80,000,000 (est. For the New Zealand politician see Arthur Guinness Arthur Guinness ( 24 September 1725 &ndash 23 January Henry Grattan (3 July 1746 &ndash 6 June 1821 was a member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the Daniel O'Connell ( 6 August 1775 &ndash 15 May 1847) ( Dónal Ó Conaill) known as The Liberator, or The Emancipator Lady Morgan ( Sydney Owenson) (ca 1776 &ndash 14 April, 1859) was an Irish Novelist Early life She was born in Charles Stewart Parnell ( 27 June 1846 &ndash 6 October 1891) was an Irish Protestant landowner nationalist Isabella Augusta Lady Gregory (15 March 1852 – 22 May 1932 née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish Dramatist and folklorist. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Constance Georgine Markiewicz Countess Markiewicz (née Gore-Booth; 4 February 1868 &ndash 15 July 1927 was an Irish Sinn Féin and Fianna Fáil Éamon de Valera (ˈeɪmən dɛvəˈlɛrə (born Edward George de Valera) (14 October 1882 &ndash 29 August 1975 was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Maureen O'Hara (born Maureen FitzSimons on 17 August 1920 in Ranelagh, County Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish film actress George Best (22 May 1946 &ndash 25 November 2005 was a Northern Irish professional football player best known for his years with Manchester United. Mary Therese Winifred Robinson (Máire Mhic Róibín born 21 May 1944 was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997 and the United Nations Robert Frederick Zenon Geldof, KBE, known as Bob Geldof (born 5 October 1951, is an Irish singer Enya (born Eithne Patricia Ní Bhraonáin on May 17 1961, Gaoth Dobhair, County Donegal, Ireland, sometimes presented in Colin James Farrell (born May 31, 1976) is an Irish Actor, who has appeared in several high-profile Hollywood films including )
|Regions with significant populations|
|Irish, English, Ulster Scots, Shelta|
|Roman Catholicism (majority), Presbyterianism, Anglicanism, Methodism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Bretons, Cornish, English, Manx, Scottish, Ulster-Scots, Welsh|
The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The United States of America —commonly referred to as the See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Shelta (also known as Gammen, Sheldru, Pavee, Caintíotar or simply " The Cant " is a Language spoken by the Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations The Bretons are a distinct Ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. The Cornish people (Kernowyon are regarded as an Ethnic group of the United Kingdom originating in Cornwall. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The Manx are an ethnic group coming from the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea in northern Europe. The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as The Welsh people ( Welsh: Cymro ("Welshman" Cymraes ("Welsh woman" Cymry ("Welshmen/women" Cymry See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world People of Irish ethnicity outside of Ireland are common in many western countries, particularly in English-speaking countries. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The largest number of people of Irish descent live in the United States -- about ten times more than in Ireland itself. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
During the past 9,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed many different peoples arrive on its shores. Population research using DNA is initiating research into the genetic history of the British Isles The British Isles have a long history of migration from across Europe, starting in the Palaeolithic period Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Legendary early arrivals included the Nemedians, the Fomorians, the Fir Bolgs, and the Tuatha Dé Danann, though with the exception of the Fir Bolgs, they are now treated as mythical rather than actual human incursions. In Irish mythology, Nemed ("holy" or "privileged" son of Agnoman of Scythia was the leader of the third group of inhabitants of Ireland In Irish mythology, the Fomorians, Fomors, or Fomori ( Irish Fomóiri, Fomóraig) were a semi-divine race who inhabited In Irish mythology the Fir Bolg (Fir Bholg Firbolg were one of the races that inhabited the island of Ireland prior to the arrival of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The Tuatha Dé Danann ("peoples of the Goddess Danu " Modern Irish pronunciation /t̪ˠuːəhə dʲeː d̪ˠan̪ˠən̪ˠ/ Old Irish /tuːaθa ðʲeː
The ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Ceide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. The Céide Fields (Achaidh Chéide is an area situated on the north Mayo coast in the west of Ireland. Newgrange (Dún Fhearghusa is one of the Passage tombs of the Brú na Bóinne complex in County Meath, one of the most famous Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived. As late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium AD the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. The first millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 1, and ended on December 31, 1000, of the Julian calendar. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Scotia, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders, Hibernia and Scotia to the Romans, and Ierne to the Greeks. In Irish mythology, Banbha, sometimes written as Banba in English daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was one of the patron Goddesses Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland, known to the Romans as Hibernia. In Irish mythology, Fódla (also given as Fótla, later Fódhla or Fóla) daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, In Irish mythology, Ériu (/ˈeːrʲu/ daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was the eponymous matron Goddess of Ireland Hibernia is the Classical Latin name for the island of Ireland. Scotia was originally the Latin name for Ireland, known to the Romans as Hibernia. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions
Likewise, the terms for people from Ireland—all from Roman sources—in the late Roman era were varied. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Roman Era is a period in Western history when Ancient Rome was the centre of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the They included Attacotti, Scoti, and Gael. Attacotti (variously spelled refers to a people who despoiled Roman Britain between 364 and 368 along with Scotti, Picts, Saxons, Roman military Scoti or Scotti ( Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to the This last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel (meaning raiders), was eventually adopted by the Irish for themselves. Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg is the label attached to the Welsh language from the time it developed from the Brythonic language generally thought to be in the period However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity (raiding, piracy) and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas
The term Irish and Ireland is derived from the Érainn, a people who once lived in what is now central and south Munster. The Iverni or Hiberni (Ἰουερνοι Iouernoi) were an ancient Celtic people of Ireland mentioned in Ptolemy 's 2nd century Munster ( Irish: An Mhumhain, ənˈvuːnʲ Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four Provinces of Ireland. Possibly their proximity to overseas trade with western Britain, Gaul and Hispania led to the name of this one people to be applied to the whole island and its inhabitants. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar
A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Delbhna, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Mairtine, Conmaicne, Soghain and Ulaid. Airgíalla (also Airgialla Uriel Orial Orgialla Orgiall Oryallia Ergallia, Modern Irish Oirialla, English Oriel) was the name of an Irish federation Fir Ol nEchmacht was the name of a group or race of people living in pre-historic Ireland. The Delbhna were an ethnic group in Ireland. They had a number of branches in central and western Ireland In Irish mythology the Fir Bolg (Fir Bholg Firbolg were one of the races that inhabited the island of Ireland prior to the arrival of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The Iverni or Hiberni (Ἰουερνοι Iouernoi) were an ancient Celtic people of Ireland mentioned in Ptolemy 's 2nd century The Eóganachta (or Eoghanachta) by tradition founded by Eógan, king of Munster, the firstborn son of the semi-mythological third-century king Oilill The Conmaicne or Conmhaicne (descendants of Con Mhac were an ancient tribal grouping that were divided into a number of distinct branches that were found scattered around Ireland The Soghain were a people of ancient Ireland Their main homeland was in Tir Soghain later annexed into the kingdom of Uí Maine in what is now County Galway. The Ulaid (pron /'ʊləɣ′/ were a people of early north-eastern Ireland, who gave their name to the modern province of Ulster: modern Irish Cúige
One legend states that the Irish were descended from Míl Espáine (coined Milesius, from Latin "Miles Hispaniae", meaning "Soldier of Hispania"). In Irish mythology Míl Espáine ( Latin Miles Hispaniae, "Soldier of Hispania " later pseudo-Latinised as Milesius; also Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar The character is almost certainly a mere personification of a supposed migration by a group or groups from Hispania to Ireland. Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar This legend is the source of the term "Milesian" in reference to the Irish. Milesians are a people figuring in Irish mythology. The descendants of Míl Espáine, they were the final inhabitants of Ireland, and were believed to represent If this invasion was as large as the mythology would suggest, it would account for the genetic similarity of the Northern Iberian populations and the Irish.
It is thought that the Basque Country and neighbouring regions served as a refuge for palaeolithic humans during the last major glaciation when environments further north were too cold and dry for continuous habitation. When the climate warmed into the present interglacial, populations would have rapidly spread north along the west European coast. Genetically, in terms of Y-chromosomes and Mt-DNA, inhabitants of Britain and Ireland are closely related to the Basques, reflecting their common origin in this refugial area. Basques, along with Irish, show the highest frequency of the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup R1b in Western Europe; some 95% of native Basque men have this haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup R1b is the most frequent Y-chromosome Haplogroup in Western Europe Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The rest is mainly I and a minimal presence of E3b. In Human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup F. In Human genetics, Y Haplogroup E1b1b (E-M215 is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup, a sub-group of Haplogroup E, which is defined by  The Y-chromosome and MtDNA relationship between Basques and people of Ireland and Wales is of equal ratios than to neighbouring areas of Spain, where similar ethnically "Spanish" people now live in close proximity to the Basques, although this genetic relationship is also very strong among Basques and other Spaniards. The Y chromosome is the sex-determining Chromosome in most Mammals including Humans In mammals it contains the gene SRY, which triggers Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria. In fact, as Stephen Oppenheimer has stated in The Origins of the British (2006), although Basques have been more isolated than other Iberians, they are a population representative of south western Europe. As to the genetic relationship among Basques, Iberians and Britons, he also states (pages 375 and 378):
By far the majority of male gene types in the British Isles derive from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal), ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales and 93% Castlerea, Ireland. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Castlerea (An Caisleán Riabhach is located in the west of County Roscommon, Ireland. On average only 30% of gene types in England derive from north-west Europe. Even without dating the earlier waves of north-west European immigration, this invalidates the Anglo-Saxon wipeout theory. . . . . . 75-95% of British and Irish (genetic) matches derive from Iberia. . . Ireland, coastal Wales, and central and west-coast Scotland are almost entirely made up from Iberian founders, while the rest of the non-English parts of the Britain and Ireland have similarly high rates. England has rather lower rates of Iberian types with marked heterogeneity, but no English sample has less than 58% of Iberian samples. . .
Brian Sykes, in the book based on his genetic research, Blood of the Isles (2006) comes to similar conclusions. Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Wolfson College. Some quotations from the book follow (note that Sykes uses the terms "Celts" and "Picts" to designate the pre-Roman inhabitants of the Isles who spoke Celtic languages and is not referring to the people known as Celts in central Europe). The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family.
[T]he presence of large numbers of Jasmine’s Oceanic clan . . . says to me that there was a very large-scale movement along the Atlantic seaboard north from Iberia, beginning as far back as the early Neolithic and perhaps even before that. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos ,,,The mere presence of Oceanic Jasmines indicates that this was most definitely a family based settlement rather thatn the sort of male-led invasions of later millennia. 
The 'Celts' of Ireland and the Western Isles are not, as far as I can see from the genetic evidence, related to the Celts who spread south and east to Italy, Greece and Turkey from the heartlands of Hallstadt and La Tene. . . during the first millennium BC. . . The genetic evidence shows that a large proportion of Irish Celts, on both the male and female side, did arrive from Iberia at or about the same time as farming reached the Isles. (. . . )
The connection to Spain is also there in the myth of Brutus. Brutus ( Brut, Brute, Welsh Bryttys) a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, was known in medieval British legend . . . This too may be the faint echo of the same origin myth as the Milesian Irish and the connection to Iberia is almost as strong in the British regions as it is in Ireland. Milesians are a people figuring in Irish mythology. The descendants of Míl Espáine, they were the final inhabitants of Ireland, and were believed to represent (. . . )
They [the Picts] are from the same mixture of Iberian and European Mesolithic ancestry that forms the Pictish/Celtic substructure of the Isles. The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age 
Here again, the strongest signal is a Celtic one, in the form of the clan of Oisin, which dominates the scene all over the Isles. The predominance in every part of the Isles of the Atlantischromosome (the most frequent in the Oisin clan), with its strong affinities to Iberia, along with other matches and the evidence from the maternal side convinces me that it is from this direction that we must look for the origin of Oisin and the great majority of our Y-chromosomes. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and Protein that is found in cells. . . I can find no evidence at all of a large-scale arrival from the heartland of the Celts of central Europe amongst the paternic genetic ancestry of the Isles. . . can
The Vikings founded many of the most important towns in Ireland, including Dublin and Cork (earlier native settlements on these sites did not approach the urban nature of the subsequent Norse trading ports), and a hybrid Irish-Norse trading jargon developed called 'Gic-goc. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast ' The arrival of the Normans brought Welsh, Flemish, Normans, Anglo-Saxons and Bretons, most of whom became assimilated into Irish culture and polity by the 15th century, particularly the Welsh-Normans who settled into the Pale area due to the close proximity of Ireland to Wales. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south The Bretons are a distinct Ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. The culture of the people living on the island of Ireland is far from monolithic Cambro-Norman is a term used for Norman knights who settled in southern Wales after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The late medieval era saw Scottish gallowglass families of mixed Gaelic-Norse-Pict descent settle, mainly in the north; due to similarities of language and culture they too were assimilated. The gallowglass were a Mercenary Warrior élite among Gaelic-Norse clans residing in the Western Isles of Scotland (or The Norse-Gaels were a people who dominated much of the Irish Sea region and western Scotland for a large part of the Middle Ages, who were of Scandinavian The Picts were a Confederation of tribes in what was later to become eastern and northern Scotland from Roman times until the 10th century The Plantations of Ireland and in particular the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century introduced great numbers of Scottish, English as well as French Huguenots as colonists. Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties The Plantation of Ulster (Irish Plandáil Uladh) was a planned process of Colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster The Scots people ( Scots Gaelic: Albannaich) are a Nation and an Ethnic group indigenous to Scotland. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth Despite these divergent backgrounds most of their descendants consider themselves Irish—even where they are aware of such ancestry—mainly due to their lengthy presence in Ireland.
Historically, religion, politics and ethnicity became intertwined in Ireland. Four polls taken between 1989 and 1994 revealed that when asked to state their national identity, over 79% of Northern Ireland Protestants replied "British" or "Ulster" with 3% or less replying "Irish", while over 60% of Northern Ireland Catholics replied "Irish" with 13% or less replying "British" or "Ulster".  A survey in 1999 showed that 72% of Northern Ireland Protestants considered themselves "British" and 2% "Irish", with 68% of Northern Ireland Catholics considering themselves "Irish" and 9% "British".  The survey also revealed that 78% of Protestants and 48% of all respondents felt "Strongly British", while 77% of Catholics and 35% of all respondents felt "Strongly Irish". 51% of Protestants and 33% of all respondents felt "Not at all Irish", while 62% of Catholics and 28% of all respondents felt "Not at all British". 
It is common for Irish Gaelic surnames to be anglicised when used in English, and retain their Gaeilic version for use in Gaelic, just as many surnames of non-Gaelic origin have adapted their own Gaelic versions for use in Gaelic. A formal Irish-language name consists of a Given name and a Surname, as in English Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English This dual language system for surnames dates to when the language spoken in Ireland changed from the Irish language to the English language due to the plantations in the 1600s. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
It is very common for people of Gaelic origin to have the English versions of their surnames beginning with "O'" or Mc (less frequently "Mac" and occasionally shortened to just "Ma" at the beginning of the name). A family name or last name is a type of Surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs
"O'" comes from the Gaelic Ó which in turn came from Ua (originally hUa), which means "grandson", or "descendant" of a named person. Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence For "Mac" or "Mc" means "son of"; many names also begin with this. There is no basis in fact for the claim that Mac is Scottish and Mc is Irish: Mc is simply an abbreviation of Mac. However, while both Mac and O' prefixes are Gaelic in origin, Mc is more common in Ulster and Ó is far less common in Scotland than it is in Ireland. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Some common surnames that begin with Ó are: Ó Ceallaigh (Kelly), Ó Gormáin (O'Gorman), Ó Gallchobhair (O'Gallagher), Ó hAinbhthin (Hannafin, Hanifan, Hanifen etc. ), Ó Raghallaigh (O'Reilly), Ó Laoidheach (Lee), Ó Néill (O'Neill), Ó Briain (O'Brien),O Fallamhain (O'Fallon) Ó Conchúir (O'Connor), Ó Cathasaigh (O'Casey), Ó hÍcidhe, Ó Laoire (O'Leary), Ó Seachnasaigh (O'Shaughnessy),Ó Greaney (O'Greaney),Ó Gradaigh (O' Grady), Ó Caoimh (O'Keeffe) Ó Dónaill (O'Donnell), Ó Dubhda (O'Dowd or O'Duffy), Ó Tuathail (O'Toole), Ó Madadhain / Ó Madain (Madden, Madain, Madigan), Ó Meadhra(O'Meara), Ó Maille (O'Malley), Ó hEadhra (O'Hara), Ó Bradaigh (O'Brady), and Ó Seanacháin (O'Shanahan). O'Donnell ( Irish: Ó Dónaill or Ó Dómhnaill which is derived from the forename Domhnaill (meaning "world ruler" Rex Mundi in Some names that begin with Mac are: Mac Diarmada (MacDermott), Mac Cárthaigh (MacCarthy), Mac Donnachadha (MacDonough), Mac Dómhnaill (MacDonnell), McElligott, Mac Coileáin (MacQuillan), Mac Samhrain (McGovern), Mac Aonghusa (MacGuinness, Magennis), Mac Lochlainn (MacLaughlin), Mac Uidhir (MacGuire), Mac Mathúna (MacMahon, MacMahony) Mac Gadhra (McGeary) and Mac Cormaic (MacCormack). However, the two are not exclusive, so, for example, MacCarthy and McCarthy are both used.
There are a number of Irish surnames derived from Norse personal names, including Sweeney from Swein and Mc Auliffe from Olaf. The name Cotter, local to Cork, derives from the Norse personal name Ottir. Though these names were of Viking derivation most of the families who bear them appear to have had native origins.
"Fitz" is a corruption of the French phrase fils de, used by the Normans, meaning son of. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Normans were ultimately descendents of Vikings who settled in Normandy and had thoroughly adopted French ways and language. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Normandy (Normandie Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy.
A few names that begin with Fitz are: FitzGerald (Mac Gearailt), FitzSimons (Mac Síomóin), FitzGibbons (Mac Giobúin), Fitzpatrick (Mac Giolla Phádraig) and FitzHenry (Mac Anraí), most of whom descend from the initial Norman settlers. The Surname Fitzpatrick is the translation of Mac Giolla Phádraig from the original Irish to English. Exceptions occur in a small number of Irish families of Gaelic origin who came to use a Norman form of their original surname - witness Mac Giolla Phádraig becoming FitzPatrick - while some assimilated so well that the Gaelic name was dropped in favor of a new, Hiberno-Norm[an form. The Goidelic languages, (also sometimes called particularly in colloquial situations the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) historically formed a Dialect Cases in this category include Mac Gilla Mo-Cholomoc of Dublin becoming FitzDermot (after Dermot or Diarmaid Mac Gilla Mo-Cholomoc). Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Although Fitzpatrick is the only surname beginning with "Fitz" that is of Native Gaelic origin.
Other Norman families derived their name from places or people in Ireland. This was the case of the family of Athy (see Tribes of Galway) who took their surname, de Athy, from the town of that name in Leinster. The Tribes of Galway ( Treibheanna na Gaillimhe) were fourteen merchant families who dominated the political commercial and social life of the city of Galway in western More common, however, was that the Normans became 'Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis' and in this process the Fitzmaurices became Mac Muiris, the Fitzsimons became Mac Síomóin and Mac an Ridire, Fitzgerald became Mac Gearailt, Bermingham became Mac Fheorais, Nangle became Mac Coisdealbha, Staunton became Mac an Mhíleadha, and so forth. " More Irish than the Irish themselves " ( Níos Gaelaí ná na Gaeil iad féin, Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis) was a phrase used in the Middle Ages
In the late 12th century and 13th century Norman, Welsh, English, Flemish and Breton peoples arrived in Ireland at the request of Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Leinster, and took over parts of the island. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English The County of Flanders was a historical region in the Low Countries. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Early Life and Family Mac Murchadha was born in 1110 a son of Donnchadh, King of Leinster and Dublin he was a descendant of Brian Boru. The following is a provisional list of the Kings of Leinster who ruled the Irish province of Leinster up to 1632 with the death of Domhnall Spainnach MacMurrough-Kavanagh During the next three hundred years, they intermarried with ruling Irish clans, adopted Irish culture and the Irish language and as the English put it "became more Irish than the Irish themselves". Irish clans are officially recognized groups of people who either share a Surname or are descended from people who bore the surname Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. " More Irish than the Irish themselves " ( Níos Gaelaí ná na Gaeil iad féin, Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis) was a phrase used in the Middle Ages The more modern name for Mac Murchada is Morell and often associated with Norman-Hiberno or Norman-Irish. Diarmait Mac Murchada was considered a cursed name after bringing the Normans into Ireland and it is believed many of his male offspring changed their surname to Morell and Murrell with many migrating to Ulster by the 18th century. As previously mentioned they spoke the Gaelic as good as any Irishman. Many of the surviving Morell clan from Northern Ireland immigrated to North America and Australia after the Potato Famine.
Another common Irish surname of Norman Irish origin is the 'de' habitational prefix, meaning 'of the' and originally signifying prestige and land ownership. The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real Fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers Many Irish surnames share this: de Búrca (Burke), de Brún, de Barra, de Stac, de Tiúit, de Faoite(White), de Paor (Power), and so forth. Monsignor Pádraig de Brún (1889 &ndash 1960 was an Irish clergyman mathematician and classical scholar who served as President of University College Galway. ---- Thomas (Tom Barry (Tomás de Barra ( July 1 1897 - July 2 1980) was one of the most prominent guerrilla leaders in Austin Stack (7 December 1879 – 27 April 1929 was an Irish revolutionary Risteárd de Tiúit (aka Richard Tuite (died 1210 was a member of Richard de Clare 2nd Earl of Pembroke 's Irish invasion force and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland Louis de Paor (1961- is one of Ireland's foremost poets in the Irish language
It should be emphasised, especially with Gaelic surnames, there may be two or more unrelated families bearing the same or similar surnames. For example, there were at least nine separate Ó Ceallaigh septs, all unrelated. The Mac Lochlainn, Ó Mael Sechlainn, Ó Mael Sechnaill, Ó Conchobair Mac Loughlin and Mac Diarmata Mac Loughlin families, all distinct, are now all subsumed together as MacLoughlin. The full surname usually indicated which family was in question, something that has being diminished with the loss of prefixes such as Ó and Mac. In addition, in Classical Irish when a Mac surname was followed by a name which began with a vowel, the Mac became Mag. Middle Irish is the name given by historical philologists to the Goidelic language used from the 10th to 12th centuries it is therefore a contemporary This explains why one will still see the older spelling of Mac Aonghusa (McGuinness) as Mag Aonghusa, Mac Uidhir (Maguire) as Mag Uidhir, and so forth.
Furthermore, different branches of a family with the same surname sometimes used distinguishing epithets, which sometimes became surnames in their own right. Hence the chief of the clan Ó Cearnaigh (Kearney) was referred to as An Sionnach (Fox), which his descendants use to this day.
Similar surnames are often found in Scotland for many reasons, such as the use of a common language and mass Irish immigration to Scotland in the late 19th and early to mid-20th centuries. Also Scottish surnames are noticeable in some Catholics in Ireland, particularly in Ulster, due to intermarriage and pre-Reformation immigration.
Some personal names in modern Ireland are derived from traditional Irish Names, and anglicised Irish names, although standard English names remain popular. Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English
The recent years have seen a major decline in most Irish names for babies being born in the Republic of Ireland. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. While in the past names such as Patrick (a name of Roman origin), Séamus (the Gaelic form of James) and others were almost ubiquitous in any family, today they are among the rarer names for children and the same goes for most other Irish names, although there are a few notable exceptions. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Conor remains very popular, having topped the Most Popular new names for babies list many years running. The name Jack, which is a diminutive of John, James and Jacob, has grown in popularity. Seán, Gaelic for John, remains one of the most popular Irish names. Sean or Seán is an Irish derivative of the Norman-French forename Jehan which itself derives from the Latin "Joannes Male names from North America have become more popular in recent times. There are many other Anglicised Irish names which remain popular, such as Ryan, Neil and others remaining on the Names List.
Aside from Seán other male names from the Norman-Irish tradition include Gearóid (Gerard), Piaras (Pearce), Éamonn (Edward), Liam (William) and indeed the very use of the name Pádraig (Patrick) is a Norman tradition. The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real Fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers Prior to the Normans the Gaeil, out of reverence to Saint Patrick, named their children Giolla Phádraig, the servant of Patrick. Piaras is an interesting example of how both Norman and English traditions collided. Piaras is from the Norman-French Piers which itself is derived from the Latin, Petrus. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. The northern Norman can be classified in the septentrional Oil languages with Picard and Piaras/Piers was a common name in late medieval and early modern Ireland. However, with the expansion of British rule the English name Peter, which shares the same Latin root, began to replace it. Today, the Irish version (Peadar) of the English name (Peter), tends to be more common than the Irish version (Piaras) of the older Norman name (Piers). Thus, families with Norman surnames where Piaras has been a traditional name have broken the link to their historic tradition. The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real Fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers An exception to this would be in the Gaeltachtaí where, for example, Piaras would still be very common, especially in the Corca Dhuibhne area of County Kerry due to the legacy of Piaras Feiritéar, where Piaras remains a very common name in the Feiritéar family. ga '''Gaeltacht''' ( plural ga ''Gaeltachtaí'' is the Irish language word meaning an Irish-speaking region The Dingle Peninsula (Corca Dhuibhne - sometimes anglicized as Corkaguiney) is located in County Kerry and is the most Westerly point of County Kerry ( Contae Chiarraí in Irish) is a southwestern county of Ireland. Piaras Feiritéar (1600? – 1653 was an Irish poet. Feiritéar was a Norman-Irish lord of Baile an Fheirtéaraigh in Corca Dhuibhne The maintenance of such traditions in personal names outside the Gaeltachtaí would generally be a sign of more educated parents. ga '''Gaeltacht''' ( plural ga ''Gaeltachtaí'' is the Irish language word meaning an Irish-speaking region In an analogous way to Piaras, Irish families of patrilineal Gaelic descent sometimes use the Irish version (Séarlas) of the English name, Charles, rather than the names with a much longer vintage in their families, such as Calbhach and Cathal. Patrilineality (aka agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage it generally involves the Inheritance of property names or titles Where Cathal is used it is often wrongly termed "the Irish for Charles" in a similar way to which the ancient Irish personal name, Áine, is wrongly said to be an Irish version of the English word, Anne. Rather, both Cathal and Áine are two very ancient Irish names with no etymological link whatsoever to the above English names. Cathal is an Irish male name It means 'mighty in battle' Derived from the Gaelic elements cath "battle" and val "rule" In Irish mythology, Áine (pronounced "awnya" or "eye-na" is a goddess of love growth and Cattle, also perhaps associated with the sun 
For females, the traditional Irish names are far more popular, although their spellings are not always uniform. Names such as Mary, Ann, and Eileen which were hugely common in the past have now declined, although there was always much more variety in female names than in male. Today Aoife, Aisling, Ciara, Sinéad, and Órla are more popular as traditional Irish names, while foreign names such as Ella, Emma, Lisa, Rachel and Isabelle have become more common. Some older names have maintained their popularity, such as Sarah, Kate, Catherine and Louise.
Female names from the Norman-Irish tradition are widespread and among the most traditional of Irish personal names. The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real Fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers In a similar way to the name Pádraig (Patrick), in the pre-Norman tradition Máire did not exist but rather Maol Muire, devotee of the virgin Mary, was the normal Irish usage. Other common Irish female names of Norman origin (with their anglicised form) are Caitríona (Catherine, Katrina), Síle (Sheila), Caitlín (Kathleen), Cáit (Kate), Sinéad (Jane, Janet etc) and Siobhán (Joan, Jane etc). The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real Fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers
There can be major differentiations between regions. A personal name can still often indicate where a person, more precisely a man, is from. This is accounted for chiefly in the sainthood cults which have been traditional throughout the island. For instance, Fionnbharr is more common in Cork, Finnian in Meath and Donegal, Fionán in Kerry, and so forth, where these particular saints are institutionalised in local tradition. Saint Finbarr (c 550 &ndashc 620) Bishop of Cork in the 6th century and Patron saint for the city and Diocese of Cork St Finnian of Clonard ('Cluain Eraird' or Finian 'Fionáin' in Irish (470 - 549 was one of the early Irish monastic Saints He founded Clonard Abbey St Finnian or St Uinniau of Moville (495 - 589 was a Christian Missionary who became a legendary figure in medieval Ireland. Seaghan remains the Ulster Irish spelling of Seán, though Séan, with the accent over the E, is also common. Ulster Irish is the Dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. Sean or Seán is an Irish derivative of the Norman-French forename Jehan which itself derives from the Latin "Joannes Páidí is more common in the Kerry Gaeltacht than elsewhere, and so forth. Ard na Caithne, meaning height of the Arbutus or strawberry tree, (formerly also known as Smerwick in English a name which lost all legal standing under the Jarlath is the patron saint of Tuam and the name is thus quite common in that region. Saint Jarlath (c 445-c 540 Naomh Iarlaith in Irish) was an Irish priest and scholar from Connacht. Tuam (pronounced /tʃuəm/ Tuaim is a town in County Galway, Ireland. As in the Feiritéar family above, the first name can also often indicate a family tradition as well as place.
See Irish names
In the Republic of Ireland about 86. A formal Irish-language name consists of a Given name and a Surname, as in English Philip Parris Lynott (20 August 1949 – 4 January 1986 was a Singer, Bassist, Instrumentalist, and Songwriter, who first came to prominence 82%  of the population are Catholic. In Northern Ireland about 53. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of 1% of the population are Protestant (21. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. 1% Presbyterian, 15. 5% Church of Ireland, 3. 6% Methodist, 6. 1% Other Christian) whilst a large minority are Catholic at approximately 43. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". 8%, as of 2001.
After Ireland became subdued by England in 1603 the English – under James I of England (reigned 1603 – 1625) who was also James VI of Scotland (1566 – 1625), Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell (term 1653 – 1658), William III of England who was also William II of Scotland (reigned 1689 – 1702) and their successors – began the settling of English in Leinster (the English Pale), and later Protestant English and Scottish colonists into Ireland, where they settled most heavily in the northern province of Ulster. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State with two meanings (and full styles at different periods of history Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of The Pale ( An Pháil in Irish) or the English Pale ( An Pháil Sasanach) was the English-controlled part of Ireland that had reduced by the late This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. Poetic description This dinnseanchas poem named Ard Ruide (Ruide Headland poetically describes the kingdoms of Ireland Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster
Many native Irish were displaced during the 17th century Plantations of Ireland from parts of Ulster, and were replaced by English and Scottish planters. Ulster ( Ulaidh ˈkwɪɟɪ ˈʌlˠu / ˈʌlˠi is one of the four provinces of Ireland, in addition to Connacht, Munster and Leinster Only in the major part of Ulster did the plantations prove long-lived; the other three provinces (Connacht, Leinster, and Munster) remained heavily Catholic, and eventually, the Protestant populations of those three provinces would decrease drastically as a result of the political developments in the early 20th century in Ireland and also the Catholic church's Ne Temere decree for mixed marriages which obliged the non-Catholic partner to give an undertaking to have the children raised as Catholics. Leinster (ˈlɛnstər Irish: Laighin, lainʲ one of the Provinces of Ireland, lies in the east of Ireland and comprises the counties of Munster ( Irish: An Mhumhain, ənˈvuːnʲ Cúige Mumhan or Mumha) is the southernmost of the four Provinces of Ireland. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Ne Temere (literally meaning "not rashly" in Latin) was a decree (named for its opening words of the Roman Catholic Congregation of
It is predominately religion, history and political differences (Irish nationalism versus British unionism) that divide the two communities, as many of the Scots-Irish settlers are in part of Celtic origin themselves and therefore related to their Irish Catholic neighbours. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts
Conversely, some Irish people would have at least some degree of English or Scottish (gallowglass families from the Highlands) ancestry. The gallowglass were a Mercenary Warrior élite among Gaelic-Norse clans residing in the Western Isles of Scotland (or
In 1921, with the formation of the Irish Free State, six counties in the northeast remained in the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of
"Ulster-Irish" surnames tend to differ based on which community families originate from. Ulster Protestants tend to have either English or Scottish surnames while Catholics tend to have Irish surnames, although this is not always the case. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. There are many Catholics in Northern Ireland with surnames such as Emerson, Whitson, Livingstone, Hardy, Tennyson, MacDonald (however this surname is also common with Highland Roman Catholics in Scotland), Dunbar, Groves, Legge, Scott, Gray, Page, Stewart, Rowntree, Henderson, et al; almost certainly due to intermarriage. According to Lecky, conversions also occurred to a lesser extent, which were mostly class-based; Catholics sometimes become Protestant to keep their lands and titles or to gain advantages, while some Protestants who were from the lower classes or who had fallen on hard times would become Catholic. William Edward Hartpole Lecky, OM ( 26 March 1838 &ndash 22 October 1903) was an Irish Historian and publicist
The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand,Latin America, South Africa and nations of the Caribbean such as Barbados. The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael consists of Irish Emigrants and their descendants in countries such as Great Britain, the United States Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity The United States of America —commonly referred to as the See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation These countries, known sometimes as the Anglosphere, all have large minorities of Irish descent, who in addition form the core of the Catholic Church in those countries. The word Anglosphere describes a concept of a group of Anglophone ( English -speaking nations which share historical political and cultural characteristics rooted The diaspora contains over 80 million people; it is believed that roughly one third of the Presidents of the United States of America had at least some Irish descent, while Charles Carroll of Carrollton (whose Irish born grandfather Daniel had left Britain to escape Catholic persecution) was the sole Catholic signatory of the American Declaration of Independence. The term Diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά &ndash " a scattering or sowing of seeds " refers any population sharing common ethnic The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19 1737 &ndash November 14 1832 was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later United States Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then 
There are also large Irish communities in some mainland European countries, notably in France and Germany, as well as Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Irish in the Americas number around 60 million. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America They are the second largest self-reported ethnic group in the United States, after German Americans. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry It's also one of the largest self-reported ethnic groups in Canada, Irish Canadians number around 4 million. In the mid-19th century large numbers of Irish immigrants to the U. S. were conscripted into the army at the time of the Mexican-American War. Many defected to the Mexican army and eventually settled in Mexico in order to escape the strong anti-Catholic discrimination in the U. S. Vicente Fox, former president of the Republic of Mexico, is of Irish descent. Vicente Fox Quesada ( born July 2 1942) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006 and currently Although some Irish retained their surnames intact, others were assimilated into the Spanish vernacular. The last name O'Brien,for example, became Obregón. Also, large numbers of Irish people emigrated to Argentina in the 18th and 19th centuries. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Irish-Argentines number over 500,000. Some famous Argentines of Irish descendent include Che Guevara, ex-president Edelmiro Farrell and national hero William Brown. Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14 Following the Cuban revolution,Guevara reviewed General Edelmiro Julián Farrell (born February 12, 1887 in Avellaneda &ndash died October 21, 1980) was an William Brown (or Browne) may refer to (some of whom were also called 'Bill' Politicians jurists and diplomats William Brown (congressman There are Irish descent people all over south america, and personalities as the peruvian photograph Mario Testino, or the chilean libertador Bernardo O'Higgins are some of them. Mario Testino (born 30 October 1954 in Lima, Peru) is a Peruvian fashion photographer Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme ( August 20, 1778 &ndash October 24, 1842) South American independence leader was one of the commanders
One important Irish group in the history of the Americas are the "Patricios", or Saint Patrick's Battalion, a group of European Catholic immigrants, mostly Irish, who left the American side during the Mexican-American War and joined the Mexican Army. The Saint Patrick's Battalion ( Spanish: Batallón de San Patricio) was a unit of several hundred Immigrants and Expatriates of European Although many of them were caught and executed by the American government, some escaped and remained in Mexico. The battalion is commemorated in Mexico on Saint Patricks's day and on September 12, the anniversary of the first executions. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the
11. Lehmann, Winfred P. , 1997. 'Early Celtic among the Indo-European Dialects'. Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 49-50. 440-454. 12.