|Isles of Scilly|
An aerial photo of the islands
Location in relation to Cornwall
|Location||Atlantic Ocean, 45 km (28 mi) off the coast of Great Britain|
|Total islands||6 inhabited, 140 others|
|Major islands||St Mary's, Tresco, St Martins, Bryher, St Agnes|
|Area||16. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. St Mary's (Ennor is the largest Island of the Isles of Scilly. Tresco (Ynys Skaw is the second largest Island of the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall, UK St Martin's ( Cornish: Brechiek, meaning dappled island is the northernmost populated island of the Isles of Scilly, United Kingdom. Bryher ( is the smallest of the five inhabited islands of the Isles of Scilly. St Agnes (Aganas is the southernmost populated Island of the Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom. 33 km² (6. 3 sq mi)|
|Status||Sui generis, Unitary|
|Largest city||Hugh Town (1,068)|
|Leadership||Cllr. This is a list of Districts of England ordered by area. The areas given are calculated from the Output Areas created for Census 2001 and made available The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Sui generis (English pronunciation ( IPA) /ˌsuːiˈdʒɛnərɪs/ roughly "SOO-ee JEN-a-ris" Latin pronunciation /ˌsuːiˈgeneris/ is a Neo-Latin See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions Hugh Town (population 1068 Tre Huw is the main settlement on the Isles of Scilly, located south west of Cornwall, England. The pattern of local government in England is complex with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements Mrs. Christine Savill|
|Executive||Philip Hygate B. A. , F. R. S. A.|
|Population||2,100 (ranked 354th) (as of 2006)|
|Density||129 / km²/km²|
|Indigenous people||99. Composition Graphical representation of the House of Commons This is a comparison of the party strengths in the British House of Commons Andrew Henry George (born 2 December 1958 British Politician. The figures are mid-year estimates for 2007 from the Office for National Statistics. 6% White|
The Isles of Scilly (Cornish: Ynysek Syllan) form an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Great Britain. Tresco (Ynys Skaw is the second largest Island of the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall, UK For the Cornish-English dialect see West Country dialects and List of Cornish dialect words. An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Traditionally administered as part of the county of Cornwall, the islands now have their own Council of the Isles of Scilly. Cornwall ( Kernow ˈkɛɹnɔʊ is the most southwesterly county of England, on the Peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar They are also designated the Isles of Scilly Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
The correct name for the islands is the Isles of Scilly, or simply Scilly; the people of Scilly consider the terms "Scillies" and "Scilly Isles" to be incorrect. The adjective "Scillonian" is sometimes used for people or things related to the archipelago.
The Isles of Scilly, the most westerly part of Great Britain, form an archipelago of six inhabited islands and numerous other small rocky islets (around 140 in total) lying 45 km (28 miles) off Land's End. This is a list of the extreme points of the United Kingdom: the points that are farther North, South, East or West than any other Land's End ( Cornish name Penn an Wlas) is a headland on the Penwith Peninsula, located near Penzance in Cornwall The table provides an overview of the most important islands:
|St Mary's||1,666||6. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population St Mary's (Ennor is the largest Island of the Isles of Scilly. 29||Hugh Town|
|Tresco||180||2. Hugh Town (population 1068 Tre Huw is the main settlement on the Isles of Scilly, located south west of Cornwall, England. Tresco (Ynys Skaw is the second largest Island of the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall, UK 97||New Grimsby|
|St Martin's (with White Island)||142||2. St Martin's ( Cornish: Brechiek, meaning dappled island is the northernmost populated island of the Isles of Scilly, United Kingdom. 37||Higher Town|
|St Agnes||70||1. St Agnes (Aganas is the southernmost populated Island of the Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom. 48||Saint Agnes|
|Bryher (with Gweal)||92||1. Gugh (pronounced to rhyme with 'hugh' Cornish: Keow meaning hedge banks is a Tidal island in the Isles of Scilly, United Kingdom Bryher ( is the smallest of the five inhabited islands of the Isles of Scilly. Gweal ( Cornish: Gwithial, meaning place of trees is one of the Isles of Scilly. 32||Bryher|
|Samson||-(1)||0. Samson is the largest uninhabited island in the Isles of Scilly. 38|
|Annet||-||0. Annet is the second largest of the 50 uninhabited Isles of Scilly, 28 miles off the coast from Land's End 21|
|St. Helen's||-||0. St Helen's (Ynys Elidius is one of the Isles of Scilly. An early Christian chapel exists on the island 20|
|Teän||-||0. Teän (sometimes without the Diaeresis; pronounced "TEE-an" is one of the Isles of Scilly. 16|
|Great Ganilly||-||0. Great Ganilly ( Cornish: Guen Hily, meaning the saltwater downs is one of the Isles of Scilly. 13|
|remaining 45 islets||-||0. 50|
|Isles of Scilly||2,153||16. 03||Hugh Town|
(1) inhabited until 1855
The islands' position produces a place of great contrast—the ameliorating effect of the sea means they rarely have frost or snow, which allows local farmers to grow flowers well ahead of those on the island of Britain. Hugh Town (population 1068 Tre Huw is the main settlement on the Isles of Scilly, located south west of Cornwall, England. The largest agricultural product is cut flowers, mostly daffodils. Exposure to Atlantic winds means that spectacular winter gales lash the islands from time to time.
This is reflected in the landscape, most clearly seen on Tresco where the lush sub-tropical Abbey Gardens on the sheltered southern end of the island contrast with the low heather and bare rock sculpted by the wind on the exposed northern end. Tresco Abbey Gardens are located on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly. Calluna vulgaris (also known as Ling is the sole species in the Genus Calluna in the family Ericaceae.
As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose Thrift (Armeria maritima) as the "county flower" of the islands. Plantlife is a wild plant conservation charity founded in 1989 Marsh Daisy redirects here For the chicken breed see Marsh Daisy (chicken Armeria maritima is the Botanical name for In a number of countries plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas 
Scilly has been inhabited since the Stone Age and its history has been one of subsistence living until the 20th century with people living off the land and the sea. The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking Subsistence is the food necessary to sustain life The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering Farming and fishing continue today, but the main industry now is tourism. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel
The islands may correspond to the Cassiterides (Tin Isles) visited by the Phoenicians and mentioned by the Greeks. Cassiterides, meaning Tin Islands, (from the Greek word for tin Κασσίτερος /Kassiteros are in ancient geography the name of islands regarded Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca However, the archipelago itself does not contain much tin - it may be that they were used as a staging post from the mainland.
It is likely that until relatively recently the Isles were much larger with many of them joined into one island and that the land has subsided. Evidence for this includes:
Offshore, midway between Land's End and the Isles of Scilly, is the supposed location of the mythical lost land of Lyonesse, referred to in Arthurian literature. Land's End ( Cornish name Penn an Wlas) is a headland on the Penwith Peninsula, located near Penzance in Cornwall Lyonesse, Lyoness, or Lyonnesse is a country in Arthurian legend, birthplace of the knight Tristan. King Arthur is a legendary British leader who according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against the Saxon invaders This may be a folk memory of inundated lands, but this legend is also common amongst the Brythonic peoples; the legend of "Ys" is a parallel and cognate legend in Brittany. Folk memories is a term sometimes used to describe stories, Folklore or myths about past events that have passed orally from generation to generation The Brythonic languages (or Brittonic languages or British languages) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family the other being Ys, also spelled Is or Ker-Is in Breton, and Ker-Ys in French ( ker means city in Breton is a Mythical Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into
It is generally considered that Cornwall, and possibly the Isles of Scilly came under the dominion of the English Crown in the time of Athelstan's rule, i. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional } Canute the Great, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut ( Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian e. 924-939, if the English crown as such can be said to have actually existed at that time.
During the latter part of the pre-Norman period, the eastern seaboard of modern-day England became increasingly under the sway of the Norse. The Isles of Scilly, called Syllingene by the Norse, themselves came under Viking attack, as it is recorded in the Orkneyinga saga. The Orkneyinga saga (also called the History of the Earls of Orkney) is a unique historical narrative of the history of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, from
In 995 Olaf Tryggvason would become King Olaf I of Norway. Olaf Tryggvason ( Old Norse: Óláfr Tryggvason, Norwegian: Olav Tryggvason) (960s &ndash September 9 ? 1000 was King of Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Born c. 960, Olaf had raided various European cities and fought in several wars. In 986 however, he (supposedly) met a Christian seer on the Isles of Scilly. In Snorre Sturlason's Royal Sagas of Norway, it is stated that this seer told him:
The legend continues that, as the seer foretold, Olaf was attacked by a group of mutineers upon returning to his ships. Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even As soon as he had recovered from his wounds, he let himself be baptized. He then stopped raiding Christian cities and lived in England and Ireland. In 995 he used an opportunity to return to Norway. When he arrived, the Haakon Jarl was already facing a revolt. Olaf Tryggvason could convince the rebels to accept him as their king. (And Haakon Jarl was betrayed and killed by his own slave, while he was hiding from the rebels in a pig sty. Haakon II Sigurdsson Jarl ( Hákon Sigurðsson, Håkon Sigurdsson (died 995 was the son of Sigurd Haakonsson, Earl of Lade, and thus Trøndelag )
Eventually England became ruled by Norse monarchs, and the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms fell one by one, with Wessex being conquered in 1013 by King Sweyn Forkbeard. Sweyn I Forkbeard, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in English Sven the Dane, also known as Swegen and Tuck, ( Old Norse Notably, while Sweyn's realms, which included Denmark and Norway in the north, and modern-day English areas such as Mercia (an Anglian kingdom of the current Midlands), much of which, along with northern England, fell under the "Danelaw". The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. This article is mainly about the English Midlands For other uses see Midlands (disambiguation. The Danelaw, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: But while Sweyn ruled Wessex, along with his other realms, from 1013 onwards, followed by his son Canute the Great, the Isles of Scilly were not part of his realm of Wessex. } Canute the Great, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, or Knut ( Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian
With the Norman Conquest, the Isles of Scilly came more under centralised control. About twenty years later, the Domesday survey was conducted. The Domesday Book (ˈduːmzdeɪ bʊk also known as Domesday, or Book of Winchester) was the record of the great survey The islands would have formed part of the "Exeter Domesday" circuit, which included Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, and Wiltshire. Exeter ( (IPA ˈeksɪtər is a city, district and County town of Devon, England. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name Dorset ( (or archaically, Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast Somerset ( or) is a county in south west England The County town is Taunton, which is in the south of the county Etymology The county formerly 'Wiltonshire' or 'Wiltunscir' (9th century is named after the former county town of Wilton (itself named after the River Wylye
At the turn of the 14th century, the Abbot and convent of Tavistock Abbey petitioned the king saying that
William le Poer, coroner of Scilly is recorded in 1305, about being worried about the extent of wrecking in the islands, and sent a petition to the King. The names provide a wide variety of origins, e. g. Robert and Henry Sage (English), Richard de Tregenestre (Cornish), Ace de Veldre (French), Davy Gogch (possibly Welsh, or Cornish), and Adam le Fuiz Yaldicz (?Spanish)
In 1375, Boreman, with 28 mariners, was captured in the Isles of Scilly in a barge of Normandy by Fulbroke, Borde and others and brought to Bristol as prisoners. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London
It is not known at exactly what time the islands' inhabitants stopped speaking Cornish, but it seems to have gone into decline during the Middle Ages, and lost the language before parts of Penwith. For the Cornish-English dialect see West Country dialects and List of Cornish dialect words. Geography The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on Granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a rugged coastline with many fine beaches The islands thus appeared to have lost the old Celtic language before parts of the mainland, in contrast to the situation of Irish or Scottish Gaelic. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Scottish Gaelic ( Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages.
During the English Civil War, the Parliamentarians captured the isles, only to see its garrison mutiny and return them to the Royalists. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. " Roundheads " was the Nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War ( 1642 &ndash 1651 By 1651, the Royalist governor, Sir John Grenville, was using the islands as a base of privateering raids on Commonwealth and Dutch shipping. It was during this period that the Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War started between the isles and the Netherlands. The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War (1651–1986 was a War between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly (located off the southwest coast of The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands In June 1651, Admiral Robert Blake captured the isles for the Parliamentarians. Robert Blake (1599 — August 17, 1657) was one of the most important military commanders of the Commonwealth of England, and one of the most famous " Roundheads " was the Nickname given to the Puritan supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. Blake's initial attack, on Old Grimsby, failed, but the next attacks, succeeded in taking Tresco and Bryher. Tresco (Ynys Skaw is the second largest Island of the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall, UK Bryher ( September 2, 1894 &ndash January 28, 1983) was the pen name of the novelist poet memoirist and magazine editor Annie Winnifred Blake set up a battery on Tresco to fire on St. Mary's, but one of the guns exploded, killing its crew and injuring Blake himself. Still, a second battery proved more successful. Consequently, Grenville and Blake negotiated terms that permitted the Royalists to surrender honorably. The Parliamentary forces then set to fortifying the islands. They built Cromwell's Castle - a gun platform on the west side of Tresco - using materials scavenged from an earlier gun platform further up the hill. Cromwell's Castle is on the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly ( Although this poorly sited earlier platform dated back to the 1550s, it is now referred to King Charles's Castle. King Charles's Castle is near the northern extremity of the island of Tresco in the Isles of Scilly (
The islands appear to have been depredated frequently by Barbary pirates. The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Pirates and Privateers that operated from North Africa, from
Scilly is famous for its danger to shipping and its many shipwrecks. The list of shipwrecks of the Isles of Scilly is a list of ships sank on or near the Isles of Scilly. The wreck of Sir Cloudesley Shovell's ship HMS Association and three others of his fleet in 1707 off the Isles of Scilly due to inaccuracies in navigation led to the establishment of the Board of Longitude and consequently the development of the method of lunar distances, and to the invention of the marine chronometer by John Harrison, the first reliable methods of determining longitude at sea. Sir Cloudesley Shovell (c November 1650 &ndash 22 October or 23 October 1707) English Admiral, was baptised at Cockthorpe Sinking In October 1707 Association, commanded by Captain Edmund Loades was returning from the Mediterranean with Shovell on board The Board of Longitude was the popular name for the Commissioners for the Discovery of the Longitude at Sea. In Celestial navigation, lunar distance is the angle between the Moon and another Celestial body. A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable Time standard; it can therefore be used to determine Longitude by means of Celestial John Harrison (24 March 1693 – 24 March 1776 was an English Clockmaker. Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement
The sea has always played a huge part in Scillonian history but it was in the 19th century that Scilly had its maritime heyday. Beaches which are now enjoyed by sunbathers were then factories for shipbuilding; the harbours now full of pleasure boats were once packed with local and visiting fishing and trading boats. See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a
In 1834, Augustus Smith acquired the lease on the Isles of Scilly from the Duchy of Cornwall for £20,000, and set about changing the islanders' way of life, expelling those who could not find a job locally and evicting some of the inhabitants of smaller islands, in a manner similar to that practiced in the Scottish clearances. Year 1834 ( MDCCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Augustus John Smith ( 15 September 1804 &ndash 31 July 1872) was governor of the Isles of Scilly for over thirty years and was largely See also Leasing, Renting A lease is a Legal document, but can be an oral arrangement which confers a right on one person (called The Duchy of Cornwall is with the Duchy of Lancaster, one of the two Royal duchies in England. The Highland Clearances ( Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal the expulsion of the Gael were Forced displacements of the population of the Scottish In 1855, he expelled the ten inhabitants of Samson, in order to turn the island into a deer park. Samson is the largest uninhabited island in the Isles of Scilly. (The deer did not like the habitat, and escaped. )
Smith created the quasi-aristocratic title Lord Proprietor for himself, and, many of his actions were unpopular. However, it can be said that not all his actions were detrimental to the inhabitants, for example, besides building a new quay at Hugh Town on St. Mary's, he sowed gorse and trees to provide shelter for the agricultural land. Hugh Town (population 1068 Tre Huw is the main settlement on the Isles of Scilly, located south west of Cornwall, England. St Mary's (Ennor is the largest Island of the Isles of Scilly. Gorse ( Ulex) comprises a Genus of about 20 species of Evergreen Shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family He built schools on the well-inhabited islands. These were the first compulsory schools in the whole of Britain. It cost one penny a time but if you missed school then it was 2d.
The archipelago became fairly popular in the 20th century as a holiday and holiday home location. For example, former Prime Minister Harold Wilson regularly holidayed on the Isles and eventually bought a cottage there as a holiday home. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom James Harold Wilson Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 &ndash 24 May 1995 was one of the most prominent British politicians He is buried on St Mary's. His widow Mary Wilson is still a frequent visitor. Mary Wilson Baroness Wilson of Rievaulx (born 1918 is an English Poet, best known as the wife of former British prime minister, Harold Wilson
Historically, the Isles of Scilly were administered as one of the hundreds of Cornwall, although the Cornwall quarter sessions had limited jurisdiction there. Cornwall was originally divided into hundreds, some with the suffix shire as in Pydershire East and West Wivelshire and Powdershire which The Courts of Quarter Sessions or Quarter Sessions were periodic courts held in each County and County borough in England and Wales until The archipelago is part of the Duchy of Cornwall, the Duke being the heir to the British throne, and he is allowed special rights and privileges in the islands. The Duchy of Cornwall is with the Duchy of Lancaster, one of the two Royal duchies in England.
The Local Government Act 1888 allowed the Local Government Board to establish in the Isles of Scilly "councils and other local authorities separate from those of the county of Cornwall". The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict c 41 was passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1888 and established County councils and County borough The President of the Local Government Board was a ministerial post frequently a Cabinet position in the United Kingdom, established in 1871 . . "for the application to the islands of any act touching local government. " Accordingly, in 1890 the Isles of Scilly Rural District Council (the RDC) was formed as a sui generis unitary authority, outside the administrative county of Cornwall. Sui generis (English pronunciation ( IPA) /ˌsuːiˈdʒɛnərɪs/ roughly "SOO-ee JEN-a-ris" Latin pronunciation /ˌsuːiˈgeneris/ is a Neo-Latin See also Independent city A unitary authority is a type of Local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all Local government functions An administrative county was an Administrative division in England and Wales and Ireland used for the purposes of Local government. Cornwall County Council provided some services to the Isles, for which the RDC made financial contributions. Section 265 of the Local Government Act of 1972 allowed for the continued existence of the RDC, but renamed as the Council of the Isles of Scilly. The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c 70 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, that reformed local government in England and Wales 
This unusual status also means that much administrative law (for example relating to the functions of local authorities, the health service and other public bodies) that applies in the rest of England applies in modified form in the islands. 
With a total population of just over 2,000, the council represents fewer inhabitants than many U. K parish councils, and is by far the smallest unitary council within the UK. A Parish council is a unit of Local government in Great Britain. In 2005, there were 21 elected councillors (all independent), 13 elected by St Mary's residents and two each, elected by residents of Bryher, St Martins, St Agnes and Tresco. A councillor or councilor ( Cllr, Coun, Clr or Cr for short is a member of a Local government council such as a In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party. There are some 164 staff were employed by the council. These numbers are significant in that almost 10 per cent of the population is directly linked to the council as either an employee or councillor. 
For judicial, shrievalty and lieutenancy purposes the Isles of Scilly are "deemed to form part of Cornwall". The High Sheriff is or was a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries The title Lord Lieutenant is given to the British Monarch 's personal representatives in the United Kingdom, usually in a county or similar circumscription with varying 
The phrase "England and Cornwall" (or the Latin equivalent Anglia et Cornubia) remained in use after the Norman Conquest. Before the Tudor period, laws were typically designated as taking effect in Anglia et Cornubia. Social and economic revolution Following the Black Death Plagues and the agricultural depression of the late 14th century population growth A similar situation exists today with the Isles of Scilly within Cornwall (i. e Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly). Both the relationship of Cornwall to the Isles of Scilly, and the constitutional status of Cornwall are a matter of some debate. The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of the United Kingdom, is the subject of ongoing debate
Politically, the islands are part of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located They are represented in the United Kingdom Parliament as part of the St Ives constituency, currently held by Andrew George of the Liberal Democrats. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories St Ives is a County constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Andrew Henry George (born 2 December 1958 British Politician. The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal Political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 1988 by merging the
As part of the United Kingdom, the islands are part of the European Union and are represented in the European Parliament as part of the multi-member South West England constituency. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU South West England is a Constituency of the European Parliament. The Isles of Scilly are not the most remote part of this constituency, as it also includes the United Kingdom dependent territory of Gibraltar. A dependent territory dependent area or dependency is a territory that does not possess full political Independence or Sovereignty as a Gibraltar (dʒɨˈbrɒltər is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar
There are primarily two flags used to represent Scilly:
Education is available on the islands up to age 16. There is one school, the Five Islands School, which provides primary schooling at sites on St Agnes, St Mary's, St Martin's and Tresco, and secondary schooling at a site on St Mary's. Secondary students from outside St Mary's live at a hostel during the week. In 2004, 93% of pupils (26 out of 28) achieved 5 or more GCSEs at grade C and above, compared to the English average of 53. The General Certificate of Secondary Education ( GCSE) is the name of an academic qualification awarded in a specified subject generally taken in a number of subjects by 7%.  Sixteen to eighteen year olds are entitled to a free sixth form place at a state school or sixth form college on the mainland, and are provided with free flights and a grant towards accommodation. The sixth form, in the English, Welsh and Northern Irish education systems Commonwealth West Indian countries such as Barbados, Belize Post eighteen, suitably qualified students attend universities and colleges on the mainland.
Since the mid-eighteenth century the Scillionian economy has relied on trade with the mainland and beyond as a means of sustaining its population. Over the years the nature of this trade has varied, due to wider economic and political factors that have seen the rise and fall of industries such as kelp harvesting, pilotage, smuggling, fishing, shipbuilding and, latterly, flower farming. Kelp are large Seaweeds ( Algae) belonging to the Brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales A pilot is a Mariner who guides Ships through dangerous or congested waters such as Harbours or River mouths Legally the master remains Smuggling, also known as trafficking, is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons past a point where prohibited such as out of a building into a Prison For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of Horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and Ornamental plants for gardens and In a study of the Scillionian economy by Neate in 1987, it was found that many farms on the islands were struggling to remain profitable due to increasing costs and strong competition from overseas producers resulting in a diversification into tourism. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Recent statistics suggest that agriculture on the islands now represent less than 2 percent of all employment. 
Today, tourism is estimated to account for 85 per cent of the island's income. The islands have been efficient in attracting this investment due to its unique environment, favourable summer climate, relaxed culture, efficient co-ordination of tourism providers and good transport links by sea and air to the mainland, uncommon in scale to similar sized island communities.  The majority of visitors stay on St Mary's, which has a concentration of holiday accommodation and other amenities. St Mary's (Ennor is the largest Island of the Isles of Scilly. Of the other inhabited islands, Tresco is run as a timeshare resort, and is consequently the most obviously tourist-orientated. Tresco (Ynys Skaw is the second largest Island of the Isles of Scilly, Cornwall, UK Bryher and St Martin's are more unspoilt, although each has a hotel and other accommodation. Bryher ( is the smallest of the five inhabited islands of the Isles of Scilly. St Martin's ( Cornish: Brechiek, meaning dappled island is the northernmost populated island of the Isles of Scilly, United Kingdom. St Agnes has no hotel and is the least developed of the islands. St Agnes (Aganas is the southernmost populated Island of the Isles of Scilly, England, United Kingdom.
However the level of dependency on tourism is high, even by the standards of other island communities. “The concentration [on] a small number of sectors is typical of most similarly sized UK island communities. However, it is the degree of concentration, which is distinctive along with the overall importance of tourism within the economy as a whole and the very limited manufacturing base that stands out. ”
Due to its scale, tourism stands to justify the existence of many other island activities, for example, transport links to the mainland which could not be maintained with reduced visitor numbers. Therefore the implications of tourism are far ranging, as they essentially affect the sustainability of the whole community.
Tourism is also a highly seasonal industry due to its reliance on outdoor recreation, and the low level of tourist activity in winter causes a near shutdown of the islands during that season. However, the tourist season benefits from an extended period of business in October when many birdwatchers (or birders) arrive. Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of Birds with the naked eye or through a visual enhancement device like Binoculars. Because of its position, Scilly is the first landing for many migrant birds, including extreme rarities from North America and Siberia. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving
The predominance of tourism means that "tourism is by far the main sector throughout each of the individual islands, in terms of employment… [and] this is much greater than other remote and rural areas in the United Kingdom”. Tourism accounts for approximately 63 per cent of all employment. 
Businesses dependent on tourism, with the exception of a few hotels, tend to be small enterprises typically employing fewer than 4 people and many of these are family run suggesting an entrepreneurial culture amongst the local population.  However, much of the work generated by this, with the exception of management, is low skilled and thus poorly paid, especially for those involved in cleaning, catering and retail. 
Because of the seasonality of tourism, many jobs on the islands are seasonal and part time as work cannot be guaranteed throughout the year. Some islanders take up other temporary jobs ‘out of season’ to compensate for this. Due to a lack of local casual labour at peak holiday times, many of the larger employers accommodate guest workers who come to the islands for the summer to have a ‘working holiday’.
The islands are linked to the mainland by both air and sea services, and rely on boat services for inter-island connections. St. Mary's is the only island with a significant road network.
By air, the islands are served by St. Mary's Airport on the main island of St. St Mary's Airport is an airport located 1 Nautical mile (19 km east of Hugh Town on St Mary's and by Tresco Heliport on the island of Tresco. Tresco Heliport is a Heliport located on the island of Tresco, in the Isles of Scilly off the south-west coast of England, UK The following air services currently operate:
By sea, the Isles of Scilly Steamship Company provides a passenger and cargo service from Penzance to St Mary's: Scillonian III passenger ferry and Gry Maritha cargo vessel. The Isles of Scilly Steamship Company operates a seasonal passenger service from Penzance, in the English county of Cornwall, to the offshore Isles Penzance (Pensans also Penzans, IPA: /pɛnˈzæns/ is a town Civil parish, and Port in the Penwith district of Cornwall Scillonian III is a passenger ship based at Penzance in Cornwall, England United Kingdom run by the Isles of Scilly Steamship Company. The other islands are linked to St. Mary's by a network of inter-island launches. A launch in contemporary usage refers to a large Motorboat. The name originally referred to the largest boat carried by a warship 
The freehold of the islands is the property of the British Crown (except for Hugh Town on St Mary's, which was sold to the inhabitants in 1949). Fee simple is an estate in land in Common law. It is the most common way Real estate is owned in common law countries and is ordinarily the most Hugh Town (population 1068 Tre Huw is the main settlement on the Isles of Scilly, located south west of Cornwall, England. The crown estate on the islands is administered by the Duchy of Cornwall. The Duchy of Cornwall is with the Duchy of Lancaster, one of the two Royal duchies in England. The duchy also holds 3,921 acres (16 km²) as duchy property, part of the duchy's landholding. 
Housing availability is a contentious yet critical issue for the Isles of Scilly, especially as it affects the feasibility of residency on the islands. Few properties are privately owned, with many units being let by the Duchy of Cornwall, the Council, and a few by housing associations. Housing associations in the United Kingdom are independent not-for-profit bodies that provide low-cost "social housing" for people in housing The management of these subsequently impacts the possibility of residency on the islands. 
Housing demand outstrips supply, a problem compounded by restrictions on further development designed to protect the islands unique environment and prevent the infrastructural carrying capacity from being exceeded. This has pushed up the prices fetched for the few private properties that become available, but significantly for the majority of the island's population, this has also impacted the rental sector where rates have likewise drastically increased. 
High housing costs pose significant problems of affordability for the local population, especially as local incomes (in Cornwall) are only 70% of the national average, whilst house prices are almost £5,000 more than the national average. This in turn affects the retention of ‘key workers’ and the younger generation, which has a consequent impact upon the viability of the school(s) and other essential community services. 
The access to housing provokes strong local politics. It is often assumed that tourism is to blame for this, attracting incomers to the area who can afford to out-price locals for available housing. Many buildings are used for tourist accommodation which reduces the number available for local residency. Second homes are also thought to account for a significant proportion of the housing stock, leaving many buildings empty for much of the year. 
In 1975, the islands were designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB is an area of countryside with significant landscape value in England, Wales or Northern Ireland The designation covers the entire archipelago, including the uninhabited islands and rocks, and is the smallest such area in the UK. The islands of Annet and Samson have large terneries and the islands are well populated by seals. Terns are Seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily (Sterninae of the gull family Laridae (van Tuinen et al Pinnipeds ("fin-feet" lit "winged feet" or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semi-aquatic marine Mammals comprising The Isles of Scilly are the only British haunt of the Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens). The Lesser White-toothed Shrew ( Crocidura suaveolens) is a tiny Shrew found in Europe.
The islands are famous amongst birdwatchers, especially twitchers for their almost magnetic ability to attract rare birds from all corners of the globe. Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of Birds with the naked eye or through a visual enhancement device like Binoculars. The peak time of year for this is generally in October when it is not unusual for several of the rarest birds in Europe to share this archipelago. One reason for the success of these islands in producing rarities is the extensive coverage these islands get from birdwatchers, but island archipelagos are favoured by rare birds which like to make landfall and eat before continuing their journeys and often arrive on far flung islands first.
The vast majority of the population are either Cornish or from other parts of England, and the ethnic makeup of the islands is almost exclusively white European. The Cornish people (Kernowyon are regarded as an Ethnic group of the United Kingdom originating in Cornwall. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The Cornish people (Kernowyon are regarded as an Ethnic group of the United Kingdom originating in Cornwall. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English As with other parts of the UK, a large number of Eastern Europeans, particularly Poles have been brought in to do low paid labour in the early 21st century. The Polish people, or Poles, (Polacy) are a Western Slavic Ethnic group of Central Europe, living predominantly in Poland.
Whilst there is little evidence to substantiate the claim, it is sometimes rather tenuously suggested, that the early inhabitants of the islands may have had a genetic link to the "Ancient British" who inhabited the islands long before the arrival of the Celts or Romans.
The criterion for claiming oneself to be a "Scillonian" typically relies on proof of being "island-born". Recent evidence from Essex University indicates that the young indigenous Cornish are increasingly underrepresented in the demographic profile, having been economically and socially displaced by older mainland-incomers. The University of Essex is a British Campus university located near the town of Colchester, England Census and subjective observations suggest that the ethnic makeup of the islands is almost exclusively white.
One continuing legacy of the isles' past is gig racing, wherein fast rowing boats ("gigs") with crews of six (or in one case, seven) race between the main islands. The Cornish pilot gig is a six-oared rowing Boat, built of Cornish narrow leaf elm long with a beam of four feet ten inches Gig racing has been said to derive from the race to collect salvage from shipwrecks on the rocks around Scilly, but the race was actually to deliver a pilot onto incoming vessels, to guide them through the hazardous reefs and shallows. Marine salvage is the process of rescuing a ship its cargo and sometimes the crew from peril A pilot is a Mariner who guides Ships through dangerous or congested waters such as Harbours or River mouths Legally the master remains (The boats are correctly termed "pilot gigs". )
The Isles of Scilly feature what is reportedly the smallest football league in the world. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The league's two clubs, Woolpack Wanderers and Garrison Gunners, play each other sixteen times a season and compete for two cups as well as the league title. The league was a launching pad for the adidas "Dream Big" Campaign. WikipediaManual of Style (trademarks, which says "Lowercased trademarks with no internal  The two share a ground, Garrison Field, but travel to the mainland for part of the year to play other non-professional clubs.
In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of the Isles of Scilly were the most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. Sport England is the brand name for the English Sports Council and is a Non-departmental public body under the Department for 32% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes. 
Scilly is also popular scuba diving area. Scuba diving is swimming underwater, or taking part in another activity while using a Scuba set.
The islands are famous for their birdwatching. Because Scilly is situated far into the Atlantic Ocean, American vagrant birds will make first European landfall in the archipelageE. This fact attracts many birdwatchers each year, notably in the month of October.
Scilly is responsible for many firsts for Britain and never fails to produce good birds. It is particularly good at producing vagrant American Passerines (perching birds). If an extremely rare bird turns up the island will see a significant increase in numbers of birders. This type of birding, chasing after rare birds, is called 'twitching'.
There is a small transmitter relay on St. Mary's island, which covers BBC Radio 1, 2, 3 & 4 as well as BBC Radio Cornwall. BBC Radio is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927 Radio Scilly, a community radio station, launched in September 2007. Radio Scilly is a not for profit non-profit distributing community radio station The amateur radio station M1IOS also operates on the islands. An amateur radio station is a facility equipped for Radiocommunications in the amateur radio service.
Only four of the analogue television stations are relayed onto the islands (i. Analog (or analogue) television encodes Television picture and sound information and transmits it as an Analog signal: one in which the e. Five is not covered). DAB and DVB/Freeview are not currently receivable on the islands. Digital Audio Broadcasting ( DAB) also known as Eureka 147, is a Digital radio technology for Broadcasting Radio stations used in For the chemical compound see Divinylbenzene. Digital Video Broadcasting ( DVB) is a suite of internationally accepted Freeview is an operator of free Digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom, using the DVB-T standard This is hoped to change when digital switch-over happens in the ITV Westcountry area in 2009, and transmissions from the Redruth transmitting station are increased in power. Westcountry Television, is the ITV franchise holder in the South West of England replacing its predecessor TSW (Television South West, on 1 January 1993 There are three Redruth transmitting stations: Redruth (Four Lanes A Broadcasting and Telecommunications facility in west Cornwall
There is no local newspaper; however Scilly News is a locally based website which captures items of community interest. A maximum ADSL speed of 8Mbit/s is available to all of the inhabited islands. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ( ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over Copper Telephone In telecommunications Bit rate or Data transfer rate is the average number of Bits characters or blocks per unit time passing between equipment in a data transmission
The Isles of Scilly were featured on the TV programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of South West England. Seven Natural Wonders was a Television series that aired on BBC Two from 3 May to 20 June 2005. In early 2007 the islands featured in the BBC series An Island Parish, following various real life stories but featuring the newly appointed Chaplain to the Isles of Scilly. An Island Parish is a British Television documentary made by Tiger Aspect Productions for BBC2 which covers the lives of residents A new 12-part series was filmed in 2007, and debuted on BBC2 in January 2008. 
The novel Unnatural Selection by Aaron Elkins is set on St. Aaron Elkins (born July 24, 1935) is an American mystery writer Mary's.