|John F. Kennedy • Mother Jones • George M. Cohan|
James Braddock • Michael J. McGivney • James Michael Curley
Victor Herbert • Eugene O'Neill • Ed Sullivan
|Regions with significant populations|
|Throughout the entire Northeast, the West Coast, much of the South and Midwest, as well as the New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and Boston municipal areas|
|American English, Irish language|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Irish people, Scots-Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Welsh Americans, English Americans|
Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the north west European island of Ireland. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Mary Harris Jones ( May 1, 1830 or August 1, 1837 – November 30, 1930) better known as Mother Jones, born in George Michael Cohan ( July 3, 1878 &ndash November 5, 1942) was a United States Entertainer, Playwright, James Walter Braddock ( June 7, 1905 &ndash November 29, 1974) was an American heavyweight boxing champion. The Venerable Father Michael J McGivney ( August 12 1852 - August 14 1890) was a Roman Catholic Priest and founder James Michael Curley ( November 20, 1874 - November 12, 1958) was an American Politician who served in the Victor August Herbert ( February 1 1859 &ndash May 26 1924) was a Cellist, conductor and Composer best known Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16 1888–November 27 1953 was a Nobel -prize winning American playwright Edward Vincent "Ed" Sullivan ( September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was an American Entertainment Writer The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U The " West Coast " " Western Seaboard " or " Pacific Seaboard " are terms for the westernmost coastal states of the Western United States The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The City of New York Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Phonology North American English regional phonology In many ways compared to English English, North American English is conservative in its Phonology. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and by some of Canada Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are Citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in Scotland. In the 2000 Census 175 million Americans reported Welsh ancestry, 0 English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo -Americans although this may have a wider cultural meaning are Citizens of the United States whose ancestry Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world A total of 35,975,855 Americans (12% of total population) reported Irish ancestry in the 2006 American Community Survey.  The only self-reported ancestral group larger than Irish Americans are German Americans. German Americans ( German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of Ethnic German ancestry  Note that this figure does not include those reporting Scots-Irish ancestry, who are counted separately, and account for approximately five million additional Americans. Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and by some of Canada
Irish Catholics had been migrating to the United States in moderate numbers even before the American Revolution, some as domestic servants or as a result of penal deportations; their numbers had increased immensely by the 1820s as migrants, mostly males, became involved in canal building, lumbering and civil construction works in the Northeast. American immigration ( emigration to the United States of America) refers to the movement of non-residents to the United States. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Events and trends Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U  The large Erie Canal project was one such example where Irishmen were the majority of the laborers used. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Small but tight communities developed in growing cities such as Boston, New York City and Providence. The City of New York
During and after the "Great Irish Famine" (or Great Hunger; Irish: An Gorta Mór) of 1845-1850, millions of Irish Catholics came to North America. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. The Irish diaspora (Diaspóra na nGael consists of Irish Emigrants and their descendants in countries such as Great Britain, the United States Many lived in Canada and the United States. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Many Irish who left Ireland for America during the famine and subsequent years did not make their destination. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Due to poverty, ill health and poor conditions a significant number died en route. As a result the ships they travelled on became known as coffin ships. Coffin ship is the name given to any boat that has been overinsured and is therefore worth more to its owners sunk than afloat 
Nearly a third of all Irish who left on ships during the famine period to North America emigrated from the United Kingdom to its dominion in Canada, having a large impact on a smaller population there as many arrived in a disease stricken state. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Although the greater portion of these arrivals stayed on in Canada, particularly in Toronto and Ontario and remained as subjects of the British Empire, a significant number moved on to the United States to join quickly growing Irish American communities, some after staying in Canada for only a few years. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
Between 1820 and 1860, the Irish constituted over one third of all immigrants to the United States, and two-thirds of these Irish immigrants were Catholic. A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a Burial This article is about an area of Boston, Massachusetts. There are several other places named Forest Hills in the United States and elsewhere A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. Not to be confused with Roscommon County Michigan, United States County Roscommon (Contae Ros Comáin is a County located in central Ireland Year 1820 ( MDCCCXX) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". In the 1840s, as a result of the famine, nearly half of all immigrants to the United States originated from Ireland. Events and trends Technology First use of General anesthesia in an operation by Crawford Long. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term 
Many of these immigrants went to the largest cities, especially Boston and New York, as well as Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Chicago, St. Louis, Missouri and San Francisco. The City of New York Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Even today, many of these cities still retain a substantial Irish American community while New York City still has more people who claim Irish heritage than Dublin's whole population. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. These cities became the conduit through which Irish, both Protestant and Catholic entered American society. For example, recruiting drives to enlist recent Catholic Irish emigrants as field soldiers during the Mexican-American War and later the US Civil War proved troublesome for the U.S. Army, but without employment some Catholic Irish wound up enlisting anyway. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Draft riots occurred, the most well known the New York Draft Riots resulting from conscription ordered by President Lincoln in 1863. The New York Draft Riots (July 11 to July 16 1863 known at the time as Draft Week) were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination
After 1860, Irish Catholic immigration continued, a lot of it chain migration mostly to the large cities where Irish American neighborhoods were previously established. Chain migration refers to the mechanism by which foreign nationals immigrate by virtue of Family reunification.
The majority of Irish immigrants probably spoke English; some were bilingual or native speakers of Irish. Irish (ga ''Gaeilge'' is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish. According to the latest census, the Irish language ranks 66th out of the 322 languages spoken today in the U. S. , with over 25,000 speakers. New York State has the most Irish speakers, and Massachusetts the highest percentage, of the 50 states.
The term Scots-Irish (aka Ulster-Scots) is usually used to designate descendants of Scottish immigrants to Ireland, and eventually to North America. Ulster Scots, also known as Ullans, Hiberno-Scots, or Scots-Irish, refers to the variety of Scots (sometimes referred to as Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Ulster is a region where much intermingling of Scots, English, and Irish people took place due to the Ulster Plantations. The Plantation of Ulster (Irish Plandáil Uladh) was a planned process of Colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster The number of this specific group is reported by the US Census of 2000 as being around 4. The United States Census is a decennial Census mandated by the United States Constitution. 9 million.
The primary origin of this large population is centered around a quarter of a million Scots-Irish who fled the economic distress and social upheaval in the 18th century. They emigrated to America primarily before 1776 as subjects of the British Empire moving from one region to another. They settled especially in frontier areas of Pennsylvania, Virginia and the Carolinas, where land was free and collective action against Indian raids was needed. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The Carolinas is a term used in the United States to refer collectively to the states of North and South Carolina. Given large tracts of free land, subsidized by British and colonial authorities, tens of thousands of these Protestant Scots-Irish became the force which conquered the American frontier. Many joined Presbyterian and Methodist churches.
The term Anglo-Irish is sometimes used to designate Anglican (see Church of Ireland) and other Protestant Irish, many of whom were of English descent. " Anglo-Irish " was a term used historically to describe a privileged Social class in Ireland, whose members were the descendants and successors of the The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating across the island of Ireland. They primarily originated from the areas of Dublin, Cork, Wexford, and the old Pale of Ireland, and moved following the upheavals of the Irish wars and the economic depression caused by the take-over of commercial regulation from the Kingdom of Ireland to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Cork (Corcaigh is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland 's third most populous city after Dublin and Belfast Wexford (derived from Old Norse Veisafjǫrðr (in some sources spelled "Waes Fiord" – veisa meaning "mudflat stagnant pool" A pale is a territory or Jurisdiction (possibly non-territorial under a given authority or the limits of such a jurisdiction The Kingdom of Ireland (Ríocht na hÉireann was the name given to the Irish state from 1541 by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 of the Parliament of Ireland. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Much like the Scots-Irish, these colonists were also veterans of low-intensity warfare, were often former soldiers, and thus were encouraged to settle in frontier areas. Here they intermingled with the Scots-Irish to such an extent that the ability to distinguish between the two groups slowly became extinguished.
Some see a distinction between Catholic 'Irish Americans' and Protestant 'Scots-Irish' and 'Anglo-Irish' (though not all Scots-Irish migrants were specifically Protestant). Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Many people of both Anglo-Irish and Scots-Irish descent before 1849 described themselves as, simply, Irish. As Catholic Irish began to enter the U. S. in greater numbers the distinction Scots-Irish became popularized.
Two possible reasons have been suggested for the disparity of the figures of the census and the estimation. The first is that the English and Scots-Irish may quite often regard themselves as simply having either Irish ancestry (which 10. 8% of Americans reported) or Scottish ancestry (reported by 4. 9 million or 1. 7% of the total population) or English ancestry. The other is that most of the descendants of this historical group have integrated themselves into American society because of the length of time they have been here, even reporting their ancestry as simply "American" (the most common ancestry in areas historically settled by the English and Scots-Irish, especially throughout much of the Southern United States). The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive
Many of the 'English' and 'Scots-Irish' Protestants had assimilated into society by the time the large numbers of Catholic Irish immigrants arrived. When the numerous Scots-Irish first arrived, they were perceived as a distinctive group who settled mostly in the backcountry. Not only were the Irish Catholics a much larger group arriving in a later era of immigration, but they were at first separated from the main society by their Catholic religion and also by the long tradition of oppression by the English given their occupation of Ireland. In addition, they came from a mostly rural culture and entered cities in the United States which were rapidly industrializing. They had additional challenges than did the Scots-Irish who could become yeoman farmers in the early generations. These issues affected how Americans received Irish Catholics, as well as how they took to the United States.
In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the historical roots of Irish Protestants in North America. The Protestant Irish, particularly of the Scots-Irish background, usually retained a strong interest in farming, herding, and hunting. Additionally through the cousinage and clan ties, many of the Scots-Irish were rapidly encouraged to move onto the frontier where fellow Scots-Irish and American natives of Scots-Irish background awaited. Nonetheless, a significant number of the Scots-Irish who remained in the cities of the United States quickly took advantage of the new Republic's opportunities and assimilated into the artisan, craftsmen, and small business classes. However, significant opposition in the political classes remained even against the Scots-Irish and they were discriminated against.
Irish Catholic immigrants went directly to the cities, mill towns and railroad or canal construction sites in the east coast. Few became farmers. They were hired by Irish labor contractors to work in "labor gangs" as manual laborers on canals, railroads, streets, sewers and other construction projects, particularly in New York state and New England. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the Large numbers moved to New England mill towns, such as Lowell, Massachusetts, Fall River, Massachusetts and Milford, Massachusetts, where Protestant owners of textile mills welcomed the new low-wage workers. Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, USA. As of the 2000 census the city had a total population of 105167 Milford is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. They took the jobs previously held by Yankee Protestant women known as Lowell girls. "Lowell Mill Girls" was the name used for female textile workers in Lowell Massachusetts in the 19th century A large fraction of Irish Catholic women took jobs as maids in middle class households and hotels.
Large numbers of unemployed Irish Catholics lived in squalid conditions in the new city slums. 
Although the Irish Catholics started very low on the social status scale, by 1900, they had jobs and earnings about equal on average to their neighbors. After 1945, the Catholic Irish consistently ranked toward the top of the social hierarchy, thanks especially to their high rate of college attendance. 
The Irish quickly found employment in the police departments, fire departments and other public works of major cities, largely in the North East and around the Great Lakes. In the 1860s more than half of those arrested in New York City were Irish born or of Irish descent but nearly half of the City's law enforcement officers were also Irish. By the turn of the century, five out of six NYPD officers were Irish born or of Irish descent. Irish Americans continue to have a disproportionate membership in the law enforcement community, especially in New England, where they continue to have a dominating role. When the Emerald Society of the Boston Police Department was formed in 1973, half of the city's police officers became members.
It was common for Irishmen to be discriminated against in social situations. Intermarriage between Catholics and Protestants was uncommon (and strongly discouraged by both ministers and priests). An important response was the creation of a Catholic parochial school system, in addition to numerous colleges, that isolated about half the Irish youth from the public schools.
Nativist prejudice against Irish Catholics reached a peak in the mid-1850s with the Know Nothing Movement, which tried to oust Catholics from public office. The Know Nothing movement was a Nativist American political movement of the 1850s
After 1860 the Irish sang songs (see illustration) about signs reading "HELP WANTED - NO IRISH NEED APPLY", which were also referred to as "the NINA signs. " The song had a deep impact on the Irish sense of discrimination. The issue of job discrimination against Irish immigrants is hotly debated among historians, with some insisting that the "No Irish need apply" signs so familiar to the Irish in memory were myths, and others arguing that the Irish continued to be discriminated against in various professions into the 20th century, on an ad-hoc and unofficial basis.
While the Irish dominated such occupations as domestic service, building, and factory work, they were not present in large numbers in the professions, finance, and many businesses. In response, the Irish clung to their occupational niches fiercely, blocking attempts by later immigrant groups such as Italians and African Americans to enter them, and earning a reputation for violence. An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa (See also: Anti-Irish racism)
Irish Catholics were popular targets for stereotyping. According to historian George Potter, the media often stereotyped the Irish in America as being boss-controlled, violent (both among themselves and with those of other ethnic groups), voting illegally, prone to alcoholism, and dependent on street gangs that were often violent or criminal. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions Gangsters redirects here For the computer game see Gangsters (video game. Potter quotes contemporary newspaper images:
You will scarcely ever find an Irishman dabbling in counterfeit money, or breaking into houses, or swindling; but if there is any fighting to be done, he is very apt to have a hand in it. " Even though Pat might "'meet with a friend and for love knock him down,'" noted a Montreal paper, the fighting usually resulted from a sudden excitement, allowing there was "but little 'malice prepense' in his whole composition. " The Catholic Telegraph of Cincinnati in 1853, saying that the "name of 'Irish' has become identified in the minds of many, with almost every species of outlawry," distinguished the Irish vices as "not of a deep malignant nature," arising rather from the "transient burst of undisciplined passion," like "drunk, disorderly, fighting, etc. , not like robbery, cheating, swindling, counterfeiting, slandering, calumniating, blasphemy, using obscene language, &c. 
The Irish had many humorists of their own, but were scathingly attacked in German American cartoons, especially those in Puck magazine from the 1870s to 1900. Puck was America's first successful Humor magazine known for its sharp humor and colorful Cartoon Caricatures satirizing the political In addition, the cartoons of German American Thomas Nast were especially hostile; for example, he depicted the Irish-dominated Tammany Hall machine in New York City as a ferocious tiger. Thomas Nast ( September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American Caricaturist and Editorial cartoonist Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party Political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping immigrants (most notably 
While only 2% of Southerners were Irish Catholics, they concentrated in a few medium-size cities where they were highly visible, such as Charleston, Savannah and New Orleans. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina. Savannah is a city located in the state of Georgia, United States. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana They became local leaders in the Democratic party, supported slavery, favored the Union in 1860, but became staunch Confederates in 1861. Starting as low skilled manual laborers, they achieved average or above average economic status by 1900. As one historian explains:
Native tolerance, however, was also a very important factor in Irish integration [into Southern society]. . . . Upper-class southerners, therefore, did not object to the Irish, because Irish immigration never threatened to overwhelm their cities or states. . . . The Irish were willing to take on potentially high-mortality occupations, thereby sparing valuable slave property. Some employers objected not only to the cost of Irish labor but also to the rowdiness of their foreign-born employees. Nevertheless, they recognized the importance of the Irish worker to the protection of slavery. The Irish endorsement of slavery and the efforts of the Irish to preserve the South as "a white man's country" after emancipation only endeared them further to southerners. The Catholicism practiced by Irish immigrants was of little concern to Southern natives. 
The influence of the Presbyterian Irish Americans on the very foundation of the nation cannot be understated. The Declaration of Independence was drafted in handwriting by, and printed by, one such man — John Dunlap; the Great Seal of the US was designed by another — Charles Thomson. John Dunlap (1747 – November 27, 1812) was the printer of the first copies of the Declaration of Independence and one of the most successful The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government. Charles Thomson (November 29 1729 – August 16 1824 was a Patriot leader in Philadelphia during the American Revolution and the secretary of the Much to the chagrin of Quakers, Irish-descended Protestants took a very active part in the political makeup of the country. More than one third of all US presidents have connections to Ulster, while thirteen of them are descended from Ulster Protestants. The President of the United States is the Head of state and the Head of government of the United States. In Northern Ireland, the ancestral homes of presidents Arthur, Jackson, Wilson and Grant are tourist attractions. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Chester Alan Arthur (October 5 1829 &ndash November 18 1886 was an American politician who served as the twenty-first President of the United States. Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837 Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28 1856—February 3 1924 was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States
People of Irish descent, particularly Roman Catholics, retain a sense of their Irish heritage. A sense of exile, diaspora, and (in the case of songs) even nostalgia is common in Irish America. It is unclear to what extent the sense of kinship with Ireland is embraced or resented by the actual Irish Citizens of Ireland, now that the country is strengthening its ties to Europe and becoming increasingly multi-racial. The term "Plastic Paddy", meaning someone who was not born in Ireland and who is separated from their closest Irish-born ancestor by (often) many generations, but who still likes to think of themselves as "Irish," is occasionally used in a derogatory fashion towards Irish Americans, but is more often used good-naturedly. Plastic Paddy is an often Pejorative term to describe non- Irish people who harbour a nostalgic claim of Irishness due to having some degree of Irish heritage The term is freely applied to relevant people of all nationalities, not solely Irish Americans.
Many Irish Americans were enthusiastic supporters of Irish independence; the Fenian Brotherhood movement was based in the United States and launched several attacks on British-controlled Canada known as the "Fenian Raids". The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish Republican organization founded in the United States in 1850s by John O'Mahony and Michael Doheny. The Fenian raids were attacks by members of the Fenian Brotherhood based in the United States, on British army forts customs posts and other targets in The Provisional IRA received significant funding for its paramilitary activities from a group of Irish American supporters — in 1984, the US Department of Justice won a court case forcing the Irish American fundraising organization NORAID to acknowledge the Provisional IRA as its "foreign principal". The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department Noraid or the Irish Northern Aid Committee is an Irish American fund raising organization founded after the start of The Troubles in Northern Ireland 
Irish Catholic Americans settled in large and small cities throughout the North--railroad centers and mill towns especially. They became perhaps the most urbanized group in America, as few became farmers.  Strongholds include the metropolitan areas of Boston, Philadelphia, New York City, Chicago, and San Francisco, where most new arrivals of the 1830-1910 period settled. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə The City of New York Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city As a percentage of the population, Massachusetts is the most Irish state, with about a quarter of the population claiming Irish descent. The most Irish American town in the United States is Milton, MA, with 38% of its 26,000 or so residents being of Irish descent. Milton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States and part of the Greater Boston area Boston, New York, and Chicago have neighborhoods with higher percentages of Irish American residents. Regionally, the most Irish American part of the country remains central New England. Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Delaware are the three states in which Irish heritage is the most dominant. Interestingly, in consequence of its unique history as a mining center, Butte, Montana is also one of the country's most thoroughly Irish American cities. Greeley, Nebraska (population 527) has the highest percentage of Irish American residents (43%) of any town or city with a population of over 500 in the United States. The town was part of the Irish Catholic Colonization effort of Bishop O'Connor of New York in the 1880s.
The Catholic Irish moved rapidly into law enforcement, and (through the Catholic Church) built hundreds of schools, colleges, orphanages, hospitals, and asylums. Political opposition to the Catholic Irish climaxed in 1854 in the short-lived Know Nothing Party.
By the 1850s, the Irish Catholics were a major presence in the police departments of large cities. In New York City in 1855, of the city's 1,149 policemen, 305 were natives of Ireland. The creation of a unified police force in Philadelphia opened the door to the Irish in that city. By 1860 in Chicago, 49 of the 107 on the police force were Irish. Chief O'Leary headed the police force in New Orleans and Malachi Fallon was chief of police of San Francisco. 
The Irish had a reputation for being very well organized, and, since 1850, have produced a majority of the leaders of the U. S. Catholic Church, labor unions, the Democratic Party in larger cities, and Catholic high schools, colleges and universities. John F. Kennedy was their greatest political hero. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Al Smith, who lost to Herbert Hoover in the 1928 presidential election, was the first Irish Catholic to run for president. Alfred Emanuel Smith Jr, known in private and public life as Al Smith, ( December 30, 1873 - October 4, 1944) was elected Governor Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. From the 1830s to the 1960s, Irish Catholics voted 80-95% Democratic, with occasional exceptions like the election of 1920. The United States presidential election of 1920 was dominated by the Aftermath of World War I and the hostile reaction to Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic president
Today, most Irish Catholic politicians are associated with the Democratic Party, although some became Republican leaders, such as former GOP national chairman Ed Gillespie, former House Homeland Security Chairman Peter T. King and the late Congressman Henry Hyde. Edward W Gillespie is an American Republican Lobbyist, and current White House counsel to George W The term homeland security refers to the broad national effort by all levels of government to protect its territory from hazards both internal and external natural and man-made Peter T King (born April 5, 1944) is a Republican Politician from the U Henry John Hyde ( April 18, 1924 &ndash November 29, 2007) an American politician was a Republican member of the Ronald Reagan boasted of his Irishness. (The son of an Irish Catholic father, he was raised as a Protestant. ) Historically, Irish Catholics controlled many city machines and often served as chairmen of the Democratic National Committee, including County Monaghan native Thomas Taggart, Vance McCormick, James Farley, Edward J. Flynn, Robert E. Hannegan, J. Howard McGrath, William H. County Monaghan ('mɔnəhən Irish: Contae Mhuineacháin) is a county in Ireland. Thomas Taggart ( November 17, 1856 &ndash March 6, 1929) was a U James Aloysius "Jim" Farley ( May 30, 1888 &ndash June 9, 1976) was an American Politician, business executive Edward Joseph Flynn ( September 22, 1891 The Bronx, then New York County, now Bronx County, New York City - August Robert Emmet Hannegan ( June 30, 1903 &ndash October 6, 1949) was a St James Howard McGrath ( November 28 1903 – September 2 1966) was an American politician and Attorney from the U Boyle, Jr. , John Moran Bailey, Larry O'Brien, Christopher J. Dodd, and Terry McAuliffe. John Moran Bailey (1904 - 1975 was a US Political figure. He dominated Connecticut Democratic politics as a party boss for many years Lawrence Francis "Larry" O'Brien Jr ( July 7 1917 – September 28, 1990) was one of the United States Democratic Party Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944) is an American Lawyer and Democratic Politician, who is currently serving Terence Richard "Terry" McAuliffe (b February 9, 1957) is an American businessman and political consultant. The majority of Irish Catholics in Congress are Democrats; currently Susan Collins of Maine is the only Irish Catholic Republican senator. Susan Margaret Collins (born December 7 1952, in Caribou Maine) is the junior U Exit polls show that in recent presidential elections Irish Catholics have split about 50-50 for Democratic and Republican candidates; large majorities voted for Ronald Reagan.  The pro-life faction in the Democratic party includes many Irish Catholic politicians, such as senator Bob Casey, Jr., who defeated Senator Rick Santorum in a high visibility race in Pennsylvania in 2006. Robert Patrick Casey Jr (born April 13, 1960) better known as Bob Casey Jr Richard John Santorum (born May 10, 1958) is a former United States Senator from the Commonwealth of  Presidential hopeful Barack Obama is "at least three per cent Irish" and has traced roots to Moneygall, in Co. Offaly. Moneygall ( Muine Gall in Irish) is a small town in County Offaly, Ireland, on the N7 route between Dublin and Limerick County Offaly (Contae Uíbh Fhailí is a County in Leinster, Ireland, bordered by seven other counties Galway, Roscommon, Westmeath 
In some states such as Connecticut, the most heavily Irish communities now tend to be in the outer suburbs and generally support Republican candidates, such as New Fairfield. The ancestry of the people of the United States is widely varied and includes descendants of Populations from around the World, some presumably extinct Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. New Fairfield is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States.
Many major cities have elected Irish American Catholic mayors. Indeed, Boston, Cincinnati, Houston, Newark, New York City, Omaha, Scranton, Pittsburgh, Saint Louis, Saint Paul, and San Francisco have all elected natives of Ireland as mayors. Newark is the largest city in New Jersey, United States and the County seat of Essex County. The City of New York Saint Paul ( abbreviated St Paul) is the capital and second most populous city in the U The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Chicago, Boston, and Jersey City have had more Irish American mayors than any other ethnic group. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. The cities of Chicago, Baltimore, Milwaukee, Oakland, Omaha, St. Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U Paul, Jersey City, Rochester, Springfield, Rockford, San Francisco, Scranton, and Syracuse currently (as of 2006) have Irish American mayors. Jersey City is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York State, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. Springfield is a City in and the County seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States. Rockford is a mid-sized city located on both banks of the Rock River in far northern Illinois The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Syracuse (locally ˈsɛrəkjuːs sometimes ˈsɪrəkjuːs or /ˈsɪərəkjuːs/ by non-natives is a city in Central New York, USA. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. All of these mayors are Democrats. Pittsburgh mayor Bob O'Connor died in office in 2006. Robert E O'Connor Jr ( December 9 1944 – September 1 2006) was the Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania New York City has had at least three Irish-born mayors and over eight Irish American mayors. The most recent one was County Mayo native William O'Dwyer, elected in 1949. William O'Dwyer ( July 11, 1890 &ndash November 24, 1964) was the 100th Mayor of New York City, holding that office from 1946 to 1950
The Irish Protestant vote has not been studied nearly as much. Since the 1840s, it has been uncommon for a Protestant politician to be identified as Irish (though Ronald Reagan notably did and Bill Clinton claims to have Irish ancestry). In Canada, by contrast, Irish Protestants remained a cohesive political force well into the 20th century with many (but not all) belonging to the Orange Order. The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order or the Orange Lodge, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly Throughout the 19th century, sectarian confrontation was commonplace between Protestant Irish and Catholic Irish in Canadian cities.
At least twenty-three presidents of the United States have some Irish/Northern Irish (Scots-Irish American) ancestral origins, although the extent of this varies. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and by some of Canada For example, both of Andrew Jackson's parents were Irish born while George W. Bush has a rather distant Irish ancestry. Andrew Jackson (March 15 1767 June 8 1845 was the seventh President of the United States (1829&ndash1837 George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. President Kennedy had far stronger Irish origins, which fell much closer in terms of date. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Also Ronald Reagan's father had some Irish Catholic ancestry, and his mother some Scots-Irish. James K. Polk also had Scots-Irish Ancestry. Only Kennedy was raised as a practicing Catholic.
The annual celebration of Saint Patrick's Day is the most widely recognized symbol of the Irish presence in America. Samuel Houston ( March 2, 1793 July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman politician and soldier Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. St Patrick's Cathedral is a decorated Neo-Gothic -style Catholic Cathedral in North America Saint Patrick's Day (Lá ’le Pádraig or Lá Fhéile Pádraig) colloquially St In cities throughout the United States, this traditional Irish religious holiday becomes an opportunity to celebrate all things Irish, or faux Irish. The largest celebration of the holiday takes place in New York, where the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade draws an average of two million people. The second-largest celebration is held in Savannah. Savannah is a city located in the state of Georgia, United States.
Since the arrival of tens of thousands of Irish immigrants in the 1840s, the urban Irish cop and firefighter have become virtual icons of American popular culture. In many large cities, the police and fire departments have been dominated by the Irish for over 100 years, even after the populations in those cities of Irish extraction dwindled down to small minorities. Many police and fire departments maintain large and active "Emerald Societies," bagpipe marching groups, or other similar units demonstrating their members' pride in their Irish heritage. The Emerald Society is an organization of American police officers or fire fighters of Irish heritage
While these archetypal images are especially well known, Irish Americans have contributed to U. S. culture in a wide variety of fields: the fine and performing arts, film, literature, politics, sports, and religion. The Irish-American contribution to popular entertainment is reflected in the careers of figures such as James Cagney, Bing Crosby, Walt Disney, John Ford, Judy Garland, Gene Kelly, Grace Kelly, Tyrone Power, and Spencer Tracy. James Francis Cagney Jr ( July 17, 1899 &ndash March 30, 1986) was an Academy Award -winning American Film Harry Lillis “Bing” Crosby ( May 3, 1903 &ndash October 14, 1977) was an Academy Award winning American Popular Walter Elias Disney (December 5 1901 – December 15 1966 was a multiple Academy Award -winning American Film producer, director, Screenwriter Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10 1922 – June 22 1969 was an American actress and singer Eugene Curran “Gene” Kelly ( August 23, &ndash February 2,) was an American Dancer, Actor, Singer, director Grace Patricia Kelly (later Grace Princess of Monaco; November 12 1929 &ndash September 14 1982 was an Academy Award -winning American film and Tyrone Edmund Power Jr (May 5 1914 – November 15 1958 usually credited simply as Tyrone Power and known sometimes as " Ty Power " was an Spencer Tracy ( April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award -winning Actor of stage and Irish-born actress Maureen O'Hara, who became an American citizen, defined for U. Maureen O'Hara (born Maureen FitzSimons on 17 August 1920 in Ranelagh, County Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish film actress S. audiences the archetypal, feisty Irish "Colleen" in popular films such as The Quiet Man and The Long Gray Line. The Quiet Man is a American film starring John Wayne, Maureen O'Hara, Victor McLaglen, and Barry Fitzgerald, and directed The Long Gray Line is a 1955 Drama film directed by John Ford. More recently, the Irish-born Pierce Brosnan gained screen celebrity as James Bond. Pierce Brendan Brosnan, OBE Honour and so holds an honorary OBE James Bond 007 is a Fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve Novels and two Short story During the early years of television, popular figures with Irish roots included Gracie Allen, Art Carney, Joe Flynn, Jackie Gleason, and Ed Sullivan. Grace Ethel Cecile Rosalie Allen ( July 26 1895 Allen used to claim that she was born in 1906 but when pressed for evidence she would say that her birth certificate Arthur William Matthew “Art” Carney ( November 4, 1918 – November 9, 2003) was an Academy Award - and Emmy Award -winning Joseph or Joe Flynn may refer to Joe Flynn (US actor Joseph V Herbert Walton Gleason Jr, baptized John Herbert "Jackie" Gleason ( February 26, 1916 – June 24, 1987) was an Edward Vincent "Ed" Sullivan ( September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was an American Entertainment Writer Today, comedians such as Stephen Colbert, George Carlin, Jane Curtin, Jimmy Fallon, Bill Murray, and Conan O'Brien often reflect humorously on their Irish-American roots. Stephen Tyrone Colbert ( born May 13 1964 is an American Comedian, satirist, Actor and Writer, known for his ironic style George Denis Patrick Carlin (May 12 1937 – June 22 2008 was an American stand-up comedian, often considered one of the best of all time Jane Therese Curtin (born September 6 1947 is an Emmy Award - and Golden Globe -winning as well as 8-time Emmy Award-nominated American Actress James Thomas "Jimmy" Fallon Jr (born September 19, 1974) is an American Comedian, Actor, and Musician known for his work For the British actor see Billy Murray (actor. William James "Bill" Murray (born September 21, 1950) is an Conan Christopher O'Brien (born April 18, 1963) is an Emmy Award -winning American Television host and Comedian, best known
Since the early days of the film industry, celluloid representations of Irish-American have been plentiful. Famous films with Irish-American themes include social dramas such as Little Nellie Kelly and The Cardinal, labor epics like On the Waterfront, and gangster movies such as Angels with Dirty Faces, Gangs of New York, and The Departed. Little Nellie Kelly is a musical comedy film based on the stage musical by George M For the 1641 James Shirley play see The Cardinal (play The Cardinal is a 1963 Film which was produced On the Waterfront is a American Drama film about mob violence and corruption among longshoremen. Angels with Dirty Faces is a 1938 Warner Brothers Gangster film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring James Cagney, Gangs of New York is a 2002 Bildungsroman film set in the mid-19th century in the Five Points district of New York City. The Departed is a 2006 crime thriller Film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Irish-American characters have been featured in popular television series such as Ryan's Hope and The Black Donnellys. This page is about the television program For the rock band of the same name see Ryan's Hope (band. The Black Donnellys is an American Television Drama that debuted on NBC on February 26, 2007 and last aired
Prominent Irish-American literary figures include Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winning playwright Eugene O'Neill, Jazz Age novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald, social realist James T. Farrell, mystery writer Raymond Chandler, and Southern Gothic writer Flannery O'Connor. Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (October 16 1888–November 27 1953 was a Nobel -prize winning American playwright The Jazz Age describes the period from 1918-1929 the years after the end of World War I, continuing through the Roaring Twenties and ending with the rise of the Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24 1896 – December 21 1940 was an American writer of Novels and Short stories, whose works are evocative of the James Thomas Farrell ( February 27, 1904 - August 22, 1979) was an American Novelist. Raymond Thornton Chandler ( July 23, 1888 &ndash March 26, 1959) was an American Author of crime stories and novels Southern Gothic is a subgenre of the Gothic writing style unique to American literature. Mary Flannery O'Connor ( March 25 1925 &ndash August 3 1964) was an American Novelist, Short-story The 19th-century novelist Henry James was also of partly Irish descent. Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James While Irish Americans have been underrepresented in the plastic arts, two well known American painters claim Irish roots. Twentieth-century painter Georgia O'Keeffe was born to an Irish-American father, and 19th-century trompe-l'œil painter William Harnett emigrated from Ireland to the United States. Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15 1887—March 6 1986 was an American Artist She is associated with the American Southwest where she found artistic inspiration Trompe-l'œil, which can also be spelled without the hyphen in English ( French: "trick the eye" tʁɔ̃p lœj is an Art technique involving extremely William Michael Harnett ( August 10, 1848 &ndash October 29, 1892) was an Irish - American painter who practiced
The Irish-American contribution to politics spans the entire ideological spectrum. While socially conservative Irish immigrants generally recoiled from radical politics, two prominent American socialists, Mother Jones and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, were Irish Americans. Mary Harris Jones ( May 1, 1830 or August 1, 1837 – November 30, 1930) better known as Mother Jones, born in Elizabeth Gurley Flynn ( August 7, 1890 &ndash September 5, 1964) was a labor leader activist and Feminist who played a leading In the 1960s, Irish-American writer Michael Harrington became an influential advocate of social welfare programs. Edward Michael Harrington ( February 24, 1928 &ndash July 31, 1989) was an American democratic socialist, writer political Harrington's views profoundly influenced President John F. Kennedy and his brother, Robert F. Kennedy. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20 1925 – June 6 1968 also called RFK, was the United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a Meanwhile, Irish-American thinker and political writer William F. Buckley emerged as a major intellectual force behind American conservative politics in the last half of the 20th century. William Frank Buckley Jr ( November 24 1925  – February 27 2008) was an American Author and conservative Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined Buckley's magazine, National Review, proved an effective advocate of successful Republican candidates such as Ronald Reagan. National Review ( NR) is a biweekly Magazine and Web site, founded by the late author William F
The wide popularity of Celtic music has fostered the rise of Irish-American bands that draw heavily on traditional Irish themes and music. Such groups include the Dropkick Murphys, a Celtic punk band formed in Quincy, Massachusetts. Dropkick Murphys are a Celtic punk band formed in Quincy, Massachusetts, U Quincy is a city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. The Decemberists, a band featuring Irish-American singer Colin Meloy, recently released "Shankill Butchers," a song that deals with the Ulster Loyalist group of the same name. Colin Patrick Henry Meloy (born October 5 1974) is the lead singer and songwriter for the Portland Oregon folk-rock band The Decemberists Ulster loyalism is a militant unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. The " Shankill Butchers " were a group of UVF members who were involved in a large number of loyalist terrorist activities in Belfast, Northern Ireland The song appears on their album The Crane Wife. The Crane Wife is an album by The Decemberists, released in 2006
The Irish brought their native games of hurling and Gaelic football to America. Hurling (in Irish, iománaíocht or iomáint) is an outdoor team Sport of ancient Gaelic origin administered by the Gaelic Gaelic football ( Irish: Peil, Peil Ghaelach, or Caid) commonly referred to as " football " is a form of Football Along with handball and camogie, these sports are part of the Gaelic Athletic Association. For more information on this topic see Senior Hardball Singles or Senior Softball Singles. Camogie (in Irish, camógaíocht) is a Celtic team Sport, organised by the Camogie Association of Ireland, the women's variant of The Gaelic Athletic Association ( GAA) ( Irish: Cumann Lúthchleas Gael /'kʊmˠən̪ˠ 'l̪ˠuh The North American GAA organisation is still very strong. The North American County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA (Cumann Luthchleas Gael na Meiriceá Thuaidh or North American GAA is one of the boards of the GAA