|↑ Bronze Age|
Ancient Near East (1300-600 BC)
India (1200-200 BC)
Europe (1000 BC-400 AD)
China (600-200 BC)
Japan (500 BC-300 AD)
Korea (400-60 BC)
Nigeria (400 BC-200 AD)
In archaeology, the Iron Age was the stage in the development of any people in which tools and weapons whose main ingredient was iron were prominent. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the The Ancient Near East refers to early Civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The History of Anatolia encompasses the region known as Anatolia ( Turkish Anadolu) known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, considered to be The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC The history of the Caucasus region can be divided into the history of the Northern Caucasus (Ciscaucasia historically in the sphere of influence of Scythia The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the The Levant is a geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H culture also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition The Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW is an Iron Age culture of Gangetic plain, lasting from roughly 1100 BC to 350 BC. The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (NBPW/NBP of the South Asia (ca The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. The Chernogorovka and Novocherkassk cultures (ca 900 to 650 BC are Iron Age Steppe cultures in Ukraine and Russia, centered The Hallstatt culture was the predominant The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly In Britain and Ireland the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non- Romanised The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts The Iron Age in Scandinavia and Northern Europe begins around 500 BC with the Jastorf culture, and is taken to last until ca The Iron Age in Ancient China begins in ca 600 BC and is taken to last until the beginning of Imperial China and the rise of the Qin Dynasty The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age for the mythological Iron Age see Ages of Man. The is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. Jin state was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE bordering the Korean The Nok civilization appeared in Nigeria around 500 BC and mysteriously vanished around 200 AD German Philosopher Karl Jaspers coined the term the axial age ( Achsenzeit in the German language original to describe the period Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the History of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being The history of the Alphabet begins in Ancient Egypt, more than a millennium into the History of writing. The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in Prehistory, most likely with the use of Iron from Meteorites The Smelting of iron in Historiography in Ancient and Byzantine Greece.; Classical Greece Herodotus Hellanicus of Lesbos History The History of Roman Historiography Roman Historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form Chinese Historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. The Historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early origins of Islam based on a critical analysis evaluation and examination of authentic Primary Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 The adoption of this material coincided with other changes in some past societies often including differing agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, although this was not always the case.
In history, the Iron Age is the last principal period in the three-age system for classifying pre-historic societies, preceded by the Bronze Age. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology The three-age system refers to the Periodization of Human Prehistory into three consecutive Time periods named for their respective Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Its date and context vary depending on the country or geographical region.
Classically, the Iron Age is taken to begin in the 12th century BC in the ancient Near East, ancient Persia, ancient India (with the post-Rigvedic Vedic civilization), and ancient Greece (with the Greek Dark Ages). Dun Carloway (in Scottish Gaelic Dùn Chàrlabhaigh is a Broch situated in the district of Carloway, on the west coast of the Isle of Lewis Lewis ( Leòdhas ʎɔːɣəs̪ ( Norse: Ljoðhús "home Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Wildlife Hampshire has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Ancient Near East refers to early Civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Rigveda ( Sanskrit sa ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise verse" and veda "knowledge" The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the History of India during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century In other regions of Europe, it started much later. The Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe. The 8th century BC started the first day of 800 BC and ended the last day of 701 BC. The Hallstatt culture was the predominant The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe ( 5th / 4th century BC - 1st century BC) designates the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia Iron use, in smelting and forging for tools, appears in West Africa by 1200 BC, making it one of the first places for the birth of the Iron Age. Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. 
The Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I (1200-1000) illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the thirteenth and twelfth century throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country, Transjordan and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, that shows strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves later into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more significantly from that of the late second millennium.
The Iron Age is usually said to end in the Mediterranean with the onset of historical tradition during Hellenism and the Roman Empire, in India with the onset of Buddhism and Jainism, in China with the onset of Confucianism, and in Northern Europe with the early Middle Ages. This article focuses on the historical aspects of the Hellenistic age for the cultural aspects see Hellenistic civilisation. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500
The arrival of iron use in various areas is discussed in more detail below, broadly in chronological order.
By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects (distinguishable from meteoric iron by the lack of nickel in the product) appeared throughout Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, the Levant, the Mediterranean, and Egypt. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia For geopolitical treatments see South Asia. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. In some places, their use appears to have been ceremonial, and during the Bronze Age iron was an expensive metal, more expensive than gold. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Some sources suggest that iron was being created in some places then as a by-product of copper refining, as sponge iron, and was not reproducible by the metallurgy of the time. Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Sponge iron is the product created when Iron ore is reduced to metallic Iron, usually with some kind of Carbon ( Charcoal, etc at
The earliest systematic production and use of iron implements originates in Anatolia. West African production of iron began at around the same time, and seems to have been clearly an independent invention (see Stanley J. Alpern's work in History in Africa, volume 2). Recent archaeological research at Ganges Valley, India showed early iron working by 1800 BC. The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent  By 1200 BC, iron was widely used in the Middle East but did not supplant the dominant use of bronze for some time. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus
Bronze was previously used to make tools because its melting point is lower than that of iron. The Iron Age began with the development of higher temperature smelting techniques. .
During the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, an alloy consisting of iron with a carbon content between 0. Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 02% and 1. 7% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, but stronger. However, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available. Therefore, many Iron Age tools were fashioned of wrought iron. QtubIronPillarJPG|thumb|right| Iron pillar at Delhi India containing 98% wrought iron]] Wrought iron is commercially pure Iron.  Wrought iron is weaker than bronze, but because it was less expensive, and more easily sharpened, people used it anyway. Iron is by itself an adequately strong metal without additional alloys. Bronze, on the other hand, requires copper and tin which are less common than iron. Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Additionally, iron can be sharpened by grinding whereas bronze must be reforged.
Around 1800 BC, for reasons yet unknown to archaeologists, tin became scarce in the Levant, causing a decline in bronze production. Copper, also, came to be in short supply. As a result, pirate groups around the Mediterranean, from around 1800-1700 BC onward, began to attack fortified cities in search of bronze, to remelt into weaponry.
Bronze was much more abundant in the period before the 12th to 10th century and Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a result of the trade disruptions in the Mediterranean at this time, forced peoples to seek an alternative to bronze. The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the That many bronze items were recycled and made from implements into weapons during this time, is evidence of this.
The Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is believed to have begun with the discovery of iron smelting and smithing techniques in Anatolia or the Caucasus in the late 2nd millennium BC (circa 1300 BC). The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the The Ancient Near East refers to early Civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. 
The use of iron weapons instead of bronze weapons spread rapidly throughout the Near East by the beginning of the 1st millennium BC. The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires Anatolians had begun forging weapons out of iron, which was a superior metal to bronze by 1500 BC at the latest.
The use of iron weapons by the Hittites was believed to have been a major factor in the rapid rise of the Hittite Empire. The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established Because the area in which iron technology first developed was near the Aegean, the technology expanded into into both Asia and Europe simultaneously, aided by Hittite expansion. Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean. The Sea Peoples and the related Philistines are often associated with the introduction of iron technology into Asia, as are the Dorians with respect to Greece. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political The Philistines ( Hebrew פלשתים plishtim) (see "other uses" below were a people who inhabited the southern coast of Canaan, The Dorians or Dorian Greeks ( Greek:, Dōrieis singular, Dōrieus were The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca 
Finds of Iron Early examples and distribution of non precious metal finds. 
|1200-1100 BC||1||2||8||26||37||N. A.||74|
|1100-1000 BC||13||3||31||33||80||N. A.||160|
|1000-900 BC||37||30||115||29||1. 40||N. A.||211|
|Total Bronze Age||5||2||9||0||16||33||65|
|Total Iron Age||51||35||163||88||337||N. A.||511|
Archaeological sites in India, such as Malhar, Dadupur, Raja Nala Ka Tila and Lahuradewa in present day Uttar Pradesh show iron implements in the period between 1800 BC - 1200 BC. The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-Hittite, were Luwian, Aramaic and Phoenician -speaking political entities of Phoenicia ( Phoenician: Phoenician nunsvg|12px|נ]]Phoenician nun The Kingdom of Israel ( ( KJV Israel in Samaria) was one of the successor states to the older United Monarchy (also often called the 'Kingdom of Israel' The History of Anatolia encompasses the region known as Anatolia ( Turkish Anadolu) known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, considered to be Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy Various Alphabetic writing systems were in use in Iron Age Anatolia to record Anatolian dialects and the Phrygian language. Helladic is a modern archaeological term meant to identify a sequence of periods characterizing the culture of mainland Ancient Greece during the Bronze Age. The Dark Ages (ca 1150 BC–800 BC refers to Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century The archaic period in Greece ( 750 BC 480 BC) is a period of Ancient Greek history The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Malhar is the intercollegiate youth festival conducted by the students of St Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश اتر پردیش pronounced, Translation: Northern Province) referred to as '''U The 18th century BC was the Century which lasted from 1800 BC to 1701 BC  Some scholars believe that by the early 13th century BC, iron smelting was practiced on a bigger scale in India, suggesting that the date the technology's inception may be placed earlier. 
The beginning of the 1st millennium BC saw extensive developments in iron metallurgy in India. The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Technological advancement and mastery of iron metallurgy was achieved during this period of peaceful settlements. An iron working centre in east India has been dated to the first millennium BC. This article refers to the region in the Indian subcontinent. 
In Southern India (present day Mysore) iron appeared as early as 11th to 12th centuries BC; these developments were too early for any significant close contact with the northwest of the country. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union Mysore (maɪˈsɔɚ in English; renamed to Mysuru|ಮೈಸೂರು) (ಮೈಸೂರು is the second largest city in the state of Karnataka, India 
The Indian Upnishads have mentions of weaving, pottery, and metallurgy. The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings 
The Mauryan period in India saw advancements in technology; this technological change involved metallurgy. The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military 
Perhaps as early as 300 BC, although certainly by AD 200, high quality steel was being produced in southern India also by what Europeans would later call the crucible technique. Events By place Egypt Pyrrhus, the King of Epirus, is taken as a hostage to Egypt after the Battle of Ipsus Events By Place World Human population reaches about 257 million Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making Steel Alloy by slowly heating and cooling pure Iron and Carbon (typically In this system, high-purity wrought iron, charcoal, and glass were mixed in crucible and heated until the iron melted and absorbed the carbon. 
In 1972, near the city of Gaocheng (藁城) in Shijiazhuang (now Hebei province), an iron-bladed bronze tomahawk (铁刃青铜钺) dating back to the 14th century BC was excavated. Gaocheng ( is a County-level city belonging to Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China. Shijiazhuang ( literally "The Stones' Village" is a Prefecture-level city and the Capital of Hebei province, China ( Postal map spelling: Hopeh) is a northern province of the People's Republic of China. Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus A tomahawk is a type of Axe native to North America traditionally resembling a Hatchet with a straight shaft After a scientific examination, the iron was shown to be made from aerosiderite. The Iron Age in East Asia began in earnest, however, when cast-iron objects appeared in Yangzi Valley toward the end of the 6th century BC. The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. The few objects were found at Changsha and Nanjing. According to the mortuary evidence suggests that the initial use of iron in Lingnan belongs to the mid to late Warring States period (from about 350 BC). The Warring States Period ( also known as the Era of Warring States covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the
The techniques used in Lingnan is a combination of bivalve moulds of distinct southern tradition and the incorporation of piece mould technology from the Zhongyuan The products of the combination of these two periods are bells, vessels, weapons and ornaments and the sophisticated cast.
An Iron Age culture of the Tibetan Plateau has tentatively been associated with the Zhang Zhung culture described in early Tibetan writings. The Tibetan Plateau, also known as the Qinghai-Tibetan (Qingzang Plateau is a vast elevated Plateau in Central Asia covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Zhang Zhung was an ancient culture of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet
The Yayoi period (弥生時代 Yayoi-jidai?) is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. The is an era in the history of Japan from about 500 BC to 300 AD. The is an era in the History of Japan from around 250 to 538 The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era The written history of Japan begins with brief references in the 1st century AD Twenty-Four Histories, a collection of Chinese historical texts Events By place Roman Empire The Franks penetrate into what is now northern Belgium (approximate date  Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields. The Yayoi followed the Jōmon period (14,000 BC to 500 BC) and Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. The is the time in Japanese prehistory from about 14000 BC to 400 BC. or Kyushu is the third-largest Island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. or Honshu is the largest Island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaidō across the Tsugaru Strait, north of
The succeeding Kofun period (古墳時代 Kofun-jidai?) lasts from around 250 to 538. The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era. A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a Mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period. The, was a period in the History of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592-645 although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. This is summary of two more detailed articles Kofun period and Asuka period.
Iron objects were introduced to the Korean peninsula through trade with chiefdoms and state-level societies in the Yellow Sea area in the fourth century BC, just at the end of the Warring States Period but before the Western Han Dynasty began. Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into Physical geography See also Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea Mountains cover 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula and arable plains are The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a Marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China.  Yoon proposes that iron was first introduced to chiefdoms located along North Korean river valleys that flow into the Yellow Sea such as the Cheongcheon and Taedong Rivers.  Iron production quickly followed in the 2nd century BC, and iron implements came to be used by farmers by the 1st century AD in southern Korea.  The earliest known cast-iron axes in southern Korea are found in the Geum River basin. The Geum-gang River is located in South Korea. It is a major river that originates in Jangsu-eub North Jeolla Province A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The time that iron production begins is the same time that complex chiefdoms of Proto-historic Korea emerged. Samhan refers to the ancient confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan in central and southern Korean peninsula The complex chiefdoms were the precursors of early states such as Silla, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Gaya  Iron ingots were an important mortuary item and indicated the wealth or prestige of the deceased in this period. Silla (57 BC – 935 AD was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Baekje (18 BCE – 660 CE or Paekche, was a kingdom located in southwest Korea Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, southern Manchuria, and 
Iron working was introduced to Europe around 1000 BC, probably from Asia Minor and slowly spread northwards and westwards over the succeeding 500 years. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black
The early 1st millennium BC marks the Iron Age in Eastern Europe. In the Pontic steppe and the Caucasus region, the Iron Age begins with the Koban and the Chernogorovka and Novocherkassk cultures from ca. The term Pontic-Caspian steppe summarizes the vast Steppelands stretching from north of the Black Sea as far as the east of the Caspian Sea, from central The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Koban culture (ca 1100 to 400 BC is a late Bronze Age and Iron Age culture of the northern and central Caucasus. The Chernogorovka and Novocherkassk cultures (ca 900 to 650 BC are Iron Age Steppe cultures in Ukraine and Russia, centered 900 BC. By 800 BC, it was spreading to Hallstatt C via the alleged "Thraco-Cimmerian" migrations. The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Thraco-Cimmerian is a historiographical and archaeological term composed of the names of the Thracians and the Cimmerians.
Along with Chernogorovka and Novocherkassk cultures, on the territory of ancient Russia and Ukraine the Iron Age is to a significant extent associated with Scythians, who developed iron culture since the 7th century BC. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic The majority of remains of their iron producing and blacksmith's industries from 5th to 3rd century BC was found near Nikopol in Kamenskoe Gorodishche, which is believed to be the specialized metallurgic region of the ancient Scythia. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th 
From the Hallstatt culture, the Iron Age spreads west with the Celtic expansion from the 6th century BC. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts In Poland, the Iron Age reaches the late Lusatian culture in about the 6th century, followed in some areas by the Pomeranian culture. The Lusatian culture existed in the later Bronze Age and early Iron Age ( 1300 BC - 500 BC) in eastern Germany, most of Poland
The ethnic ascriptions of many Iron Age cultures has been bitterly contested, as the roots of Germanic, Baltic and Slavic peoples were sought in this area. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Balts or Baltic peoples (People who live by the Baltic Sea) defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European
In Central Europe, the Iron Age is generally divided in the early Iron Age Hallstatt culture (HaC and D, 800-450) and the late Iron Age La Tène culture (beginning in 450 BC). The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Events By place Greece Athenian General Cimon sails to Cyprus with two hundred Triremes of the The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site Events By place Greece Athenian General Cimon sails to Cyprus with two hundred Triremes of the The Iron Age ends with the Roman Conquest.
In Italy, the Iron Age was probably introduced by the Villanovan culture but this culture is otherwise considered a Bronze Age culture, while the following Etruscan civilization is regarded as part of Iron Age proper. The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy The Etruscan Iron Age was then ended with the rise and conquest of the Roman Republic, which conquered the last Etruscan city of Velzna in 265 BC. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Volsinii or Vulsinii ( Etruscan: Velzna or Velusna; Greek:, Strabo v Events By place Greece Although the Egyptian fleet blockades the Saronic Gulf, the Macedonian King Antigonus II
In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about 800 BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century AD in non-Romanised parts. In Britain and Ireland the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non- Romanised The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Defensive structures dating from this time are often impressive, for example the brochs and duns of northern Scotland and the hill forts that dotted the rest of the islands. A Broch is an Iron Age Drystone hollow-walled structure of a type found only in Scotland. Dun (from the Brythonic Din (modern Welsh Dinas and Gaelic Dùn, meaning fort) is now used both as a generic term for a fort Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant
The Iron Age is divided into the Pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman Iron Age. The Pre-Roman Iron Age of Northern Europe ( 5th / 4th century BC - 1st century BC) designates the earliest part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia The Roman Iron Age ( 1 - 400) is the name that Swedish Archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in This is followed by the migration period. The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name Northern Germany and Denmark was dominated by the Jastorf culture, whereas the culture of the southern half of the Scandinavia was dominated by the very similar Gregan Iron Age. The Jastorf culture is an Iron Age Material culture in what is now north Germany, spanning the 6th to 1st centuries BC forming the southern part of the
Early Scandinavian iron production typically involved the harvesting of bog iron. Bog iron refers to impure Iron deposits that develop in bogs or Swamps by the Chemical or Biochemical Oxidation of iron carried Scandinavian peninsula, Finland and Estonia show sophisticated iron production very early, but further dating is currently impossible. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region The range varies from 3000 BP - 2000 BP. This knowledge is associated with the non-Germanic part of Scandinavia. Metalworking and Asbestos-Ceramic pottery are somewhat synonymous in Scandinavia due to the latter's capacity to resist and retain heat. Asbestos-Ceramic ( ca 3900-1800 BP) refers to types of Pottery manufactured with Asbestos and Clay with adiabatic behaviour Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well The iron ore used is believed to have been iron sand (such as red soil), because its high phosphorus content can be identified in slag. Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted Slag is the By-product of Smelting Ore to purify Metals They can be considered to be a mixture of metal Oxides however They are sometimes found together with asbestos ware axes belonging to the Ananjino Culture. Asbestos-Ceramic ( ca 3900-1800 BP) refers to types of Pottery manufactured with Asbestos and Clay with adiabatic behaviour The Asbestos-Ceramic ware remains a mystery, because there are other adiabatic vessels with unknown usage.
Inhabitants at Termit, in eastern Niger became the first iron smelting people in West Africa and among the first in the world around 1500 BC, according to "a formidable new scientific work from UNESCO Publishing that challenges a lot of conventional thinking on the subject. The Nok civilization appeared in Nigeria around 500 BC and mysteriously vanished around 200 AD The Urewe culture developed and spread in and around the the Lake Victoria region of Africa during the African Iron Age. The Bantu expansion was a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto- Bantu language group Niger ( or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/) officially the Republic of Niger, is a Landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. ".  Iron and copper working then continued to spread southward through the continent, reaching the Cape around AD 200. The Cape of Good Hope ( Afrikaans: Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop Cabo da Boa Esperança Persian Language: دماغه امید نیک  The widespread use of iron revolutionized the Bantu-speaking farming communities who adopted it, driving out and absorbing the rock tool using hunter-gatherer societies they encountered as they expanded to farm wider areas of savannah. The Bantu languages (technically Narrow Bantu languages) constitute a grouping belonging to the Niger-Congo family A savanna or savannah is a Tropical or Subtropical Grassland or Woodland Ecosystem. The technologically superior Bantu-speakers spread across southern Africa and became wealthy and powerful, producing iron for tools and weapons in large, industrial quantities.