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The history of Islam in Italy started in the 9th century: Sicily and some regions in Peninsular Italy were part of the Muslim Ummah between 828 (Muslim conquest of Sicily) and 1300 (destruction of the last Islamic stronghold of Lucera in Puglia), Islam was almost entirely absent in Italy from the time of the country's unification in 1861 until the 1970s, when the first trickle of North African immigrants began arriving. Listing of Muslims by country Important note Population counts by religious affiliation like most demographic characteristics of a Population The precise number of Muslims in Africa is unknown as statistics regarding religious demography in Africa are incomplete Islam, the religion of almost all of the Algerian people pervades most aspects of life Islam in Angola is a minority religion with 80000-90000 adherents composed largely of migrants from West Africa and families of Lebanese origin According to the 2002 census 271 percent of the population of Benin is Roman Catholic, 24 Islam in Botswana comprises only 2-3 percent of the population Islam in Burkina Faso ( Upper Volta) has a long and varied history Muslims in Burundi are officially around 1% of the total population though Muslim Burundians estimate the figure to be closer to 8-10% Muslims comprise roughly 22 percent of Cameroon 's 18 million inhabitants According to the US State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2006 there is a small Muslim community in Cape Verde Islam accounts for approximately 22% of the population of the Central African Republic, making it the second most followed organized religion in the country The earliest Islamic presence in Chad can be traced back to the legendary Uqba ibn Nafi, whose descendants can be found settled in the Lake Chad region to this day According to the 2006 estimate by the US Department of State, roughly 98% of the population in the Comoros are Muslim. Islam in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is not a recent phenomenon as it has been present within the area since the 18th century when Arab traders from Islam spread to the Republic of the Congo from North Africa in the mid-19th century According to the CIA factbook, Muslims make up about 35-40% of the population of Côte d'Ivoire. Islam in Djibouti has a long history first appearing in East Africa during the lifetime of Muhammad. The republic of Egypt has recognized Islam as the State religion since 1980 According to the US State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2006 practicioners of Islam comprised less than 1 percent of the population of Equatorial Although reliable statistics are not available it is estimated that 50 percent of the population of Eritrea is Sunni Muslim and 49 percent is Christian. According to the latest 1994 national census Islam is the second most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia after Christianity, with approximately one third (32 Approximately 12% of the population of Gabon practice Islam (of which 80 to 90 percent are foreigners Islam is the majority religion of The Gambia, with around 90% of the population being Muslims The spread of Islam into West Africa, beginning with ancient Ghana in the ninth century was mainly the result of the commercial activities of North African 2005 official statistics for Islam in Guinea estimate that 85% of Guinea 's 7 Islam is the predominate religion of Guinea-Bissau, numbering an estimated 38-45% of the roughly 1 Islam is the religion of approximately 10% of the Kenyan population or approximately 3 According to Adherents the Muslim population of Lesotho in 2000 was 1000 or 0 Islam in Liberia is practiced by 10% of the population The vast majority of Liberian Muslims are Sunni, with only a few Shi'ites, mostly of Lebanese origin Most Libyans adhere to the Sunni branch of Islam, which provides both a spiritual guide for individuals and a keystone for government policy Islam has been well-established in what is now known as Madagascar for centuries and today Muslims represent 7% of the population or approximately 1 Islam is the second largest religion in Malawi after Christianity; nearly all of Malawi's Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam. Muslims currently make up approximately 90 percent of the population of Mali, the largest country in West Africa. Virtually all Mauritanians are Sunni Muslims. They adhere to the Maliki Madhab, one of the four Sunni schools of law The 1968 constitution of Mauritius recognized four religious categories Hindus, Muslims Sino-Mauritians and the general population Islam is the largest religion in Morocco, with roughly 987% of the population adhering to it Islam in Mozambique is the religion of approximately four million Mozambicans or about 17 Islam is the third largest religion in Namibia after Christianity and indigenous beliefs 90% of the Nigerien population—approximately 113 million people—are followers of Islam', with a majority of those being linked to the Tijaniya Fifty percent of the population of Nigeria adheres to Islam. Islam came to Northern Nigeria as early as the ninth century and was Islam was first introduced into Rwanda by Muslim traders from the East Coast of Africa in the 18th century São Tomé and Príncipe, with a total population of about 181000 has about 5500 Muslim inhabitants about 3 percent of the population Islam is the predominant religion in Senegal. Ninety-four percent of the country's population is estimated to be Muslim Islam in the Indian Ocean was established by Muslim Sea Merchants well before the European discovery of Seychelles. Statistics for Islam in Sierra Leone estimate a Muslim population of 3610585 representing around 60 percent of the country's total population Nearly all Somalis are Sunni Muslims Practicing Islam reinforces distinctions that further set Somalis apart from their immediate African neighbors many of whom are either Christians Islam in South Africa predates the colonial period and consisted of isolated contact with Arab and East African traders Sudan is a religiously mixed country although Muslims have dominated national government institutions since independence in 1956 The population of Swaziland is approximately 35 percent Protestant, 30 percent African Zionist, 25 percent Catholic, and 1 percent Muslim. Islam is as of 2007 the largest religion (or may be the second after Christianity) in Tanzania with 35% of the population of the mainland ( Tanganyika) Muslims in Togo represent between 137 and 55% of the national population Islam is the official state religion in Tunisia Approximately 98 percent of the population of Tunisia is nominally Muslim. According to the National Census 2002 Islam is practiced by 12 According to the CIA World Factbook, Muslims make up nearly 100% of the population of the Western Sahara. The arrival of Islam in Zambia dates to the fourth Hijri century when Muslims established emirates on the coast of East Africa. Estimates on the number Muslims in Zimbabwe vary from as low as 120000 to as many as 1 Islam began in Asia in the 7th century during the life of Muhammad. Approximately 99 percent of Afghans are Muslims and out of them eighty percent are Sunni of the Hanafi School the rest are Shi'a, the majority of Islam in Armenia has generally been avoided throughout the centuries See also Religion in Azerbaijan Approximately 934 to 96 percent of the population of Azerbaijan is nominally Muslim. Islam is the state religion in Bahrain where the citizens are all Muslims with the majority of the population practicing Shia Islam. Islam is the largest religion of Bangladesh, the Muslim population is over 130 million (the fourth-largest muslim population in the world after According to adherentscom Muslims constitute over 5% of the population However the CIA factbook claims that Muslims are less than 1% in Bhutan Islam is Brunei 's official religion 64 percent of the population is Muslim, mostly Sunnis of Malay origin who follow the Shafi school Islam is a Minority religion in primarily Buddhist country of Burma, practiced by approximately 4% of the population Islam is the religion of a majority of the Cham (also called Khmer Islam) and Malay minorities in Cambodia. Islam in China has a rich heritage China has some of the oldest Muslim history dating back to as early as 650 when the uncle of Islam is practiced in Hong Kong by somewhere between 20000 and 100000 Muslims. Adherentscom states that the number of Muslims in Macau is 100 Islam in Cyprus was introduced when Uthman the 3rd Caliph conquered Cyprus in 649. Islam is a minority religion in East Timor. The US State Department and the CIA World Factbook estimate that Muslims make up 1% of the population although some organizations Islam in Georgia was introduced in 645 AD when an army sent by the Second Caliph of Islam Umar, conquered Eastern Georgia Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after Hinduism. Islam is Indonesia's dominant Religion with approximately 88% over 200 million of its population identifying as Muslims, making it the most The Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. The history of Islam in Iraq goes back several centuries to the lifetime of Muhammad (d Islam in Israel and Palestinian territories includes the Muslims of Israel, where they constitute 16% of the population those who comprise 75% of the population of The history of Islam in Japan is relatively brief in relation to the Religion 's longstanding presence in other countries around the world More than 90 percent of population in Jordan adhered to Sunni Islam in the late 1980s Islam is the largest religion practiced in Kazakhstan. Ethnic Kazakhs are historically Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school. In South Korea, the Muslim population has been steadily increasing since the introduction of the Islamic faith shortly after the Korean War. In South Korea, the Muslim population has been steadily increasing since the introduction of the Islamic faith shortly after the Korean War. In South Korea, the Muslim population has been steadily increasing since the introduction of the Islamic faith shortly after the Korean War. Islam is the main religion of the citizens of Kuwait Sunni Islam is dominant in Kuwait with 60% of the total population The vast majority of today's Kyrgyz are Muslims of the Sunni branch which came into the region during the 8th century Muslims are a small minority in this Buddhist majority country Islam in Lebanon is divided between four Muslim sects Shiites Sunnis, Alawites and Ismailis including the Druze. Islam is the official religion of Malaysia, and the Government actively promotes the spread of Islam in the country and its friendship with other Muslim countries Islam is the state religion of Maldives, and adherence to it is legally required of citizens by a revision of the constitution in 2008 Article 9 Section D states that Islam in Mongolia is mainly practised by the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ölgii (88 Islam is a minority religion in NepalAccording to a 2006 Nepalese census 4 The majority of Omanis are Ibadhi Muslims, followers of Abd Allah ibn Ibad Islam is the official religion of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This article is concerned with the religion of Islam in the Philippines Qatar is a Muslim-majority country with Islam as the state religion Islam is currently the second most widely professed religion in the Russian Federation The vast majority of Saudis are Sunni Muslims. Around 10% of citizens are Shia Muslims, most of whom live in the Eastern Province, with the largest concentrations Sunni Islam is the religion of about 15% of Singapore 's population mainly the sizeable Malay minority who constitute about 13 Islam in Sri Lanka is practised by a group of minorities who make up approximately 10% of the population Islam in Syria is composed of a Sunni majority and four minority sects Twelver Shiites, and also Druze (which is not an Islamic sect Alawi Islam in Taiwan is a slowly growing religion (about 03% of the population it could be higher if included nominally Muslims from Indonesia with an estimated 100 converts annually Islam in Tajikistan. Demographics and early history Islam, the predominant religion of all of Central Asia, was brought Islam is most popular in southern Thailand, near the border with Malaysia, where the vast majority of the country's Muslims predominantly Malay The region comprising modern Turkey has a long and rich Islamic tradition stretching back to the dawn of the Seljuk period and Ottoman Empire. Traditionally the Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, are Sunni Muslims. More than 80% of the population of the UAE are non-citizens Virtually all of the country's citizens are Muslims approximately 85% are Sunni and the remaining 15% are Islam is by far the dominant Religion in Uzbekistan. In the early 1990s many of the Russians remaining in the Republic (about 8% of the Islam in Vietnam is primarily the religion of the Cham people, a minority ethnic group related to Malays; however roughly one-third of the Muslims in Islam was introduced into the region by Ali ibn Abu Talib in about 630 when Prophet Muhammad was still alive This article deals with the history and the evolution of the Islamic religion in Europe. During the Ottoman occupation according to Ottoman data the majority of Albanians were of Muslim affiliation ( Sunni and Bektashi) According to the US Religious Freedom Report of 2006 there are about 2000 North Africans currently living in Andorra and they are the largest Muslim group in the country Islam in Armenia has generally been avoided throughout the centuries Islam is a Minority religion in Austria with 422 % of the population in the 2001 census See also Religion in Azerbaijan Approximately 934 to 96 percent of the population of Azerbaijan is nominally Muslim. Islam in Belarus was introduced by Lipka Tatars in the 14th -16th centuries and now also includes Muslim immigrants Islam in Belgium is relatively new and is mostly practised in the Belgian immigrant communities The modern Bosniaks, often referred to as Bosnian Muslims, descend from Slavic converts to Islam in the 15th and 16th centuries that lived in the medieval Bosnian Kingdom The Muslim population of Bulgaria, including Turks, Muslim Bulgarians, Pomaks, Roma, and Crimean Islam in Croatia was introduced by the Muslim Ottoman Empire. Islam in Cyprus was introduced when Uthman the 3rd Caliph conquered Cyprus in 649. Islam in the Czech Republic History First documented visit of a person with knowledge of Islam was made (964-965 by Íbrahím Population Approximately 2-3% of the population of Denmark are Muslims Islam is the largest minority religion in Denmark In the most recent Census, performed in the year 2000 the number of people who reported themselves to be Muslims was 1387 Islam was introduced to Finland by Baltic Tatars at the end of the 19th century Statistics Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely Islam in Georgia was introduced in 645 AD when an army sent by the Second Caliph of Islam Umar, conquered Eastern Georgia Owing to work migration of the 1960s and several waves of political refugees since the 1970s Islam became a visible religion in Germany. Islam in Greece is represented by a number of autochthonous and immigrant communities Islam in Hungary has a long history that dates back to at least the twelfth century predating the Ottoman Empire. The Nordic country Iceland is estimated to have between 800 and 1000 members by the Association of Muslims in Iceland The documented history of Islam in Ireland dates to the 1950s Islam is the largest religion practiced in Kazakhstan. Ethnic Kazakhs are historically Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school. The presence of Muslims in Latvia was first recorded in the early 1800s According to the US Department of State, there are 1384 Muslims living in Liechtenstein, which is about 4% of the general population In Lithuania, unlike many other northern and western European countries Islam came long ago Muslims in Luxembourg are a minority together with Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews. Muslims in the Republic of Macedonia form 33% of the Republic of Macedonia's total population With Roman Catholics estimated at 95-98% of the population the Maltese Muslim community is considered to be very small According to the US Department of State, there is a small community of Muslims in Moldova, numbering a few thousand Many wealthy Arab and Iranian Muslims reside in Monaco as non-citizens Islam in Montenegro is the largest minority religion Montenegro's 110000 Muslims make up 17 History Treaty with Morocco In the early 1600s a delegation from the Dutch Republic visited Morocco to discuss a common alliance against Spain Islam is the largest minority religion in Norway with over 2% of the population The first noticeable presence of Islam in Poland began in the 14th century According to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística (the National Statistical Institute of Portugal) there were according to the 1991 Census Islam in Romania is followed by only 03 percent of population but has 700 years of tradition in Northern Dobruja, a region on the Black Sea coast which was part Islam is currently the second most widely professed religion in the Russian Federation Muslims in San Marino are a minority as over 95 percent of the population is Roman Catholic The arrival of Islam in Scotland is relatively recent The bulk of Muslims in Scotland come from families who immigrated during the late 20th century The Muslims in Serbia are mostly ethnic Bosniaks and Albanians, but also members of the smaller ethnic groups like Muslims by nationality, Ashkali The number of Muslims in Slovakia according to the 2001 census is negligible (according to ?? there are 5000 Muslims in Slovakia - less than 0 The Muslims in Slovenia are ethnically Bosnians and Albanians. Islam in Spain has had a fundamental presence in the culture and history of the nation Sweden has today almost exclusively due to Immigration, a significant Muslim population According to the Confederate Census of 2001 a total number of 310807 Muslims were living in Switzerland which made up 4 The region comprising modern Turkey has a long and rich Islamic tradition stretching back to the dawn of the Seljuk period and Ottoman Empire. The majority of Muslims in Ukraine are of Crimean Tatars in ethnicity and live in the Crimean Peninsula. Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom with a total of 1591000 (or 2 Islam in Argentina is represented by one of Latin America's largest Muslim minorities Statistics for Islam in Bolivia estimate a Muslim population of around a thousand representing 0 Islam in Brazil was first practiced by African slaves. The early Brazilian Muslims led the largest slave revolt in Brazil which then had the largest slave population The statistics for Islam in Chile estimate a total Muslim population of 3196 representing 0 The statistics for Islam in Colombia estimate a total Muslim population of 10000 representing 0 The statistics for Islam in Ecuador estimate a total Muslim population of 275 representing 0 About 7 percent of Guyana 's population is Muslim, representing 76528 individuals Islam in Panama has a long and unique history Official data estimates 0 The latest statistics for Islam in Paraguay estimate a total Muslim population of 507 representing 0 The statistics for Islam in Peru estimate a total Muslim population of 1000 representing 0 According to various sources the Muslim population of Suriname represents about 20 percent of the country's total and therefore the nation has the highest percentage of Muslims Muslims constitute 6 percent of the population on Trinidad and Tobago, representing 65318 individuals The statistics for Islam in Uruguay estimate a total Muslim population of 300 to 400 representing 0 There are approximately 100000 Muslims in Venezuela, 04 percent of the nation's population The statistics for Islam in Antigua and Barbuda estimate a total Muslim population of about 200 representing 0 Statistics for Islam in Barbados estimate a Muslim population of 500 representing 0 The statistics for Islam in Belize estimate a total Muslim population of 2794 representing 1 percent of the total population According to Canada's 2001 census, there were 579640 Muslims in Canada, just under 2% of the population The statistics for Islam in Costa Rica is 4000 There are a number of Islamic organizations in San José including the Centro Islámico (Masjid Omar de Costa The latest statistics for Islam in Cuba claim a population of under a thousand Muslims representing 0 Statistics for Islam in Dominica are not readily available According to the International Religious Freedom Report in 2005 followers of minority religions and denominations which range Statistics for Islam in the Dominican Republic estimate that 0 There is a small Islamic community in El Salvador,they are people mostly coming from the Arab World and Turkey. There are over 200 Muslims in Grenada. They make up 030% of the population The Muslim population of Guatemala is approximately 1200 Of this population 95% are Palestinian Arab immigrants The estimated population of Haitian Muslims is about 3250 representing approximately 0 The statistics for Islam in Honduras estimate a total Muslim population of 2790 representing 0 The statistics for Islam in Jamaica estimate a total Muslim population of 5000 representing 0 While some have claimed that official data estimates that there are 318608 Muslims in Mexico, representing 0 Statistics for Islam in Nicaragua are not readily available but according to Fahmi Hassan President of the Asociación Cultural Nicaragüense-Islámica the Muslim population Islam in Panama has a long and unique history Official data estimates 0 According to the United States Department of State, Islam is a minority religion in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, with some Muslims living in the island nation Muslims constitute 6 percent of the population on Trinidad and Tobago, representing 65318 individuals The history of Islam in the United States starts in the early 16th century, with Estevánico of Azamor being the first Muslim to enter the historical record Islam in Oceania refers to Islam and Muslims in Oceania. Some countries in Oceania notably Australia have Islam as their third largest Religion For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Islam is the fourth largest religious grouping in Australia after Christianity, ' No Religion ' and Buddhism. The CIA World Factbook estimates that 7% of the population of Christmas Island is Muslim The CIA World Factbook estimates that roughtly 80 percent of the 629 inhabitants on the Cocos (Keeling Islands are Sunni Muslims. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" Islam is a minority religion in East Timor. The US State Department and the CIA World Factbook estimate that Muslims make up 1% of the population although some organizations The Muslims of Fiji comprise around 7% of the population (62 534 Islam in New Caledonia arrived more than a 100 years ago The first Muslims in New Caledonia were the Arabs who were brought there by the French Islam in Papua New Guinea is a minority religion the US department of state estimates that there are about 2000 muslims in the country The United States Department of State's International Religious Freedom Report states that according to the most recent reports there are approximately 350 Muslims in the Solomon Islam in Vanuatu is practised by about 200 members of the small island nation of Vanuatu in Oceania. Micronesia, from the Greek mikros (μικρός (meaning small) and nesos (νῆσος (meaning island) is a Subregion Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over Islam in New Zealand has grown with inward immigration to that country Islam in Tonga consists of about 100 people in a population of about 102000 Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Ummah (أمة is an Arabic word meaning Community or Nation. It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or (in the The Emirate of Sicily was an Islamic state on the island of Sicily from 965 to 1072. Lucera is a town and Comune in the Province of Foggia, in the Apulia region of Italy. Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian Year 1861 ( MDCCCLXI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term These North Africans, mostly of Berber or Arab origin, came mainly from Morocco. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Many also come from Albania, though they have been followed in more recent years by persons from Egypt, Tunisia, Senegal, Somalia, Pakistan and others. This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. 
Today there are 500,000 or so Italian citizens who are Muslim. They are foreigners who have received Italian citizenship and native Italians who have converted to Islam.
Islam is not formally recognized by the state in Italy despite being the second largest faith after Catholicism. Other religions including Judaism and smaller groups such as the Assemblies of God and the Seventh-Day Adventists, have signed agreements with the Italian government. Official recognition has given these other religions a chance to benefit from a national "religion tax", known as the Eight per thousand. Eight per thousand, or otto per mille, is an Italian law Under this law Italian taxpayers are able to vote who shall receive 0 
As early as the 7th and 8th century some of the Lombards, a Germanic people that ruled parts of Italy, converted from Arianism to Islam instead of to Catholicism. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described These al-Ankubarti mostly fought as mercenaries in Arabian armies at the African Mediterranean coast, especially in Tunesian Ifriqiya, and were apportioned to the Saqaliba by the Arabian Muslims. In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (إفريقية was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia Saqaliba ( Arabic: صقالبة sg Siqlabi) refers to the Slavs, particularly Slavic mercenaries and slaves in the medieval Arab In medieval Palermo a whole district was named Saqaliba. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in A famous Sicilian Saqaliba of the 10th century was Gawhar Al-Siqilli, a military leader to the Fatimids and founder of Cairo. Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. Gawhar the Sicilian (born c 928-930 died 992 ( Arabic: جوهر الصقلي) also called al-Rumi (the Greek main Transliteration: Gawhar Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Another Sicilian Saqaliba, the Slav Sabir al-Fata, destroyed Taranto and Otranto in 927. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Otranto is a town and commune in the Province of Lecce ( Apulia, Italy) in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses
The first Arabian attacks on Byzantine Sicily in 652, 667 and 720 failed; Syracuse was conquered for the first time temporarily in 708, but a planned invasion in 740 failed because of a rebellion of the Berbers of the Maghreb that lasted until 771 and civil wars in Ifriqiya lasting until 799. The Islamic conquest and rule of Sicily, Malta, and parts of Southern Italy was a process whose origin can be traced back through the general Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset Arabian attacks on the island of Sardinia, less important than those over Sicily, did not manage to conquer it altough they forced a separation of the island from Byzantines, giving birth of a short period of sardinian indipendence, the "Giudicati". The Italian island Pantelleria had been conquered by the Arabs in 700. Pantellaria redirects here For the Brachiopod Genus, see Pantellaria (brachiopod.
To end the constant mutinies of his army, the Aghlabid magistrate of Ifriqiya sent Arabian, Berber and Andalusian rebels to conquer Sicily in 827, 830 and 875, led by, amongst others, Asad ibn al-Furat. The Emirate of Sicily was an Islamic state on the island of Sicily from 965 to 1072. The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Asad ibn al-Furat (أسد بن الفرات 759-828 was an important Jurist and Theologian in Ifriqiya, who began the Muslim conquest of In 902 the Ifriqiyan magistrate himself led an army against the island. The magistrate of Sicily, who rebelled against Constantinople, had called the Muslims (named Saracens by the Europeans) for help. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. In 831 Palermo fell to them, in 843 followed Messina, in 878 Syracuse, in 902 Taormina, in 918 Reggio Calabria on the mainland, and in 964 fell Rometta, the last remaining Byzantine toehold on Sicily. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Taormina ( Sicilian: Taurmina; Greek: - Tauromenion; Latin Tauromenium) is a Comune and small town Reggio di Calabria (Italian pronunciation /ˈrɛʤo ˌdikaˈlabrja/ Calabrian dialect: Rìggiu, Greek-Calabrian: Righi, Greek: Rometta is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about 180 km east of
Under the Arabs in Sicily agriculture prospered and became export-oriented. Arts and crafts flourished in the cities. Palermo, the Arabian capital of the island, had 300,000 inhabitants at that time, more than all cities of Germany combined. At the beginning of the 11th century Muslims made up half of the population of Sicily, with Arabs dominating the north of the island around Palermo and the Berbers prevailing in the area around Agrigento in the south. Agrigento ( Girgenti in Sicilian) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy, and capital of the Province of Agrigento
From Sicily the Muslims set over to the mainland and devastated Calabria. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of In 835 and again in 837 the Duke of Naples had been fighting against the Duke of Benevento and had called the Muslims for help. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Benevento is a town and Comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the Province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. In 840 Taranto and Bari fell to the Muslims, and in 841 Brindisi. Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Brindisi can also refer to a song in which a company is exhorted to drink such as the "Tea-Cup Brindisi" in Gilbert and Sullivan 's " The Capua was destroyed, Benevento, under Frankish protection at that time, was occupied 840-847 and again 851-52. Capua is a city in the Province of Caserta, Campania, Italy situated 25 km (16 mi north of Naples, on the northeastern edge of The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Arab attacks on Rome in 843, 846 and 849 failed. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 In 847 Taranto, Bari and Brindisi declared themselves emirates independent from the Aghlabids. For decades the Muslims ruled the Mediterranean and attacked the Italian coastal towns. 868-70 Ragusa in Sicily stood under Arabian rule. Ragusa ( Raùsa in Sicilian) is a city in southern Italy. It is the capital of the Province of
Only after the fall of Malta in 870 the occidental Christians succeeded in setting up an army capable of fighting the Muslims. Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings The Franko-Roman emperor Louis II conquered Brindisi and beat the Arabs at Bari in 871, but then fell captive to the Aghlabids. Louis II the Younger (825 &ndash 12 August 875) was the King of Italy from 844 and then Emperor from 855 until his death In his stead the Byzantines conquered Taranto in 880. A small number of Arabian strongholds in the south lasted until 885, for example Santa Severina Crotone in Calabria. Croton may also refer to a plant genus See Croton (genus. Or to the NY village Croton-on-Hudson. In 882 the Muslims had founded at the mouth of Garigliano River between Naples and Rome a new basis further in the north, which was leagued with Gaeta, and had attacked Campania as well as Sabinia in Lazio. The Garigliano is a River in central Italy. It forms at the confluence of the rivers Gari (also known as the Rapido and Liri. Gaeta is a city and Comune in the Province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy. Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 For the football club see SS Lazio Lazio ( Latium in Latin) is a regione of central A hundred years later the Byzantines called the Sicilian Arabs for support against a campaign of German emperor Otto II. They beat Otto at Taranto in 982 in the battle at Crotone and in the next 200 years largely succeeded in preventing his successors from entering southern Italy.
In 1002 Bari was again conquered by the Arabs, but was soon recaptured by the Byzantines. Melus (Melo), Emir of Bari 1009-1019, stood up against the Byzantines and called the Normans for help. Melus (also Milus or Meles, Melo in Italian) (died 1020 was a Lombard nobleman from the Apulian town of Bari The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Melus, of Lombard-Arabic origin, is depicted as Ismahel (Ismail) on the gold-embroidered "Sternenmantel" he gave to German emperor Henry II. Saint Henry II ( May 6, 973 &ndash July 13, 1024) called the Holy or the Saint, was the fifth and last Holy
After the Aghlabids were defeated in Ifriqiya as well, Sicily fell in the 10th century to their Fatimid successors, but claimed independence after fights between Sunni and Shia Muslims under the Kalbids. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Kalbids were a Muslim dynasty in Sicily, which ruled from 948 to 1053.
After they had conquered the Visigoth empire in Spain, the Arabs and Berbers 729-765 from Septimania and Narbonne carried out raids into northern Italy, and in 793 again invaded southern France (Nice 813, 859 and 880). The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462 when Septimania was ceded to Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the In 888 Andalusian Muslims set up a new base in Fraxinet near Frejus in French Provence, from where they started raids along the coast and in inner France. Fraxinet or Fraxinetum ( Arabic: Farakhshanit or Farachsa) was the site of a tenth-century fortress established by Saracen Pirates Fréjus can also refer to the Fréjus Road Tunnel and the Fréjus Rail Tunnel in the Alps Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France
In 915, after the Battle of Garigliano, the Muslims lost their base in southern Lazio. In 926 King Hugh of Italy called the Arabs to fight against his northern Italian rivals. Hugh of Arles or Hugh of Provence (before 887 &ndash 10 April 948) was King of Italy from 924 until his death In 934 and 935 Genoa and La Spezia were attacked, followed by Nice in 942. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English La Spezia ( Spèsa in the local dialect of Ligurian) is a city in the Liguria region of northern Italy, at the head of La Spezia In Piedmont the Muslims got as far as Asti and Novi, moving northwards along the Rhône valley and the western flank of the Alps. Asti is a city and Comune in the Piemonte or Piedmont region, in north-western Italy, about 55 kilometres east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro Novi Ligure ( Neuve in Ligurian) is a town north of Genoa, in the Piedmont region of the Province of Alessandria of northwest The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. After the defeat of Burgundian troops, in 942-964 they conquered Savoy and occupied a part of Switzerland (952-960). Burgundy (Bourgogne Burgund is a region historically situated in modern-day France and Switzerland, inhabited in turn by Celts ( Gauls) For the two French départements of the region of Savoy see Savoie and Haute-Savoie Savoy ( French Swiss town names such as Saratz still bring the mark of Arabic presence in the area. To fight against the Arabs, Emperor Berengar I, Hugh’s rival, called the Hungarians, who in their turn devastated northern Italy. Under the pressure of German kings Fraxinet had to be given up in 972, but thirty years later, in 1002, Genoa was invaded, and in 1004 Pisa. 972 was a year in the 10th century. Events By Place Europe Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine
Pisa und Genoa leagued to end Muslim rule over Corsica (Islamic 810/850-930/1020) and Sardinia. Corsica (Corse Corsican and Italian: Corsica) is the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Since 1015 Sardinia was protected by the fleet of the Andalusian Emir of Dénia in Spain, who was defeated by allied Italians in 1016 and again after his invasion in 1022. Dénia (in Catalan; Spanish: Denia) is the judicial seat of the ''comarca'' of Marina Alta, in the province of Alicante Only in 1027 the Italians succeeded in defeating the Sardinian Muslims for good; the last Muslim upheaval ended in 1050.
The cultural and economical bloom on Sicily that had started under the Kalbids had been interrupted by internicine fights, followed by the intervention, in 1027, of by the Tunisian Zirids, and by those of Pisa (1030-1035) and the Byzantines. The Zirids (زيريون were a Berber dynasty originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe that ruled Ifriqiya (in modern day Eastern Eastern Sicily (Messina, Syracuse and Taormina) was captured by the Byzantines in 1038-1042. In 1059 then Normans from southern Italy, led by Roger I, joined the fights. The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily, were the Italian -born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to Roger I (1031 &ndash June 22, 1101) called Bosso and the Great Count, was the Norman Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101 The Normans conquered Reggio in 1060 (In 1027 taken from the Arabs by the Byzantines). In 1061 Messina fell to the Normans; an invasion by the Algerian Hammadids to preserve Islamic rule was thwarted in 1063 by the fleet of Genoa and Pisa. The Hammadids, an offshoot of the Zirids were a Berber dynasty who ruled an area roughly corresponding to modern Algeria for about a century and a half The loss of Palermo in 1072 and of Syracuse in 1088 could not be prevented. Noto and the last Muslim strongholds on Sicily fell in 1091. Noto (Latin Neetum and Netum; Notu in Sicilian, Nuotu in the local dialect is a city In 1090-91 the Normans also conquered Malta; Pantelleria fell in 1123.
A noteworthy Muslim population remained on Sicily under the Normans.  The Roger II hosted at his court, among others, the famous geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi and the poet Muhammad ibn Zafar. Roger II ( 22 December 1095 &ndash 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani al-Sabti or simply El Idrisi ( Arabic أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي Latin: At first, Muslims were tolerated by the Normans, but soon pressure from the Popes led to their increasing discrimination; most mosques were destroyed or made into churches. The first Sicilian Normans did not take part in the Crusades, but they undertook a number of invasions and raids in Ifriqiya, before they were defeated there after 1157 by the Almohads. The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i
The peaceful coexistence on Sicily finally ended with the death of “good” King William II in 1189. William II (French language Guillaume II, 1155 &ndash November 11 1189 Palermo) called the Good, was king of Sicily The Muslim elite emigrated at that time. Their medical knowledge was maintained in the Schola Medica Salernitana; an Arabian-Byzantine-Norman symbiosis in art and architecture survived as Sicilian Romanesque. The Schola Medica Salernitana ( Italian: Scuola Medica Salernitana) was the first Medieval Medical school in the cosmopolitan coastal For other buildings in Normandy see Architecture of Normandy. The remaining Muslims fled, for example to Caltagirone on Sicily, or hid out in the mountains and continued to resist against the Hohenstaufen dynasty, who ruled the island from 1194 on. Caltagirone (Caltaggiruni is a town and Comune in the Province of Catania, on the island (and region of Sicily, about 70 km southwest of In the heartland of the island, the Muslims pronounced Ibn Abbad the last Emir of Sicily.
To end this upheaval, emperor Frederick II, himself a Crusader, instigated a policy to rid Sicily of the few remaining muslims. Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title This cleansing was done in small part under Papal influence but mostly in order to create a loyal force of troops which could not be influenced by non-Christian infiltrators. In 1224-1239 he deported every single Muslim from Sicily to an autonomous colony under strict military control (so that they could not infiltrate non-Muslim areas) in Lucera in Apulia. Lucera is a town and Comune in the Province of Foggia, in the Apulia region of Italy. In 1249 he ejected the Muslims from Malta as well. Lucera was returned to the Christians in 1300 on instigation of the pope by king Charles II of Naples, all the muslims were killed or sent out of Europe. Charles II, known as "the Lame" ( French le Boiteux, Italian lo Zoppo; 1254 &ndash 5 May 1309) was
Apulia belonged to the Kingdom of Naples and stood under Spanish rule since the midst-15th century. The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian The Spaniards had started the final strike in the conquest of Granada in 1481. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. This last Islamic toehold in Spain had sent out desperate calls for help to all Islamic states of the Mediterranean.
The Ottoman Empire, which in 1453 under Sultan Mehmed II had already conquered Constantinople and Galata, in 1475 Genuas last toeholds in the Black Sea and in 1479 the Venetian colony of Euboea in Greece, in 1480 carried out a halfhearted diversionary attack on the Spanish territories in southern Italy, after in 1479 Turkish troops had already entered the Friuli in northern Italy (and again 1499-1503). The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Galata or Galatae is a district in Istanbul, the largest city of Turkey. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey For the mythological figure see Euboea (mythology Euboea ( Modern Greek, Εύβοια - Évia &mdash Friuli ( Friulian: The Apulian harbor town of Otranto, located about 100 kilometers southeast of Brindisi, was conquered and set up to serve as a bridgehead for the Turks, but was given up again in 1481, when Mehmed died and Constantinople saw fights for the throne. Otranto is a town and commune in the Province of Lecce ( Apulia, Italy) in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses
Cem, pretender to the Ottoman throne, was defeated despite being supported by the pope; he fled with his family to the Kingdom of Naples, where his male descendants where bestowed with the title of Principe de Sayd by the Pope in 1492. Prince Cem (Jem ( December 22 1459 - February 25 1495) sometimes written Djem, was a Pretender to the They lived in Naples until the 17th century and in Sicily until 1668 before relocating to Malta.
It is debated if Otranto was meant to be the base for further conquests. The Ottoman sultans had not however given up their ambition to end Christianity in Rome and to install Islamic sovereignty.
After the conquest of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Hungary in 1526 and the defeat of the Turkish army at Vienna in 1529, Turkish fleets again attacked southern Italy. The Siege of Vienna in 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the first attempt of the Muslim Ottoman Empire, led by In 1512/1526 the Ottomans conquered Reggio and in 1537 parts of Calabria and in 1538 defeated the Venetian Fleet. In 15439 Nice was raided by the Barbary states (Siege of Nice), but an attempted Turkish landing on Sicily failed, as did the attempted conquest of Pantelleria in 1553 and the siege of Malta in 1565. The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the middle and western coastal regions of North Africa—what The Siege of Nice took place in August 1543 during the Italian War of 1542, when a combined Franco - Ottoman force attacked and captured the Imperial For the 1940-42 siege see " Siege of Malta (World War II " The Siege of Malta (also known as the Great Siege of Malta) took
Next to Spain, the biggest contribution to the victory of the Christian "Holy League" in the battle of Lepanto in 1571 was made by the Republic of Venice, which between 1423 (and especially since 1463) and 1718 fought eight costly wars against the Ottoman Empire. The Holy League of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included almost all the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean. The Battle of Lepanto ( Greek: Ναύπακτος Naupaktos, pron The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older European
According to latest Italian official statistics, Muslims make up about 34% of the 2,400,000 foreign residents living in Italy as of January, 1, 2005.
To these 820,000 foreign residents of Muslim heritage legally residing in Italy, another 100,000-150,000 should be added, as Muslims represent, according to the widely accepted yearly estimates of Italian association Caritas, about 40% of Italy's illegal immigrants.
Despite illegal immigrants representing a minority of the Muslim presence in Italy, the issue of Islam in contemporary Italy has been linked by some political parties (particularly the 'Northern League' or 'Lega Lombarda') with immigration, and more specifically illegal immigration. Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country Immigration has become a prominent political issue, as, especially in the summer, reports of boatloads of illegal immigrants or clandestini dominate news programmes.
Police forces have not had great success in intercepting many of the thousands of clandestini who land on Italian beaches, mainly because of the sheer length of the Italian coastline: some 8,000 km in total. However, many of the clandestini landings in Italy are only using Italy as a gateway to other EU nations, due to the fact Italy doesn't have as many economic opportunities for them as Germany or France, and a somewhat more hostile climate to their presence, due to a still devout Catholic Italy, is perceived. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The number of foreign Muslims who have been granted Italian nationality is estimated between 30,000 and 50,000, while Italian Muslims (converts of full Italian ancestry who previously belonged to the Catholic faith or had no religion) are estimated to be less than 10,000.
Therefore, in 2005 the number of Muslims living in Italy is estimated to be between 960,000 and 1,030,000,with an average estimate strikingly close to the million mark which Italian media have started to adopt while referring to the numbers of Muslims in Italy.
Muslims represent today 1. 4% of Italy's population, a percentage much lower than that of other major EU countries, and still slightly lower than that recorded in Italy between the middle of the 9th century and the end of the 13th century, before the removal of the last Muslim strongholds in Puglia in year 1300.
While in Medieval times the Muslim population was almost totally concentrated in Insular (Sicily, Sardinia) and Southern (Calabria, Puglia) Italy, it is today more evenly distributed, with almost 55% of Muslims living in the North of Italy, 25% in the Centre, and only 20% in the South.
It should be remarked that despite the stereotype of a 'Muslim invasion', Muslims form a lower proportion of immigrants then in previous years, as the latest statistical reports of the Italian Ministry of Interior and of Caritas show that the share of Muslims among new immigrants has declined from over 50% at the beginning of the 1990s (mainly Albanians and Moroccans) to less than 25% in the following decade, with non-Muslim Countries like Romania, Moldavia, and Ukraine taking the lead of the latest "wave" of immigration.
The relatively small size of the local Muslim community means that Islam has yet to make a significant impact on public life, but there are signs that this is changing. Recent points of contention between native Italians and the Muslim immigrant population include the presence of crucifixes in Italian State school classrooms and hospital bedrooms. A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one fixed to a cross" is a cross with a representation of Jesus ' body or corpus Adel Smith has attracted considerable media attention by demanding that crucifixes in public places (i. Adel Smith, born in 1960 as Emilio Smith in Alexandria, Egypt, is an Italian Muslim known for his radical stances and often e. , schools, hospitals, and government offices) be removed. The Italian Council of State, with the sentence number 556, 13 February 2006 , confirmed the display of the crucifix in government-sponsored spaces. The Consiglio di Stato ( English: Council of State) is a legal-administrative consultative body and ensures the legality of Public administration in Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Smith has subsequently been charged with defaming the Catholic religion in 2006.