Born Sir Isaac Newton Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton aged 46 4 January 1643[OS: 25 December 1642][1]Woolsthorpe-by-ColsterworthLincolnshire, England 31 March 1727 (aged 84)[OS: 20 March 1726][1]Kensington, London, England England English Physics, mathematics, astronomy,natural philosophy, alchemy,theology University of CambridgeRoyal Society Trinity College, Cambridge Isaac BarrowBenjamin Pulleyn[2][3] Roger CotesWilliam WhistonJohn Wickins[4]Humphrey Newton[4] Newtonian mechanicsUniversal gravitationCalculusOptics Nicolas Fatio de DuillierJohn Keill monotheism; for details see article Signature NotesHis mother was Hannah Ayscough. Sir Godfrey Kneller 1st Baronet ( 8 August 1646 &ndash 19 October 1723) was the leading Portrait painter in England during Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth is a hamlet at, in the Parish of Colsterworth, in the English county of Lincolnshire, best Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1727 ( MDCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1726 ( MDCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Kensington is a district of West London, England within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, located west of Charing Cross. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study For the current in the 19th century German idealism see Naturphilosophie Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. Isaac Barrow (October 1630 &ndash May 4, 1677) was an English scholar and Mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role Roger Cotes FRS ( July 10, 1682 – June 5, 1716) was an English Mathematician, known for working closely with William Whiston ( 9 December 1667 &ndash 22 August 1752) was as English Theologian, Historian, and Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Newton 's law of universal Gravitation is a physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (alternative names are Facio or Faccio) ( 26 February 1664 - 12 May 1753) was a Swiss John Keill ( 1 Dec 1671 - 31 Aug 1721) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and was primarily a mathematician and important For the Celtic Frost album see Monotheist (album In Theology, monotheism (from Greek grc [[wiktμόνος μόνος]] Isaac Newton's religious views influenced his lifetime of work Hannah Ayscough (1623-1679 (pronounced Askew was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. His half-niece was Catherine Barton. Catherine Barton (1679 – 1739 was Isaac Newton 's half-niece wife of the British MP John Conduitt and probable mistress of Charles Montagu 1st Earl of

Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (pronounced /ˈnjuːtən/; 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727 [OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1727 ( MDCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1727 ( MDCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A physicist is a Scientist who studies or practices Physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study For the current in the 19th century German idealism see Naturphilosophie Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective His Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is said to be the greatest single work in the history of science. The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" often Principia In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering. Newton 's law of universal Gravitation is a physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass Newton's laws of motion are three Physical laws which provide relationships between the Forces acting on a body and the motion of the Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution. Celestial mechanics is the branch of Astrophysics that deals with the motions of Celestial objects The field applies principles of Physics, historically In Astronomy, Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion are three mathematical laws that describe the motion of Planets in the Solar System. In Astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published

In mechanics, Newton enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In Classical mechanics, momentum ( pl momenta SI unit kg · m/s, or equivalently N · s) is the product In Physics, the angular momentum of a particle about an origin is a vector quantity equal to the mass of the particle multiplied by the Cross product of the position In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is an Optical telescope which uses a single or combination of Curved mirrors that reflect Light In Optics, a dispersive prism is a type of optical prism, normally having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism. White is a Color, the perception which is evoked by Light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive Cone cells in the Human eye Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of Thermal energy from a hot to a colder body Sound is a vibration that travels through an elastic medium as a Wave.

In mathematics, Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. This is a sub-article to Calculus and History of mathematics. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the so-called "Newton's method" for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. In Mathematics, the binomial theorem is an important Formula giving the expansion of powers of Sums Its simplest version says In Numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method, named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson) is perhaps the The Mathematical concept of a function expresses dependence between two quantities one of which is given (the independent variable, argument of the function In Mathematics, a power series (in one variable is an Infinite series of the form f(x = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n \left( x-c \right^n = a_0 +

In a 2005 poll of the Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical [5]

## Biography

The life of
Isaac Newton
Early life
Middle years
Later life
Writing Principia
Religious views
Occult studies

### Early years

Newton in a 1702 portrait by Godfrey Kneller. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English Mathematician and Scientist, author of the Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements During his residence in London, Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. Isaac Newton's religious views influenced his lifetime of work Isaac Newton (1643 &ndash 1727 the noted British scientist and mathematician wrote many works that would now be classified as Occult studies The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English Mathematician and Scientist, author of the Sir Godfrey Kneller 1st Baronet ( 8 August 1646 &ndash 19 October 1723) was the leading Portrait painter in England during

Isaac Newton was born December 25 1642 [OS: 25 December 1642][1] at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth is a hamlet at, in the Parish of Colsterworth, in the English county of Lincolnshire, best A hamlet is (usually&mdashsee below a Rural community — that is a small settlement — which is too small to be considered a Village. Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. At the time of Newton's birth, England had not adopted the latest papal calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Newton was born three months after the death of his father. Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. Premature birth (also known as preterm birth) is the Birth of a Baby before the standard period of Pregnancy is completed Hannah Ayscough (1623-1679 (pronounced Askew was the mother of Sir Isaac Newton. The quart is an imperial and US customary unit of Volume equal to a quarter of a Gallon. A mug is a sturdily built type of cup often used for drinking hot beverages such as Coffee, Tea, or Hot chocolate. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. [6]

Some claim that Newton may have suffered from Asperger syndrome, a form of autism. Asperger syndrome (also called Asperger's syndrome, Asperger's disorder, Asperger's or AS) is the Autism spectrum disorder (ASD Language development. The terminology [7]

According to E.T. Bell and H. Eric Temple Bell ( February 7 Eves:

Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King's School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school. The King's School is an English educational institution in Grantham, Lincolnshire with an unbroken history on the same site since the date of its endowment as At King's, he lodged with the local apothecary, William Clarke and eventually became engaged to the apothecary's stepdaughter, Anne Storer, before he went off to the University of Cambridge at the age of 19. William Clarke ( c April 1609 - 1682 was an Apothecary who provided lodgings for a young Isaac Newton whilst he attended King's School in Grantham The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the As Newton became engrossed in his studies, the romance cooled and Miss Storer married someone else. It is said he kept a warm memory of this love, but Newton had no other recorded "sweet-hearts" and never married. [8]

There are rumours that he remained a virgin. [9] However, Bell and Eves' sources for this claim, William Stukeley and Mrs. Vincent (the former Miss Storer — actually named Katherine, not Anne), merely say that Newton entertained "a passion" for Storer while he lodged at the Clarke house.

From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). The King's School is an English educational institution in Grantham, Lincolnshire with an unbroken history on the same site since the date of its endowment as He was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a second time, attempted to make a farmer of him. Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth is a hamlet at, in the Parish of Colsterworth, in the English county of Lincolnshire, best He was, by later reports of his contemporaries, thoroughly unhappy with the work. It appears to have been Henry Stokes, master at the King's School, who persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. This he did at the age of eighteen, achieving an admirable final report.

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge. Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. According to John Stillwell, he entered Trinity as a sizar[10]. John Stillwell (born 1942 is an Australian Mathematician on the faculties of the University of San Francisco and Monash University. A sizar formerly referred to students of limited means at the universities of Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin, who were charged lower fees and obtained free At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Historically Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky while Astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer In 1665, he discovered the generalized binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become calculus. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Soon after Newton had obtained his degree in August of 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. The Great Plague (1665-1666 was a massive outbreak of Disease in England that killed 75000 to 100000 people up to a fifth of London 's population Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student,[11] Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another

### Middle years

Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Men of Science. NY: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. , 1889)

#### Mathematics

Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz had developed calculus independently, using their own unique notations. According to Newton's inner circle, Newton had worked out his method years before Leibniz, yet he published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704. The year 1704 in Science and Technology involved some significant events Meanwhile, Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Moreover, Leibniz's notation and "differential Method" were universally adopted on the Continent, and after 1820 or so, in the British Empire. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the Continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European The year 1820 in Science and Technology involved some significant events listed below The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Whereas Leibniz's notebooks show the advancement of the ideas from early stages until maturity, there is only the end product in Newton's known notes. Newton claimed that he had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared being mocked for it. Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (alternative names are Facio or Faccio) ( 26 February 1664 - 12 May 1753) was a Swiss Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another In 1691 Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, but never finished it. The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" often Principia Some of Newton's biographers have suggested that the relationship may have been romantic. [12] However, in 1694 the relationship between the two men cooled down. At the time, Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.

Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work The year 1711 in Science and Technology involved some significant events Newton's Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Newton himself wrote the study's concluding remarks on Leibniz. Thus began the bitter Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in 1716. The Calculus controversy was an argument between Seventeenth-century Mathematicians Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz over who had The year 1716 in Science and Technology involved some significant events

Newton is generally credited with the generalized binomial theorem, valid for any exponent. In Mathematics, the binomial theorem is an important Formula giving the expansion of powers of Sums Its simplest version says He discovered Newton's identities, Newton's method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree three in two variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. In Mathematics, Newton's identities, also known as the Newton–Girard formulae give relations between two types of Symmetric polynomials namely between power In Numerical analysis, Newton's method (also known as the Newton–Raphson method, named after Isaac Newton and Joseph Raphson) is perhaps the In Mathematics, a polynomial is an expression constructed from Variables (also known as indeterminates and Constants using the operations A variable (ˈvɛərɪəbl is an Attribute of a physical or an abstract System which may change its Value while it is under Observation. A finite difference is a mathematical expression of the form f ( x + b) &minus f ( x + a) Analytic geometry, also called coordinate geometry and earlier referred to as Cartesian geometry or analytical geometry, is the study of Geometry In Mathematics, a Diophantine equation is an indeterminate Polynomial Equation that allows the variables to be Integers only He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler's summation formula), and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. See Harmonic series (music for the (related musical concept In Mathematics, the harmonic series is the Infinite series In Mathematics, the logarithm of a number to a given base is the power or Exponent to which the base must be raised in order to produce In Mathematics, the Euler–Maclaurin formula provides a powerful connection between Integrals (see Calculus) and sums In Mathematics, a power series (in one variable is an Infinite series of the form f(x = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n \left( x-c \right^n = a_0 + He also discovered a new formula for calculating pi. IMPORTANT NOTICE Please note that Wikipedia is not a database to store the millions of digits of π please refrain from adding those to Wikipedia as it could cause technical problems

He was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. The incumbent of the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, the Lucasian Professor is the holder of a mathematical Professorship at the University of Cambridge In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford had to be an ordained Anglican priest. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument. Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.

#### Optics

From 1670 to 1672, Newton lectured on optics. During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a second prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light. Refraction is the change in direction of a Wave due to a change in its Speed. In Optics, a dispersive prism is a type of optical prism, normally having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism. White is a Color, the perception which is evoked by Light that stimulates all three types of color sensitive Cone cells in the Human eye A lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate Axial symmetry which transmits and refracts Light, converging or diverging

A replica of Newton's 6-inch (150 mm) reflecting telescope of 1672 for the Royal Society. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660

He also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour. Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. The following article is part of an in-depth biography of Sir Isaac Newton, the English Mathematician and Scientist, author of the

From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem. A telescope is an instrument designed for the observation of remote objects and the collection of Electromagnetic radiation. In Optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the Phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency The Newtonian telescope is a type of Reflecting telescope invented by the British scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727 using a parabolic primary mirror By grinding his own mirrors, using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror. The phenomenon of Newton's rings, named after Isaac Newton, is an Interference pattern caused by the reflection of Light between two surfaces In the vernacular quality can mean a high degree of excellence (“a quality product” a degree of excellence or the lack of it (“work of average quality” or a property of In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour, which he later expanded into his Opticks. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. Robert Hooke, FRS (18 July 1635 – 3 March 1703 was an English Natural philosopher and Polymath who played an important role in the The two men remained enemies until Hooke's death.

Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles and were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light (Opticks Bk. A wave is a disturbance that propagates through Space and Time, usually with transference of Energy. Diffraction is normally taken to refer to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle II, Props. XII-L). Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for diffraction. Today's quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave-particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons In Physics, the photon is the Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena In Physics and Chemistry, wave–particle duality is the concept that all Matter and Energy exhibits both Wave -like and

In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. In the late 19th century " luminiferous aether " (or " ether " meaning light-bearing aether, was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy. This article is about the philosophy introduced by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky Henry More ( October 12 1614 &ndash September 1, 1687) was an English Philosopher of the Cambridge Platonist school He replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. Hermeticism is a set of philosophical and religious beliefs based primarily upon the writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus, who is put forth as a John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians. John Maynard Keynes 1st Baron Keynes CB (ˈkeɪnz "cains" (5 June 1883 &ndash 21 April 1946 was a British Economist whose ideas "[13] Newton's interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science. [14] (This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science. ) Had he not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity. The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" In Physics, action at a distance is the Interaction of two objects which are separated in Space with no known mediator of the interaction (See also Isaac Newton's occult studies. Isaac Newton (1643 &ndash 1727 the noted British scientist and mathematician wrote many works that would now be classified as Occult studies )

In 1704 Newton published Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. Opticks is a book written by English physicist Isaac Newton that was released to the public in 1704. He considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, . . . and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?"[15] Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe (Optics, 8th Query). An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is a mechanical device that produces Static electricity, or electricity at High voltage Glass in the common sense refers to a Hard, Brittle, transparent Solid, such as that used for Windows many

#### Mechanics and gravitation

Newton's own copy of his Principia, with hand-written corrections for the second edition.
Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica

In 1677, Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i. Isaac Newton composed Principia Mathematica during 1685 and 1686. e. , gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is In Astronomy, Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion are three mathematical laws that describe the motion of Planets in the Solar System. John Flamsteed FRS ( 19 August, 1646 - 31 December, 1719) was an English Astronomer and the first He published his results in De motu corporum in gyrum (1684). De motu corporum in gyrum ( Latin: "On the motion of bodies in an orbit" is a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmund Halley in November This contained the beginnings of the laws of motion that would inform the Principia.

The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (now known as the Principia) was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. The Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" often Principia Edmond Halley FRS (ˈɛdmənd ˈhɔːlɪ ( November 8, 1656 &ndash January 14, 1742) was an English Astronomer In this work Newton stated the three universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than two hundred years. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements He used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another Newton 's law of universal Gravitation is a physical law describing the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass In the same work he presented the first analytical determination, based on Boyle's law, of the speed of sound in air. Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law) is one of several Gas laws and a special case of the Ideal gas law.

With the Principia, Newton became internationally recognized. He acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (alternative names are Facio or Faccio) ( 26 February 1664 - 12 May 1753) was a Swiss The end of this friendship led Newton to a nervous breakdown. Mental breakdown (also known as nervous breakdown or snapping) is a non-medical term used to describe a sudden acute attack of Mental illness such as

### Later life

Isaac Newton in old age in 1712. During his residence in London, Newton had made the acquaintance of John Locke. Portrait by Sir James Thornhill. See also English school of painting Sir James Thornhill ( 25 July 1675 or 1676 – May 4, 1734) was an English

In the 1690s Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. A tract is a literary work, and in current usage usually Religious in nature Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Henry More's belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Newton's religious ideas. Henry More ( October 12 1614 &ndash September 1, 1687) was an English Philosopher of the Cambridge Platonist school In Philosophy of mind, dualism is a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter which begins with the claim that mental phenomena are in some A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных Later works — The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) — were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy (see above).

Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but his only recorded comments were to complain about a cold draft in the chamber and request that the window be closed. The Parliament of England was the Legislature of the Kingdom of England.

Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. Charles Montagu 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, PC, FRS ( 16 April 1661 &ndash 19 May 1715) was an English The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all Economic and Financial He took charge of England's great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Master Lucas (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). A comptroller or controller (kənˈtroʊlər ˈkɑmˌtroʊ- also financial controller, abrv Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon Lucas' death in 1699, a position Newton held until his death. Master of the Mint was an important office in the governments of Scotland and England, and latterly Great Britain between the 16th and 19th centuries These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. A sinecure (from Latin sine, without and cura, care means an office which requires or involves little or no responsibility labour or active service Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of Currency. As Master of the Mint in 1717 Newton unofficially moved the Pound Sterling from the silver standard to the gold standard by creating a relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in the "Law of Queen Anne"; these were all great reforms at the time, adding considerably to the wealth and stability of England. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency The silver standard is a Monetary system in which the standard economic Unit of account is a fixed weight of Silver. The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 succeeding William III of England and II of It was his work at the Mint, rather than his earlier contributions to science, that earned him a knighthood from Queen Anne in 1705. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages.

Newton's grave in Westminster Abbey

Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The French Academy of Sciences ( French: Académie des sciences) is a Learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the In his position at the Royal Society, Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed's star catalogue, which Newton had used in his studies. Astronomer Royal is a senior post in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.

Newton died in London on 31 March 1727 [OS: 20 March 1726][1], and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1727 ( MDCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) are used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Year 1726 ( MDCCXXVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church His half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt,[16] served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her "very loving Uncle,"[17] according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox. Catherine Barton (1679 – 1739 was Isaac Newton 's half-niece wife of the British MP John Conduitt and probable mistress of Charles Montagu 1st Earl of Jermyn Street (pronounced "Germin" is a street in the City of Westminster, central London, to the south parallel and adjacent to Piccadilly. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. Although Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years, he actually died intestate. Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies owning property greater than the sum of his or her enforceable debts and funeral expenses without having made a

After his death, Newton's body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life. Mercury poisoning (also known as mercurialism, hydrargyria, Hunter-Russell syndrome, or acrodynia when affecting children is a Disease [18]

## Religious views

Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. Isaac Newton's religious views influenced his lifetime of work Dr Stephen Snobelen, originally from British Columbia, is a professor of the History of science and technology at the University of King's College in But like Nicodemus, the secret disciple of Jesus, he never made a public declaration of his private faith - which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs. " [19]. Snobelen concludes that Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least eight Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an antitrinitarian. Socinianism is a form of Antitrinitarianism, named for Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. Nontrinitarianism includes all Christian belief systems that reject as non-scriptural wholly or partly the doctrine of the Trinity; the Doctrine [19] In an age notable for its religious intolerance there are few public expressions of Newton's radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active [19]

In a view disputed by Snobelen,[19] T. C. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and most Protestants. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. [20] In his own day, he was also accused of being a Rosicrucian (as were many in the Royal Society and in the court of Charles II). The term Rosicrucian (symbol the Rose Cross) describes a secret society of mystics allegedly formed in late mediaeval Germany, holding a doctrine "built on [21]

Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done. "[22]

His scientific fame notwithstanding, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Textual criticism (or lower criticism) is a branch of Literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of Transcription errors in An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Isaac Newton. He also placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. [23] He also attempted, unsuccessfully, to find hidden messages within the Bible (see Bible code). A Bible code (also Torah code) is the notion that there are information patterns encrypted or Coded form in the text of the Bible, or more specifically

In his own lifetime, Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. Hylozoism is the philosophical conjecture that all or some material things possess life or that all life is inseparable from matter Baruch or Benedict de Spinoza (ברוך שפינוזה Bento de Espinosa Benedictus de Spinoza ( November 24, 1632 – February 21, Thus, the ordered and dynamically informed universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason, but this universe, to be perfect and ordained, had to be regular. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy

### Newton's effect on religious thought

"Newton," by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted as a "divine geometer"

Newton and Robert Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians. William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827 was an English poet, painter, and Printmaker. Robert Boyle was a Natural philosopher, chemist physicist inventor and early Gentleman scientist, noted for his work in Physics and Chemistry In Epistemology and in its broadest sense rationalism is "any view appealing to Reason as a source of knowledge or justification" (Lacey 286 A pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes Pamphlets Pamphlets were used to broadcast the writer's opinions on an issue for example in order Pantheism ( Greek: πάν ( 'pan') = all and θεός ( 'theos') = God it literally means " God is All Enthusiasm (ἐνθουσιασμός enthousiasmos) originally meant Inspiration or possession by a divine Afflatus or by the presence of a Latitudinarian was initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th-century English Theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England [24] Thus, the clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism,[25] and, at the same time, the second wave of English deists used Newton's discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a "Natural Religion. Metaphysics is the branch of Philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science Superstition ( Latin superstitio, literally "standing over" derived perhaps from standing in awe used in Latin as a unreasonable or excessive belief Atheism Deism is the belief that a supreme God exists and created the physical universe and that religious truths can be arrived at by the application of reason alone without dependence on revelation "

The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment "magical thinking," and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Boyle’s mechanical conception of the universe. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Christian Mysticism is traditionally practised through the disciplines of Prayer (including oratio meditation and Contemplation Newton gave Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them. In Mathematics, a proof is a convincing demonstration (within the accepted standards of the field that some Mathematical statement is necessarily true [26] Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles. [27] These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers. AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between [28]

Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. [29][30][31] But the unforeseen theological consequence of his conception of God, as Leibniz pointed out, was that God was now entirely removed from the world’s affairs, since the need for intervention would only evidence some imperfection in God’s creation, something impossible for a perfect and omnipotent creator. Christian Theology is discourse concerning Christian faith Christian theologians use biblical Exegesis, rational analysis and argument Omnipotence ( Omni Potens: "all Power " is unlimited power [32] Leibniz's theodicy cleared God from the responsibility for "l'origine du mal" by making God removed from participation in his creation. Theodicy (θiːˈɒdɪsi (adjectival form theodicean) is a specific branch of Theology and Philosophy that attempts to reconcile the existence of In the Philosophy of religion and Theology, the problem of evil is the problem of reconciling the existence of Evil or Suffering in the world The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil. [33]

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish. Millenarianism (sometimes spelled millenarism or millennarism) is the belief by a religious social or political group or movement in a coming major transformation [34]

### Views of the end of the world

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. Isaac Newton (1643 &ndash 1727 the noted British scientist and mathematician wrote many works that would now be classified as Occult studies Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology In predicting this he said, "This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail. "[35]

## Newton and the counterfeiters

As warden of the Royal Mint, Newton estimated that 20% of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage were counterfeit. The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. A counterfeit is an imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered. Under British law high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign amounting to an intention to undermine their authority or the actual attempt to do so To be hanged drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for the crime of High treason. Despite this, convictions of the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult to achieve; however, Newton proved to be equal to the task.

He gathered much of that evidence himself, disguised, while he hung out at bars and taverns. For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the Newton was made a justice of the peace and between June 1698 and Christmas 1699 conducted some 200 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers and suspects. A Justice of the Peace ( JP) is a Puisne Judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace Newton won his convictions and in February 1699, he had ten prisoners waiting to be executed.

Possibly Newton's greatest triumph as the king's attorney was against William Chaloner. One of Chaloner's schemes was to set up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turn in the hapless conspirators whom he entrapped. Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). He proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint's processes in order to improve them. He petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins. Newton was outraged, and went about the work to uncover anything about Chaloner. During his studies, he found that Chaloner was engaged in counterfeiting. He immediately put Chaloner on trial, but Chaloner had friends in high places and, to Newton's horror, Chaloner walked free. Newton put him on trial a second time with conclusive evidence. Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. History The village was one of two manors of the Parish of St Marylebone, which was itself named after the stream St Marylebone being [36]

## Enlightenment philosophers

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors—Galileo, Boyle, and Newton principally—as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Natural law or the law of nature ( Latin: lex naturalis) is a theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by Nature and that In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded. [37]

It was Newton’s conception of the universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became the seed for Enlightenment ideology. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems and the sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French The physiocrats were a group of Economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of land Agriculture or land development Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Psychology (from Greek grc ψῡχή psȳkhē, "breath life soul" and grc -λογία -logia) is an Academic and Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Social order is a concept used in sociology history and other social sciences Historical progress has been a main object of Philosophy of history. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature. James Burnett Lord Monboddo ( October 25, 1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish Judge, scholar of language evolution and Samuel Clarke ( 11 October 1675 &ndash 17 May 1729) was an English Philosopher.

## Newton's laws of motion

Classical mechanics
$\vec{F} = \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}t}(m \vec{v})$
Newton's Second Law
History of ...
Scientists
Galileo · Kepler · Newton
Laplace · Hamilton · d'Alembert
Cauchy · Lagrange · Euler
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The famous three laws of motion:

Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. Classical mechanics is used for describing the motion of Macroscopic objects from Projectiles to parts of Machinery, as well as Astronomical objects Newton's laws of motion are three Physical laws which provide relationships between the Forces acting on a body and the motion of the Early Ideas on Motion The Greek philosophers, and Aristotle in particular were the first to propose that there are abstract principles governing nature Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer Sir William Rowan Hamilton (4 August 1805 &ndash 2 September 1865 was an Irish Mathematician, Physicist, and Astronomer who Newton's laws of motion are three Physical laws which provide relationships between the Forces acting on a body and the motion of the The vis insita or innate force of matter is a power of resisting by which every body as much as in it lies endeavors to preserve in its present state whether it be of rest or of moving

Newton's Second Law states that an applied force, F, on an object equals the time rate of change of its momentum, p. Mathematically, this is written as $\vec F = \frac{d\vec p}{dt} \, = \, \frac{d}{dt} (m \vec v) \, = \, \vec v \, \frac{dm}{dt} + m \, \frac{d\vec v}{dt} \,.$ Assuming the mass to be constant, the first term vanishes. Defining the acceleration to be $\vec a \ =\ d\vec v/dt$ results in the famous equation $\vec F = m \, \vec a \,$ · . This tells us that a force F applied to an object of mass m causes it to accelerate at a rate a. This equality depends on using a consistent set of units for measuring mass, length, and time. One such set is the SI system, where mass is in kilograms, length in metres, and time in seconds. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The second ( SI symbol s) sometimes abbreviated sec, is the name of a unit of Time, and is the International System of Units This leads to force being in newtons (named after Sir Isaac himself) and acceleration in metres per second per second. The newton (symbol N) is the SI derived unit of Force, named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on Classical

Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This leads to an apparent paradox, exemplified by a man pulling a stone along the ground with a string. The tension in the string acts equally on the man and the stone, pulling the man back and the stone forward, to the same degree. Thus no net force is experienced by the man/string/stone combination, and it cannot move. The resolution depends on considering the forces acting on each body individually: The force on the stone is more than that required to overcome friction; so the stone moves, and, if the man does not move, the string becomes slack and the stone stops. But when he does move, maintaining the tension in the string, then man, string, and stone move forward together.

## Newton's apple

A reputed descendant of Newton's apple tree, found in the Botanic Gardens in Cambridge.
A reputed descendant of Newton's apple tree, found in the Instituto Balseiro library garden. Balseiro Institute ( Instituto Balseiro) is an academic institution chartered by the National University of Cuyo and the National Atomic Energy Commission
 “ When Newton saw an apple fall, he foundIn that slight startle from his contemplation —'Tis said (for I'll not answer above groundFor any sage's creed or calculation) —A mode of proving that the earth turn'd roundIn a most natural whirl, called "gravitation;"And this is the sole mortal who could grapple,Since Adam, with a fall or with an apple. Gravitation is a natural Phenomenon by which objects with Mass attract one another See also Adam and Eve Adam ( Hebrew: אָדָם was according to a literal interpretation of Genesis, the first man created by [38] ”

A popular story claims that Newton was inspired to formulate his theory of universal gravitation by the fall of an apple from a tree. Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Newton's head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity. John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, described the event when he wrote about Newton's life:

 “ In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself & if so, that must influence her motion & perhaps retain her in her orbit, whereupon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition. [39] ”

The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement. He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation".

A contemporary writer, William Stukeley, recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton's Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726, in which Newton recalled "when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. The Rev Dr William Stukeley FRS, FRCP FSA ( November 7, 1687 &ndash March 3, 1765) was an English antiquary who pioneered It was occasioned by the fall of an apple, as he sat in contemplative mood. Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground, thought he to himself. Why should it not go sideways or upwards, but constantly to the earth's centre. " In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727), "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. " These accounts are probably exaggerations of Newton's own tale about sitting by a window in his home (Woolsthorpe Manor) and watching an apple fall from a tree. Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England, was the birthplace of Sir Isaac Newton on

Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later, the staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organization in England, Wales A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale[40] can supply grafts from their tree (ref 1948-729), which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking variety. The Flower of Kent is a Green variety of cooking Apple. According to the story this is the apple Isaac Newton saw falling to ground from its

## Fame

French mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange often said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that he was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish. An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture is a dissertation by the English mathematician and scholar Isaac Newton. "[42] English poet Alexander Pope was moved by Newton's accomplishments to write the famous epitaph:

 “ Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night;God said "Let Newton be" and all was light. Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744 is generally regarded as the greatest English Poet of the eighteenth century best known for his Satirical An epitaph (in Greek, &mdash literally " on the gravestone " is a short text honoring a deceased person strictly speaking that inscribed on ”

Newton himself was rather more modest of his own achievements, famously writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February 1676

 “ If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants ”

Historians generally think the above quote was an attack on Hooke (who was short and hunchbacked), rather than — or in addition to — a statement of modesty. Robert Hooke, FRS (18 July 1635 – 3 March 1703 was an English Natural philosopher and Polymath who played an important role in the The two were in a dispute over optical discoveries at the time. The latter interpretation also fits with many of his other disputes over his discoveries — such as the question of who discovered calculus as discussed above.

And then in a memoir later

 “ I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. [43] ”

## Footnotes and references

1. ^ a b c d e During Newton's lifetime, two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of Eastern Europe, and the Gregorian or 'New Style' elsewhere. The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 by the Julian calendar, but on 4 January 1643 by the Gregorian. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Moreover, the English new year began on 25 March (the anniversary of the Incarnation) and not on 1 January (until the general adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1752). Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.
2. ^ Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Newton, Isaac, n. 4
3. ^ Gjersten, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
4. ^ a b Cambridge
5. ^ Newton beats Einstein in polls of scientists and the public. The Royal Society. Retrieved on 2006-10-25. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a
6. ^ Cohen, I. B. (1970). Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. 11, p. 43. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
7. ^ James I (2003). "Singular scientists". J R Soc Med 96 (1): 36–9. doi:10.1258/jrsm.96.1.36. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 12519805.
8. ^ Bell, E. T. [1937] (1986). Men of Mathematics, Touchstone edition, New York: Simon & Schuster, pp. 91–2.
9. ^ Book Review Isaac Newton biography December 2003
10. ^ Stillwell, John [1989] (2002). "Calculus [sub-chapter 9. 7 Biographical Notes: Wallis, Newton, and Leibniz]", in S. Axler, F. W. Gehring, K. A. Ribet (editors): Mathematics and Its History (Hardcover), 2nd edition, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 163. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics (UTM is a series of undergraduate-level Textbooks in Mathematics published by Springer-Verlag. Springer Science+Business Media or Springer (ˈʃpʁɪŋɐ is a worldwide Publishing company based in Germany, which publishes textbooks academic ISBN 0-387-95336-1.  “In 1661 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a sizar. Sizars had to earn their keep as servants to wealthier students, and it was indicative of his mother's meanness that he had to become one, for she could afford to support him but chose not to. ”
11. ^ ed. Michael Hoskins (1997). Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy, p.  159. Cambridge University Press
12. ^ Biography of Isaac Newton at www.knittingcircle.org.uk
13. ^ Keynes, John Maynard (1972). ""Newton, The Man"", The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes Volume X. MacMillan St. Martin's Press, pp. 363–4.
14. ^ Westfall, Richard S. [1980] (1983). "Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 530–1.   notes that Newton apparently abandoned his alchemical researches.
15. ^ Dobbs, J. T. (December 1982). "Newton's Alchemy and His Theory of Matter". Isis 73 (4): p. 523. doi:10.1086/353114. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.   quoting Opticks
16. ^ Westfall 1980, p. 44.
17. ^ Westfall 1980, p. 595
18. ^ Newton, Isaac (1642-1727). Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. Retrieved on 2006-08-30. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and
19. ^ a b c d Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic : the strategies of a Nicodemite". British Journal for the History of Science 32: pp. 381–419. doi:10.1017/S0007087499003751. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
20. ^ Pfizenmaier, T. C. (1997). "Was Isaac Newton an Arian?". Journal of the History of Ideas 68 (1): pp. 57–80.
21. ^ Yates, Frances A. (1972). The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. London: Routledge.
22. ^ Tiner, J. H. (1975). Isaac Newton: Inventor, Scientist and Teacher. Milford, Michigan, U. S. : Mott Media.
23. ^ John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, v. John Paul Meier is a Biblical scholar and Catholic priest. He attended St 1, pp. 382–402 after narrowing the years to 30 or 33, provisionally judges 30 most likely.
24. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. (1976). The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. Cornell University Press, pp. 37,44.
25. ^ Westfall, Richard S. (1958). Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 200.
26. ^ Haakonssen, Knud. "The Enlightenment, politics and providence: some Scottish and English comparisons", in Martin Fitzpatrick ed. : Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 64.
27. ^ Frankel, Charles (1948). The Faith of Reason: The Idea of Progress in the French Enlightenment. New York: King's Crown Press, p. 1.
28. ^ Germain, Gilbert G. . A Discourse on Disenchantment: Reflections on Politics and Technology, p. 28.
29. ^ Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H. S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
30. ^ A Short Scheme of the True Religion, manuscript quoted in Memoirs of the Life, Writings and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton by Sir David Brewster, Edinburgh, 1850; cited in; ibid, p. 65.
31. ^ Webb, R. K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent. ” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.
32. ^ Westfall, Richard S. Science and Religion in Seventeenth-Century England. p201.
33. ^ Marquard, Odo. "Burdened and Disemburdened Man and the Flight into Unindictability," in Farewell to Matters of Principle. Robert M. Wallace trans. London: Oxford UP, 1989.
34. ^ Jacob, Margaret C. The Newtonians and the English Revolution: 1689–1720. p100–101.
35. ^ Papers Show Isaac Newton's Religious Side, Predict Date of Apocalypse. The Associated Press (19 June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-01. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman
36. ^ Westfall 1980, pp. 571–5
37. ^ Cassels, Alan. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. p2.
38. ^ Don Juan (1821), Canto 10, Verse I. Don Juan (Spanish or Don Giovanni (Italian is a legendary fictional Libertine whose story has been told many times by many authors In Jerome J. McGann (ed. ), Lord Byron: The Complete Poetical Works (1986), Vol. 5, 437
39. ^ Conduitt, John. Keynes Ms. 130.4:Conduitt's account of Newton's life at Cambridge. Newtonproject. Retrieved on 2006-08-30. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1363 - Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders— Chen Youliang and
40. ^ Brogdale - Home of the National Fruit Collection
41. ^ Newton's alchemical works transcribed and online at Indiana University retrieved January 11, 2007
42. ^ Fred L. Indiana University is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Wilson, History of Science: Newton citing: Delambre, M. "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. le comte J. L. Lagrange," Oeuvres de Lagrange I. Paris, 1867, p. xx.
43. ^ Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton (1855) by Sir David Brewster (Volume II. Ch. 27)

## Resources

### References

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• Christianson, Gale (1984). In the Presence of the Creator: Isaac Newton & His Times. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-905190-8.   This well documented work provides, in particular, valuable information regarding Newton's knowledge of Patristics
• Craig, John (1958). Patristics or Patrology is the study of early Christian writers known as the Church Fathers. "Isaac Newton - Crime Investigator". Nature 182: 149 – 152. doi:10.1038/182149a0. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
• Craig, John (1963). "Isaac Newton and the Counterfeiters". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 18: 136 – 145. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1963.0017. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document.
• Westfall, Richard S. (1980, 1998). Richard S Westfall ( April 22, 1924 &mdash August 21, 1996) was an American academic biographer and Historian of science Never at Rest. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27435-4.
• Sir Isaac Newton. School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved on 8 March, 2005.
• The Newton Project. Imperial College London. Retrieved on 8 March, 2005.

• Andrarde, E. N. De C. (1950). Isaac Newton. New York: Chanticleer Press.
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• Dampier, William C. ; Dampier, M. (1959). Readings in the Literature of Science. New York: Harper & Row.
• de Villamil, Richard (1931). Richard de Villamil (1850-1936 was a British officer and scientist physician Newton, the Man. London: G. D. Knox.  - Preface by Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York (1972).
• Dobbs, B. J. T. (1975). The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy or "The Hunting of the Greene Lyon". Cambridge University Press.
• Gjertsen, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0279-2.
• Gleick, James. Isaac Newton. Alfred A. Knopf year = 2003. ISBN 0-375-42233-1.
• Halley, E. (1687). "Review of Newton's Principia". Philosophical Transactions 186: 291 – 297.
• Hawking, Stephen, ed. Stephen William Hawking CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942 is a British theoretical physicist. On the Shoulders of Giants. ISBN 0-7624-1348-4 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Einstein. Johannes Kepler (ˈkɛplɚ ( December 27 1571 &ndash November 15 1630) was a German Mathematician, Astronomer Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 &ndash 8 January 1642 was a Tuscan ( Italian) Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, and Philosopher Albert Einstein ( German: ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n; English: ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955 was a German -born theoretical
• Hart, Michael J. The 100. Michael H Hart (born April 28, 1932 in New York City) is an Astrophysicist who has also written three books on History and controversial The 100 A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History is a 1978 book by Michael H Carol Publishing Group, (July 1992), paperback, 576 pages, ISBN 0-8065-1350-0.
• Herivel, J. W. (1965). The Background to Newton's Principia. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84.
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• Keynes, John Maynard (1963). John Maynard Keynes 1st Baron Keynes CB (ˈkeɪnz "cains" (5 June 1883 &ndash 21 April 1946 was a British Economist whose ideas Essays in Biography. W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-00189-X.   Keynes took a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.
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• Isaac Newton, Sir; J Edleston; Roger Cotes, Correspondence of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor Cotes, including letters of other eminent men, London, John W. Roger Cotes FRS ( July 10, 1682 – June 5, 1716) was an English Mathematician, known for working closely with Parker, West Strand; Cambridge, John Deighton, 1850. – Google Books
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• Newton, I. (1952). Opticks, or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light. New York: Dover Publications.
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