Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. The classic heartland of Islam is Arabia and the Middle East, North Africa and Egypt, Iran, Central Asia, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Because Islam is a multicultural religion, the musical expression of its adherents is diverse. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The indigenous musical styles of these areas have shaped the devotional music enjoyed by contemporary Muslims:
The Seljuk Turks, a nomadic tribe that converted to Islam, conquered Anatolia (now Turkey), and held the Caliphate as the Ottoman Empire, also had a strong influence on Islamic music. Arabic music or Arab music ( Arabic: موسيقى عربية;) includes several genres and styles of Music ranging from Arabic classical The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish See:
All these regions were connected by trade long before the Islamic conquests of the 600s and later, and it is likely that musical styles traveled the same routes as trade goods. The music of Turkey includes diverse elements ranging from Central Asian folk music and music from Ottoman Empire dominions such as Persian music, However, lacking recordings, we can only speculate as to the pre-Islamic music of these areas. Islam must have had a great influence on music, as it united vast areas under the first caliphs, and facilitated trade between distant lands. Certainly the Sufis, brotherhoods of Muslim mystics, spread their music far and wide. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity
The music of the Muslim populations of South Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, with Nepal and Sri Lanka) had merged the Middle Eastern genres along with indigenous classical musical modes, and is generally distinct in style and orchestration, yet due to the strong links encountered between the Middle-East, Central Asia and South Asia, they are closer to Middle-Eastern styles than those of the peripheric outreaches of the Islamic world, which tend to be purely indigenous. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas.
Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caucasus, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines also have large Muslim populations, but these areas have incorporated less influences from the heartland than other areas, although in the case of West Africa, a shared trade route between the Berbers and Arabs of North Africa had given a sharing of styles present especially in the Sahelian region, between the Savanna and the Sahara. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP See also Sahel Tunisia, a region of eastern Tunisia. The Sahel or Sahel Belt (from Arabic ساحل sāḥil A savanna or savannah is a Tropical or Subtropical Grassland or Woodland Ecosystem. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest Of these areas, the music of Mali, the Wolof of Senegal, the Fula, Songhai and Hausa groups had experienced international recognition in the contemporary world. Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of The Songhai are an ethnic group from western Africa akin to the Mandé. The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger.
Many music genres of these areas generally predate the coming of Islam or have very little influence from the Islamic heartland, the exceptions being Taarab music of the Swahili people of East Africa, and the Malay Zapin genres, of which both had taken a lot of influence from the Middle East after Islamization. Taarab is a Music genre popular in Tanzania. It is influenced by music from the cultures with a historical presence in East Africa, including music from The Swahili are a people and culture found on the coast of East Africa, mainly the coastal regions and the islands of Kenya and Tanzania, and north Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast Zapin ( Jawi: زافين) is a dance form that is popular in Malaysia especially in the state of Johor.
See West African music, Gamelan and Kulintang for further information on the separate musical genres, traditions and ensembles predominant among Muslims in these areas. West Africa is far-reaching stretching from the Sahara Desert to the Atlantic Ocean. A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and Kulintang is a modern term for an instrumental form of music composed on a row of small horizontally-laid Gongs that function melodically accompanied by larger suspended
Some groups of contemporary Muslim musicians perform devotional songs they call nasheed. Most nasheed groups perform using only voice and percussion instruments. This music is considered halal, permissible, by many strict Muslims. Some nasheed groups add other instruments.
Sufi worship services are often called dhikr or zikr. Dhikr ذکر Plural اذكار Adhkaar ( Zikir in Turkish and Malay, Zikr in Urdu, Jikir in Bengali and Zekr See that article for further elaboration.
The dhikr of South Asian Muslims is "quietist". The Sufi services best known in the West are the chanting and rhythmic dancing of the whirling dervishes or Mevlevi Sufis of Turkey. The Mevlevi Order or the Mevleviye are a Sufi order founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th century Persian The Mevlevi Order or the Mevleviye are a Sufi order founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th century Persian Some Mevlevi music can be heard on the Sufi Music CD recommended below. The Mevlevi Order or the Mevleviye are a Sufi order founded by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi, a 13th century Persian
However, Sufis may also perform devotional songs in public, for the enjoyment and edification of listeners. The mood is religious, but the gathering is not a worship service.
In Turkey, once the seat of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate, concerts of sacred song are called "Mehfil-e-Sama' " (or "gathering of Sama'"). Song forms include ilahi and nefe.
Qasidah is a form of poetry. Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic: قصيدة, plural qasā'id, قــصــائـد; in Persian: قصیده In this form of poetry the praise is presented. Qasidah is four types, 1. Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic: قصيدة, plural qasā'id, قــصــائـد; in Persian: قصیده Hamd (Hymn) 2. A Hamd (حمد is a poem or song in praise of Allah. A hamd is usually written in either Arabic, Persian, Punjabi, or Urdu. A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities Naat (A poem in praise of Prophet Muhammad 3. A Na`at (نعت is a Poetry that specifically praises the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Manqabat (A poem in praise of Saints) 4. A manqabat is a Qawwali or Sufi devotional song in praise of the final Rightly Guided Caliph and Commander of the Faithful ' Ali ibn Abi Talib a famous Companion Madah (A poem in praise of honourables)
In India and Pakistan, these concerts, and the associated style of music, are called qawwali. Qawwali ( Urdu / Persian: قوٌالی; Punjabi / Multani: ਖ਼ਵ੍ਵਾਲੀ قوٌالی Brajbhasha / Hindi A traditional qawwali programme would include:
Shi'a concerts follow the naat with a song in praise of Ali (also manqabat) and a marsiya, a lamentation over the death of much of Ali's family at the Battle of Karbala. Marsiya ( Marsia) (مرثیہ is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10 61 AH ( October 9 or 10 680 CE in Karbala, in present day Iraq.
See Poetry in Islam for a discussion of the lyrics.
Qawwali is increasingly popular as a musical genre and performances may attract those who want to hear virtuoso singing rather than contemplate the divine. Qawwali ( Urdu / Persian: قوٌالی; Punjabi / Multani: ਖ਼ਵ੍ਵਾਲੀ قوٌالی Brajbhasha / Hindi Some artists may skip the long sequence of praise songs and go straight from the introductory hamd to the popular romantic songs, or even dispense with the devotional content completely. This is cause for much consternation for traditional enthusiasts/devotees of the form. The most well known qawwali singer is Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan ( نصرت فتح على خاں, born October 13 1948, died August 16, 1997) was a Pakistani The dimension and style of music he brought about no one else is able to produce till this day.
As Sufi music has developed so have the generations. A Pakistani rock band, Junoon, was formed in the 1990s to bring a modern twist to suit the new younger generations. Junoon ( Urdu: جنون) (meaning "obsession" in Urdu and "madness" in Arabic) is one of Pakistan 's most popular The band was a huge world wide hit that created a lot of popularity for not only Pakistan.
Some Muslims believe that only vocal music is permissible (halal) and that instruments are forbidden (haram). Maqam is a modal structure that characterizes the art of music of countries in North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. Dastgāh ( Persian:دستگاه is a musical mode in the traditional Persian art music which consists of twelve principal musical modes or dastgāhs; in Hence there is a strong tradition of a cappella devotional singing. A cappella (Italian or Latin "From the chapel/choir" Music is Vocal music or Singing without instrumental Accompaniment
Other Muslims will accept drums, but no other instruments. A drum kit (also drum set or trap set) is a collection of Drums Cymbals and sometimes other Percussion instruments such as cowbells
Yet other Muslims believe that any instrument is lawful as long as it is used for the permissible kinds of music. Hence there is a long tradition of instrumental accompaniment to devotional songs. A wide variety of instruments may be used, depending on local musical traditions.
When lyrics are not simply repeated and elaborated invocations (Yah Nabi and the like) they are usually poems in forms and meters common in the local literature. A harmonium is a free-standing musical keyboard instrument similar to a Reed Organ or Pipe Organ
Most Muslim scholars traditionally have held that music is forbidden both by the Qur'an and by the hadith, as well as by tradition and believe that Muhammad stated that musical instruments are sinful when he said: "There will be among my Ummah people who will regard as permissible adultery, silk, alcohol and musical instruments,"; many of the greatest Islamic scholars of the past, including the four imams, agreed upon this. Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Ummah (أمة is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or (in the Madhhab or Mazhab ( Arabic مذهب mæðhæb pl مذاهب mæðæːhıb) is an Islamic school of thought, or 
There is a growing number of contemporary Muslim musicians. One of the most notable movements has been in Sufi Rock, Muslim hip hop, Muslim R&B, or Muslim rap.
Some notable Muslim nasheed artists include:
Noted Sufi singers:
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