germans determined that he was at the Campo Imperatore Hotel at Gran Sasso. Campo Imperatore is a mountain Grassland formed by a high basin shaped Plateau located in the Province of L'Aquila in the Abruzzo region of Gran Sasso d'Italia is a mountain located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. After being liberated, Mussolini was safely flown to Bavaria. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 His liberation made it possible for a new, German-dependent Fascist Italian state to be created.
|Part of the Politics series on|
Upon Mussolini being rescued from arrest in Italy, Adolf Hitler ordered Mussolini to form a new fascist state or Italy would be treated as an enemy. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Mussolini obliged, and the Italian Social Republic was proclaimed on September 23. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English 
Immediately upon the state's creation, it became obvious that it was little more than a puppet state dependent entirely on Berlin. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power German distrust of the Fascists' ability to control their own territory as well as German territorial claims on Italy, which had been repressed from the 1930s for the sake of alliance with Italy came to the forefront. Germany forced Mussolini to cede Istria, Trieste, Tyrol, and even Venice to be annexed by Germany. Huge portions of Italian-populated territories which had been acquired through years of conflict, were suddenly forced to be abandoned.  Mussolini himself knew he was little more than the gauleiter of Lombardy, even though he stated in public that he was in full control. A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the The finances of the state were completely dependent on German funding, the state had no constitution and no organized economy.  German forces themselves had little respect for Mussolini's failed fascist movement and saw the only use of the regime for maintaining order, such as repressing the Italian partisans and for persecuting Jews. The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. In addition, Hitler forced the new regime to take revenge against those who had voted against Mussolini on the Grand Council, as well as other suspected traitors. For example, on January 11, 1944, Mussolini had his own son-in-law Galeazzo Ciano executed. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gian Galeazzo Ciano Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari ( March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944) was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
During the existence of the Italian Social Republic, Mussolini, whose government had banned trade unions and strikes, began to make increasingly populist appeals to the working class. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. Populism is a discourse which supports "the people" versus "the Elites " Populism may involve either a political philosophy urging social and political He claimed to regret many of the decisions he made in supporting the interests of big business in the past. He promised a new beginning if the Italian people would be willing to grant him a second chance. Mussolini claimed that he had never totally abandoned his left-wing influences, he claimed that he had attempted to nationalize property in 1939-40 but he had to delay them for tactical reasons of the war.  but that with the removal of the monarchy he claimed that the full ideology of Fascism could be pursued, and reversed over twenty years of Fascist support of private property and relative economic independence by ordering the nationalization of all companies with over 100 employees.  Mussolini even reached out to communist Nicola Bombacci, a former student of Vladimir Lenin to help him in spreading the image that Fascism was a progressive movement.  The economic policy of RSI was the "Socialization".
While the RSI remained largely a puppet state, Mussolini maintained personal close relations with Hitler which aided his state. In 1944, he urged Hitler to focus on destroying Britain, rather than the Soviet Union, as Mussolini claimed that it was Britain which turned the conflict into a world war and that the British Empire must be destroyed in order for peace to come in Europe. 
As the situation became desperate in late 1944, with Allied forces in control of most of Italy, Mussolini declared that "he would fight to the last Italian" and spoke of turning Milan into the "Stalingrad of Italy", where Fascism would make its last glorious fight.  Despite such strong rhetoric, Mussolini considered evacuating Fascists into Switzerland, but this was opposed by Germany, which instead proposed that Mussolini and key Fascist officials be taken into exile in Germany.  Further disintegration of support for his government occurred as fascist and German military officials secretly tried to negotiate a truce with Allied forces, without consulting either Mussolini or Hitler. 
Around 25 April 1945, Mussolini's republic came to an end. Events 1607 - Eighty Years' War: The Dutch fleet destroys the anchored Spanish fleet at Gibraltar. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar This day is known as Liberation Day. On this day a general partisan uprising and the (Western) Allied spring offensive managed largely to oust the Germans from Italy. The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Italian Social Republic had existed for slightly more than one and a half years.
On 28 April, Mussolini, his mistress (Clara Petacci), several RSI ministers, and some other Fascists were caught attempting to flee. Events 1192 - Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title Clara Petacci ( Claretta Petacci) ( 28 February 1912 &ndash 28 April 1945) was an upper class Roman who became Italian dictator Most of the captives were shot at Dongo by Italian partisans. Dongo is a Comune in the Province of Como in the Italian region Lombardy. The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. Fifteen of the bodies were taken to a square in the center of Milan and hanged unceremoniously up-side down in front of a gas station. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. A filling station, fueling station, gas station, service station, petrol station, or gasbar, Retail Outlet
Smaller units like the Black Brigades and the Decima Flottiglia MAS fought for the RSI during its entire existence. Black Brigades (Brigate Nere were one of the Fascist Paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy) The Decima Flottiglia MAS ( Decima Flottiglia M ezzi d' As salto also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) ( Italian for "10th The Germans were satisfied if these units were able to participate in anti-partisan activities. The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II. While varying in their effectiveness, some of these units surpassed expectations.
On 16 October 1943, the Rastenburg Protocol was signed with Nazi Germany and the RSI was allowed to raise division-sized military formations. Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This protocol allowed Marshal Rodolfo Graziani to raise four RSI divisions totalling 52,000 men. Rodolfo Graziani Marchese di Neghelli ( August 11, 1882 &mdash January 11, 1955) was an officer in the Italian Royal In July 1944, the first of these divisions completed training and was sent to the front.
Recruiting military forces was difficult for the RSI, most of the Italian army had been interned by German forces in 1943, many Italians had been conscripted into forced labour in Germany and few wanted to participate in the war. The RSI became so desperate for soldiers that it granted convicts freedom if they would join the army and the sentence of death was imposed on anyone who opposed being conscripted. .  Autonomous military forces in the RSI also fought against the Allies including the notorious Decima Flottiglia MAS of Prince Junio Valerio Borghese. The Decima Flottiglia MAS ( Decima Flottiglia M ezzi d' As salto also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) ( Italian for "10th Prince Junio Valerio Scipione Borghese ( 6 June 1906 &ndash 26 August 1974) was an Italian naval Commander during Borghese held no allegiance to Mussolini and even suggested that he would take him prisoner if he could. 
During the winter of 1944-1945, armed Italians were on both sides of the Gothic Line. The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring 's last major line of defence in the final stages of On the Allied side were four Italian groups of volunteers from the old Italian army. These Italian volunteers were equipped and trained by the British. On the Axis side were four RSI divisions. Three of the RSI divisions, the 2nd Italian "Littorio" Infantry Division, the 3rd Italian "San Marco" Marine Division, and the 4th Italian "Monte Rosa" Alpine Division, were allocated to the LXXXXVII "Liguria" Army under Graziani and were placed to guard the western flank of the Gothic Line facing France. Army Group Liguria ( Heeresgruppen Ligurien) was the National Republican Army ( Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, or ENR of Italian dictator The fourth RSI division, the 1st Italian "Italia" Infantry Division, was attached to the German 14th Army in a sector of the Apennine Mountains thought least likely to be attacked. 
On 26 December 1944, several sizeable RSI military units, including elements of the 4th Italian "Monte Rosa" Alpine Division and the 3rd Italian "San Marco" Marine Division, participated in Operation Winter Storm. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about Operation Wintergewitter - Eastern Front. This was a combined German and Italian offensive against the 92nd Infantry Division. The 92nd Infantry Division ( Colored) was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. The battle was fought in the Apennines. While limited in scale, this was a successful offensive and the RSI units did their part.
In February 1945, the 92nd Infantry Division again came up against RSI units. This time it was Bersaglieri of the 1st Italian "Italia" Infantry Division. The Bersaglieri (bersaʎˈːɛri are a Corps of the Italian Army created by General Alessandro La Marmora in 1836 to serve in the Piedmontese Army The Italians successfully halted the US division's advance.
The RSI Minister of Defense, Rodolfo Graziani, was even able to say that he commanded an entire Army. Rodolfo Graziani Marchese di Neghelli ( August 11, 1882 &mdash January 11, 1955) was an officer in the Italian Royal This was the Italo-German Army Group Liguria. Army Group Liguria ( Heeresgruppen Ligurien) was the National Republican Army ( Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano, or ENR of Italian dictator
On 29 April, Graziani surrendered and was present at Caserta when a representative of German General Heinrich von Vietinghoff-Steel signed the unconditional instrument of surrender for all Axis forces in Italy. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Heinrich Gottfried von Vietinghoff genannt Scheel) ( December 6 1887 - February 23 1952) was a German Colonel-General But, possibly as a sign of the low esteem in which the Allies held the RSI, Graziani's signature was not required at Caserta.  The surrender was to take effect on 2 May. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Graziani ordered the RSI forces under his command to lay down their arms on 1 May. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor.
The National Republican Air Force (Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana or ANR) was the air force of Italian Social Republic and also the air unit of National Republican Army in World War II. The National Republican Air Force ( Aeronautica Nazionale Repubblicana, or ANR) was the air force of the Italian Social Republic during World War II World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Its tactical organization was: 3 Fighter Groups, 1 Air Torpedo Bomber Group, 1 Bomber Group and other Transport and minor units. The ANR worked closely with German Luftwaffe in Northern Italy even if the Germans tried, unsuccessfully, to disband the ANR forcing its pilots to enlist in the Luftwaffe. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. ( German 'luftvafe is a generic German term for an Air force. In 1944, after the withdrawal of all German fighter units in the attempt to stop the increased Allied offensive on the German mainland, ANR fighter groups were left alone and heavily outnumbered, to face the massive Allied air offensive over Northern Italy. In the operation time of 1944 and 1945 the ANR managed to shoot down 262 Allied aircraft with the loss of 158 in action.   
Very little of the Regia Marina chose to side with the RSI. The Regia Marina ( Italian Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. The RSI's Navy (Marina Nazionale Repubblicana) only reached a twentieth the size of the co-belligerent Italian fleet.  The RSI Navy included the following craft: Four Motor Torpedo Boats (also known as Torpedo Armed Motorboats or Motoscafo Armato Silurante or MAS), two anti-submarine vessels, and various other light vessels. Motoscafo Armato Silurante ( Italian: "Torpedo Armed Motorboat" commonly abbreviated as MAS) was a class of fast torpedo armed vessel used by There were also five midget submarines stationed in northern Italy and five midget submarines stationed in Romania on the Black Sea. The five submarines stationed in northern Italy all chose to join the RSI Navy. Because of maintenance payment issues, only four of the submarines in Romania were returned to the RSI. Troops of the Decima Flottiglia MAS fought primarily as an army unit of the RSI. The Decima Flottiglia MAS ( Decima Flottiglia M ezzi d' As salto also known as La Decima or Xª MAS) ( Italian for "10th
The fall of the fascist regime in Italy and the disbandment of the MVSN saw the establishment of the Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana (GNR), and the emergence of the brigate nere or Black Brigades. For other uses and meanings see Blackshirts (disambiguation. The Blackshirts ( Italian: camicie nere, The Italian Republican National Guard ( Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR was a paramilitary force of the Italian Social Republic which replaced Black Brigades (Brigate Nere were one of the Fascist Paramilitary groups operating in the Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy) The 40 Black Brigades consisted of former MVSN, former Carabinieri, former soldiers, and others still loyal to the fascist cause. The Carabinieri (Italian for Carabiniers are the national-level Gendarmerie of Italy who also perform Military police duties Alongside with their Nazi and Schutzstaffel (SS) counterparts, the Black Brigades committed many atrocities in their fight against the Italian resistance movement and political enemies. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the The Italian Resistance movement was a partisan force during World War II.
The following is a list of RSI ministers. For a variety of reasons many ministers did not live past the end of World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
While the RSI was a puppet state of Nazi Germany, its legacy was that after twenty years of Fascist association with the Savoy monarchy of the Kingdom of Italy which at times had serious strain, the RSI allowed the Italian Fascist movement to be able to build a completely totalitarian state which had been held back by the monarchy, it allowed Mussolini to at last be the official head of an Italian state, and it allowed the Fascists to return to their earlier republican stances. Rodolfo Graziani Marchese di Neghelli ( August 11, 1882 &mdash January 11, 1955) was an officer in the Italian Royal Guido Buffarini Guidi ( August 17 1895 — July 10 1945) was an Italian politician notable for his involvement in the Fascist Antonino Tringali-Casanova ( April 11, 1888 - October 30, 1943) was an Italian politician who served under Mussolini in the Italian Domenico Pellegrini Giampietro ( August 30 1899, Brienza, in Basilicata &mdash June 18 1970, Montevideo) was an Giuseppe Cardinal Spinelli ( February 1, 1694 — April 12, 1763) was an Italian Cardinal. Carlo Alberto Biggini ( December 9 1902 - November 19 1945) was an Italian Fascist politician who served as Minister of Education Fernando Mezzasoma ( August 3, 1907 &ndash April 28, 1945) was an Italian fascist journalist and political figure Alessandro Pavolini ( September 27, 1903 &ndash April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician journalist and essayist notable for his The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom
Most prominent figures of post-war Italian far right politics (parliamentary or extraparliamentary) were in some way associated with the experience of the RSI. Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group Among them were Pino Romualdi, Rodolfo Graziani, Junio Valerio Borghese and Giorgio Almirante. Rodolfo Graziani Marchese di Neghelli ( August 11, 1882 &mdash January 11, 1955) was an officer in the Italian Royal Prince Junio Valerio Scipione Borghese ( 6 June 1906 &ndash 26 August 1974) was an Italian naval Commander during Giorgio Almirante ( June 27, 1914 - May 22, 1988) was an Italian politician the founder and leader of the Italian Social Movement
Today, a significant number of far right organizations in Italy, notably the Fiamma Tricolore party, still explicitly take inspiration for their social and political platform from the RSI experience. Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Tricolour Flame Social Movement, normally just Tricolour Flame ( Movimento Sociale Fiamma Tricolore, MS-FT is a neo-fascist Italian political The RSI is usually seen as the example of what Fascism should have been. As a sign of this legacy, Fiamma Tricolore, for example, guarantees free membership for ex-RSI military. The Tricolour Flame Social Movement, normally just Tricolour Flame ( Movimento Sociale Fiamma Tricolore, MS-FT is a neo-fascist Italian political  A communique from the Rome section of the Fiamma said:
[Fiamma Tricolore] is a movement born to closely approximate the ideals of the Social Republic and its fighters. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 We would surely have fought on the side of this Republic, if only fate had allowed us to have been born during those years. And we would have surely fought to win, because for us the political synthesis originating from the thought of Benito Mussolini is for us the only political, economic, and spiritual system able to bring about the freedom and social justice that are today denied to Italians and all other world populations. [. . . ][We] relaunch our battle for a better tomorrow, embodying the ideals of the Black Shirts of Alessandro Pavolini. Alessandro Pavolini ( September 27, 1903 &ndash April 28, 1945) was an Italian politician journalist and essayist notable for his