Iraqi Kurdistan Region
هه رێمى كوردستان
إقليم کردستان العراق
Iqlīm Kurdistān al-ʿIrāq
|Anthem: Ey Reqîb|
(English: "Oh, Guardian")
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Nechervan Idris Barzani|
|-||Deputy Prime Minister||Omer Fattah Hussain|
|Formation of Autonomous Region|
|-||Autonomy accord agreement signed||March 11, 1970|
|-||Autonomy accord collapsed||March, 1974|
|-||Gained de facto independence||October, 1991|
|-||The TAL recognized the autonomy of the KRG as full sovereignty. The Kurdish flag (also flag of Kurdistan, Kurdish: Alaya Kurdistanê, also called Alay Rengîn ("the colorful flag" first appeared A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's " Ey Reqîb " ( ئهٔ رهقیب in Sorani) is the Kurdish National anthem. Iraqi Kurdistan Region ( Kurdish: هه رێمى كوردستان Herêmi Kurdistan, Arabic:إقليم كردستان العراق, Iqlĩm Kurdistãn Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which President is a Title leaders of Organizations companies, Trade unions universities, and countries. Masoud Barzani ( Kurdish: مسعودبارزانی Mesûd Barzanî (born August 16, 1946) is the current President of the Autonomous Kurdish This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Nechirvan Idris Barzani (نێچیرڤان بارزانی or Nêçîrvan Îdrîs Barzanî (born September 21, 1966 has been the Prime Minister of the Kurdistan Regional A Deputy Prime Minister or Vice Prime Minister is in some countries a government minister who can take the position of acting Prime Minister when the Omer Fattah Hussain is the deputy prime minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government ( KRG) in Iraq. An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (also called the transitional administrative law or TAL) the Iraqi provisional The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG ( Kurdish: حكومه تى هه ريمى كوردستان Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan,) is the official ruling body||January 30, 2005|
|-||Total||80,000 km² (117th)|
30,888 sq mi
|-||2005 estimate||5,500,000 (108th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||18 billion (not ranked)|
|-||Per capita||$4,500 (not ranked)|
|HDI (As of 2006)||n/a (n/a) (not ranked)|
|Currency||Iraqi Dinar, American Dollar widely used and accepted in all business transactions (|
Iraqi Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: ههريمى كوردستان , Herêma Kurdistan, Arabic:إقليم كردستان العراق , Iqlĩm Kurdistãn al-‘Irāq , also Southern Kurdistan and in Kurdish: Başûrî Kurdistan) is an autonomous, federally recognized political, ethnic and economic region within the Republic of Iraq. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here Surface areas between 100000 km² and 1000000 km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The dinar (pronounced di-'när ( Arabic: دينار Kurdish: دینار ( sign: ع The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. It borders Iranian Kurdistan to the east, Turkish Kurdistan to the north, and Syria to the west. Iranian Kurdistan ( Kurdish: کوردستانی ئران Kurdistanî Iran) or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan or Rojhilatê Northern Kurdistan or Turkish Kurdistan Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê or Bakurê Kurdistanê) Northern Kurdistan is an Irredentist Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up less than 10% of the country's population Its capital is the city of Arbil derived from the Akkadian "Arba Elu" (meaning four gods), known in Kurdish as Hewlêr. Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds.
The name Kurdistan literally means Land of the Kurds. History See also History of the Kurdish people Ancient period See also Hurrians, Guti, Mannaeans, Medes The term Kurd in turn is derived from the Latin word Cordueni, i. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. e. the inhabitants of the ancient Kingdom of Corduene, which became a Roman province in 66 BC. Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
In the Iraqi Constitution, it is referred to as Kurdistan Region. . The regional government refers to it as Kurdistan-Iraq (or simply Kurdistan region) but avoids using Iraqi Kurdistan.  The full name of the local government is "Kurdistan Regional Government" (abbrev: KRG. The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG ( Kurdish: حكومه تى هه ريمى كوردستان Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan,) is the official ruling body )
Kurds also refer to the region as Kurdistana Başûr (South Kurdistan) or Başûrî Kurdistan (Southern Kurdistan or South of Kurdistan) referring to its geographical location within the whole of the greater Kurdistan region. History See also History of the Kurdish people Ancient period See also Hurrians, Guti, Mannaeans, Medes
During the Baath Party administration in the '70s and '80s, the region was called "Kurdish Autonomous Region". The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus
Throughout History the region has been inhabited or ruled by various peoples, such as Hurrians, Mitannis, Assyrians, Turks, Medes, Persians, Adiabenians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs etc. The Hurrians (also Khurrites; cuneiform Ḫu-ur-ri 𒄷𒌨𒊑 were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform) The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding In the medieval age, it was under domination of some semi-independent principalities, such as Soran, Baban, Badinan and Ardalan, all of whom make up large portions of today's Kurdish tribes living in various parts of Kurdistan and all consider themselves Kurds. Soran ( Kurdish: سۆران)was a Kurdish emirate that proclaimed independence in 1816 Baban, (1649-1850 was a Kurdish Principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. Badinan or Bahdinan,(1376-1843 was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish Principalities. Ardalan or ( Erdelan) ( 1169 - 1867) was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia ( Iran) during Qajar period
|This article is part of the|
Kurdish history and Culture series
On December 1, 1918, during a meeting in Sulaimaniya with Colonel Arnold Wilson, the Acting Civil Commissioner for Mesopotamia, Kurdish leaders called for British support for a united and independent Kurdistan under British protection. The Kurds are an Iranian-speaking ethnolinguistic group who have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the south of Caucasus ( Zagros and Kurdish culture ( Kurdish:کۆلتاری كوردی (Koltari Kurdi or çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people Land of Karda or Kur was the country located to the east of Tigris in what is today known as Kurdistan (land of Kurds) mentioned in Sumerian Gutium was a tribe that overran southern Mesopotamia when the Akkadian empire collapsed ca Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform) The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי were an ancient people of unknown origin Matiene was the name of a kingdom in northwestern Iran which overran the kingdom of the Mannae. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Isauria (Ισαυρία in ancient geography is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods but generally Corduene (also known as Gorduene, Cordyene, Cardyene, Carduene, Gordyene, Gordyaea, Korduene, Korchayk The Kayusid or House of Kayus (also Kâvos) or Kâvusakân (Kurdish Hozi Kavusakan ( 226 - 380) was a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom Sharazor (also Sharassur Shahrassor Shahr Assur, Shahre Assur, Shehri Assur, Land of Assur, and City of Assur) was name of a Sassanid The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 - 1199 A Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid ( 955 - 1071) was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries centered Hasanawayhid was a Kurdish principality from 959 to 1015, centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah) The Annazid or Banu Annaz,( 990 - 1116) were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran - Iraq frontier Marwanid, ( 990 - 1085) was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakır Hadhabani (also Hadhbani) was an 11th century Kurdish dynasty centered at Ushnu. Hazaraspid,( 1148 - 1424) was a local Kurdish dynasty that ruled Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for Badlis (1182-1847 was a Kurdish Principality originated from the Rojaki (Rozagi tribal confederation Ardalan or ( Erdelan) ( 1169 - 1867) was the name of a vassaldom in north-western Persia ( Iran) during Qajar period Badinan or Bahdinan,(1376-1843 was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish Principalities. Soran ( Kurdish: سۆران)was a Kurdish emirate that proclaimed independence in 1816 Mukriyan, was a Kurdish emirate centered at Mahabad, ruling areas to the south and west of lake Urmia since the end of 15th century until the middle of 19th century Baban, (1649-1850 was a Kurdish Principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. Simko Shikak also Ismail Agha Shikak (1887-1930 was a Kurdish politician and nationalist The Kingdom of Kurdistan can refer to two kingdoms formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan. This article is about the Kurdish independence movement The same name was sometimes also used to refer to the Democratic Republic of Armenia, established in 1918 The Republic of Mahabad ( Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد) officially known as Republic of Kurdistan and established Iranian Kurdistan ( Kurdish: کوردستانی ئران Kurdistanî Iran) or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan or Rojhilatê Northern Kurdistan or Turkish Kurdistan Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê or Bakurê Kurdistanê) Northern Kurdistan is an Irredentist The Kurds in Turkey ( Kurdish: Kurdên li Tirkiye, Turkish: Türkiye'deki Kürtler) are an Indo-European people first mentioned Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up less than 10% of the country's population Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjeya Kurdî) refers to Literature written in Kurdish language. Kurdish Music ( Sorani Kurdish:گۆرانی کوردی Gorani Kurdi) ( Kurmanji Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) refers to music performed in Kurdish dance ( Kurdish: هالپئرکی or Govend) is a group of traditional hand-holding Dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon This article briefly introduces a list of better known Kurdish historical sites (Kurdish Asewari mêjûyi Kurdan Sites in Iranian Kurdistan Dimdim Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson KCIE CSI CMG DSO (18 July 1884 – 31 May 1940 was the British civil commissioner in Baghdad Between 1919 and 1922, Shaikh Mahmud Barzanji, an influential Kurdish leader based in Sulaimaniya, formed a Kurdish government and led two revolts against the British rule. Sheikh Mahmmud Barzanji ( 1878 - October 9, 1956) was the leader of several Kurdish uprisings against the British Mandate of Sulaimaniya ( BGN: Kurdish: سلێمانی, Slêmanî, Sulaimānīyah;) is a city It took the British authorities two years to put down his uprisings. The first revolt began on May 22, 1919 with the arrest of British officials in Sulaimaniya and it quickly spread to Mosul and Arbil. For the village in Azerbaijan see Mosul Azerbaijan. Mosul (الموصل Al Mūṣul, Kurdish: Mosul/Ninawa, Musul Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr The British made use of aerial bombardments, artillery, ground combat, and on one occasion, chemical gas, in an attempt to quell the uprising.  Then the British exiled Mahmoud to India. In July 1920, 62 tribal leaders of the region, called for independence of Kurdistan under a British mandate. The objection of the British to the Kurdish self-rule was driven by the fear that the success of the Kurdish area would tempt the two Arab areas of Baghdad and Basra to follow suit, hence endangering the direct British control over all Mesopotamia. In 1922, Britain restored Shaikh Mahmoud to power, hoping that he would organize the Kurds to act as a buffer against the Turks, who had territorial claims over Mosul and Kirkuk. Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as the King, though later on he agreed to limited autonomy within the new state of Iraq. In 1930, following the announcement of admission of Iraq to the League of Nations, Shaikh Mahmoud started a third uprising which was suppressed with British air and ground forces. 
By 1927, the Barzani clan had become vocal supporters of Kurdish rights in Iraq. The Barzani tribe (Hozî Barzanî is the largest and most prominent Kurdish tribe in Iraqi Kurdistan. In 1929, the Barzani demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. Emboldened by these demands, in 1931 Kurdish notables petitioned the League of Nations to set up an independent Kurdish government. The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920 Under the pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945. Mustafa Barzani (مسته فا بارزانی ( March 14, 1903 – March 1, 1979) was a Kurdish Nationalist leader Later he moved to the Soviet Union after the collapse of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Republic of Mahabad ( Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد) officially known as Republic of Kurdistan and established 
After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Barzani was able to return from exile and to set up his own political party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, which was granted legal status in 1960. Abd al-Karim Qasim (عبد الكريم قاسم) (1914 – February 9 1963 was a nationalist Iraqi Military officer who seized power in a 1958 But soon afterwards, Qasim tried to incite Baradost and Zebari tribes against Borazani. In June 1961, Barzani led his first revolt against the Iraqi government with the aim of securing Kurdish autonomy. Due to the disarray in the Iraqi Army after the 1958 coup, Qasim's government was not able to subdue the insurrection. This stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Baathist coup against Qasim in February 1963. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Abdul Salam Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and traditional forces led by Barzani on the other. Abdul Salam Arif (1921 Baghdad - April 13 1966 ( Arabic: عبد السلام عارف) was president of Iraq from 1963 to 1966 Barzani agreed to the ceasefire and fired the radicals from the party. Despite this, the government in Baghdad tried once more to defeat Barzani's movement by the use of force. However, this campaign failed in 1966, when Barzani forces defeated the Iraqi Army near Rawanduz. The town Rawanduz (Kurdish Rwandiz) is located in the sub-district of Soran, in the Kurdistan Regional Government Iraq close to the Iranian After this, Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Arif in 1968 in a coup by the Baath Party. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus The Baath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, however the campaign was stalled in 1969. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad and also tensions with Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Moreover, the Soviets pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Hence a peace plan was announced in March 1970 which provided for a broader autonomy than before. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies and it was to be implemented in four years.  Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period. Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Kurdish: كهركووك Kerkûk; Arabic: كركوك Turkish:Kerkük; Khanaqin Kurdish خانه قين, Xaneqîn ( Arabic خانقين,, also transliterated as Khanakin Xanaqin is a city in eastern  In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces.
In 1974, Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds and pushed them close to the border with Iran. Moreover, Iraq informed Tehran that it was willing to satisfy other Iranian demands in return for an end to its aid to the Kurds. With the mediation of the Algerian President Houari Boumédiènne, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as Algiers Pact. Houari Boumédienne (original name Mohamed Ben Brahim Boukharouba) ( August 23, 1932 – December 27, 1978) (هواري بومدين The agreement left the Kurds helpless and Tehran cut supplies to the Kurdish movement. Barzani fled to Iran with many of his supporters. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion was finished in a few days. As a result Iraqi government extended its control over northern region after 15 years and in order to secure its influence, started an Arabization program by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly the ones around Kirkuk. Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Kurdish: كهركووك Kerkûk; Arabic: كركوك Turkish:Kerkük;  The repressive measures carried out by the government against Kurds after the Algiers agreement, led to renewed clashes between the Iraqi Army and Kurdish guerrillas in 1977. As a result in 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country. 
During the Iran-Iraq War, the government implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely-condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures, including the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds, which resulted in thousands of deaths. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. (See Halabja poison gas attack. The Halabja poison gas attack occurred in the period March 16 – 17, 1988, during the Iran-Iraq War. )
The Al-Anfal Campaign constituted a systematic genocide of the Kurdish people in Iraq. The al-Anfal Campaign (حملة الأنفال also known as Operation Anfal, was a genocidal campaign against Kurds led by the Iraqi regime From March 29, 1987 until April 23, 1989, Iraqi army under the command of Ali Hassan al-Majid carried out a genocidal campaign against Kurds, characterized by the following human rights violations: The widespread use of chemical weapons, the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, and slaughter of around 50,000 rural Kurds, by the most conservative estimates. Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (علي حسن عبد المجيد التكريتي, born 1941 is a former Ba'athist Iraqi Defense Minister, Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. The large Kurdish town of Qala Dizeh (population 70,000) was completely destroyed by the Iraqi army. The campaign also included Arabization of Kirkuk, a program to drive Kurds out of the oil-rich city and replace them with Arab settlers from central and southern Iraq. Arabization ( Arabic: تعريب) describes a growing cultural influence on a non-Arab area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Kurdish: كهركووك Kerkûk; Arabic: كركوك Turkish:Kerkük; The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.  Kurdish sources report the number of dead to be greater than 182,000. 
The Kurdistan Region was originally established in 1970 as the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. A Legislative Assembly was established in the city of Arbil with theoretical authority over the Kurdish-populated governorates of Arbil, Dahuk and As Sulaymaniyah. Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr A Governorate is an Administrative division of a country It is headed by a Governor. Arbīl (أربيل Hawler is a governorate of Iraq located in the north of the country Dahuk (also Dohuk or Duhok) is one of the Governorates of Iraq. As Sulaymānīyah province ( Arabic: محافظة السليمانية (Silêmanî is a province of Iraq, within the Iraqi Kurdistan Region In practice, however, the assembly created in 1970 was under the control of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein until the 1991 uprising against his rule following the end of the Persian Gulf War. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 Concerns for Safety of Kurdish refugees was reflected in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 which gave birth to a safe haven, in which allied air power protected a Kurdish zone inside Iraq.  (see Operation Provide Comfort). Operation Provide Comfort and Provide Comfort II were a military operations by the United States and some of its Gulf War allies starting in April 1991 While the no-fly zone covered Dohuk and Irbil, it left out Sulaimaniya and Kirkuk. Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr Sulaimaniya ( BGN: Kurdish: سلێمانی, Slêmanî, Sulaimānīyah;) is a city Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Kurdish: كهركووك Kerkûk; Arabic: كركوك Turkish:Kerkük; Then following several bloody clashes between Iraqi forces and Kurdish troops, an uneasy and shaky balance of power was reached, and the Iraqi government withdrew its military and other personnel from the region in October 1991. At the same time, Iraq imposed an economic blockade over the region, reducing its oil and food supplies.  The region thus gained de facto independence, being ruled by the two principal Kurdish parties – the Kurdish Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan – outside the control of Baghdad. The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP (Partîya Demokrata Kurdistan (PDK was founded by Mustafa Barzani, Kurdish nationalist who fought numerous revolts against The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK (est 1975 (یەکیتیا نیشتمانیا کوردستان is a Kurdish Political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous The region has its own flag and national anthem. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's
Elections held in June 1992 produced an inconclusive outcome, with the assembly divided almost equally between the two main parties and their allies. On May 19, 1992, elections were held to the Kurdistan National Assembly, the Parliament of the Kurdish Autonomous Region in Iraq During this period, the Kurds were subjected to a double embargo: one imposed by the United Nations on Iraq and one imposed by Saddam Hussein on their region. In international Commerce and politics, an embargo is the prohibition of commerce The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 The severe economic hardships caused by the embargoes, fueled tensions between the two dominant political parties: KDP and PUK over control of trade routes and resources. The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP (Partîya Demokrata Kurdistan (PDK was founded by Mustafa Barzani, Kurdish nationalist who fought numerous revolts against The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK (est 1975 (یەکیتیا نیشتمانیا کوردستان is a Kurdish Political party in Iraqi Kurdistan.  This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. After 1996, 13% of the Iraqi oil sales were allocated for Iraqi Kurdistan and this led to a relative prosperity in the region.  Direct United States mediation led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in Washington Agreement in September 1998. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It is also argued that the Oil for Food Program from 1997 onward had an important effect on cessation of hostilities. The Oil-for-Food Programme, established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003 was intended  Kurdish parties joined forces against the Iraqi government in the Operation Iraqi Freedom in Spring 2003. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign The Kurdish military forces known as peshmerga played a key role in the overthrow of the former Iraqi government. Peshmerga, Peshmerga or Peshmerge ( Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters 
KDP and PUK have united to form an alliance with several smaller parties, and the Kurdish alliance has 53 deputies in the new Baghdad parliament, while the Kurdish Islamic Union has 5. PUK-leader Jalal Talibani has been elected President of the new Iraqi administration, while KDP leader Massoud Barzani is President of the Kurdistan Regional Government. Jalal Talabani ( Kurdish: جه لال تاله بانی / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní جلال طالباني) (born November 12, 1933 Masoud Barzani ( Kurdish: مسعودبارزانی Mesûd Barzanî (born August 16, 1946) is the current President of the Autonomous Kurdish
Since 1992, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has been based in Erbil. Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr The KRG has a parliament, elected by popular vote, called the Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly, and a cabinet composed of the KDP, the PUK and their allies (Iraqi Communist Party, the Socialist Party of Kurdistan etc. Kurdistan National Assembly ( Kurdish: Civata Nîştimanî Kurdistan, or simply Perleman, المجلس الوطني لكوردستان lit Al-Majlis Since its foundation in 1934 the Iraqi Communist Party (in Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي العراقي has dominated the left in Iraqi politics ). Nechervan Idris Barzani has been prime minister of the KRG since 1999. Nechirvan Idris Barzani (نێچیرڤان بارزانی or Nêçîrvan Îdrîs Barzanî (born September 21, 1966 has been the Prime Minister of the Kurdistan Regional
After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq Kurdish politicians were represented in the Iraqi governing council. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia The Iraqi Governing Council (IGC was the provisional government of Iraq from July 13, 2003 to June 1, On January 30, 2005 three elections were held in the region: 1) for Transitional National Assembly of Iraq 2) for Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly and 3) for provincial councils.  The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period recognized the autonomy of the Kurdistan Regional Government during the interim between "full sovereignty" and the adoption of a permanent constitution. The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (also called the transitional administrative law or TAL) the Iraqi provisional The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a Referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed Constitution The current Constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005.
The Kurdistan Regional Government currently has constitutionally recognised authority over the provinces of Erbil, Dohuk, and Suleimaniya, as well as de facto authority over parts of Diyala and Ninawa and Kirkuk (at-Ta'mim) provinces. Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Kurdish: ههولێر Hewlêr Dahuk (also Dohuk or Duhok) is one of the Governorates of Iraq. As Sulaymānīyah province ( Arabic: محافظة السليمانية (Silêmanî is a province of Iraq, within the Iraqi Kurdistan Region Ninawa ( Arabic: نینوى Kurdish: Neynewa, Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Nîněwâ) is a governorate Kirkuk Governorate is one of the Governorates of Iraq located in the north of the country
The Kurdistan region's economy is dominated by the oil industry, agriculture and tourism. An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by Oil tankers and pipelines Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Due to relative peace in the region it has a more developed economy in comparison to other parts of Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
Prior to the removal of Saddam Hussein, the Kurdistan Regional Government received approximately 13% of the revenues from Iraq's Oil-for-Food Program. The Oil-for-Food Programme, established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003 was intended By the time of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, the program had disbursed $8. 35 billion to the KRG. Iraqi Kurdistan's food security allowed for substantially more of the funds to be spent on development projects than in the rest of Iraq. By the program's end in 2003 $4 billion of the KRG's oil-for-food funds remained unspent.
Following the removal of Saddam Hussein's administration and the subsequent violence, the three provinces fully under the Kurdistan Regional Government's control were the only three in Iraq to be ranked "secure" by the US military. The relative security and stability of the region has allowed the KRG to sign a number of investment contracts with foreign companies. In 2006 the first new oil well since the invasion of Iraq was drilled in the Kurdistan region by the Norwegian energy company DNO. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Dno (Дно is a town in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located east of Pskov. Initial indications are that the oil field contains at least 100 million barrels (16,000,000 m³) of oil and will be pumping 5,000 bpd by early 2007. Barrel per day (abbreviated BPD, bbl/d, bpd, bd or b/d) is a measurement used to describe the amount of Crude oil (measured The KRG has signed exploration agreements with two other oil companies, Canada's Western Oil Sands and the UK's Sterling Energy. Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum Geologists for Hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Western Oil Sands, headquartered in Calgary, Alberta is a 20 percent partner in the Athabasca Oil Sands Project The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
The stability of the Kurdistan region has allowed it to achieve a higher level of development than other regions in Iraq. In 2004 the per capita income was 25% higher than in the rest of Iraq. Two international airports at Arbil and Sulaimaniya both operate flights to Middle Eastern and European destinations. Erbil International Airport is an Airport located in the north western part of the city of Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil adjacent to the suburb of Sulaimaniyah International Airport is an Airport 15 kilometers outside of the city of Sulaimaniya, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The government continues to receive a portion of the revenue from Iraq's oil exports, and the government will soon implement a unified foreign investment law. Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country The KRG also has plans to build a media city in Arbil and free trade zones near the borders of Turkey and Iran. A free trade zone ( FTZ) or export processing zone ( EPZ) is one or more special areas of a country where some normal Trade barriers such as
The KAR still gets a cut from Iraqi-Turkish trade, plus subsidies from the United States and Israel. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
Since 2003, the stronger economy of Kurdistan has attracted around 20,000 Arab workers from Iraq.  According to Iraqi president Jalal Talabani, since 2003 the number of millionaires in the Kurdish city of Silêmani has increased from 12 to 2000, reflecting the financial and economic growth of the region. Jalal Talabani ( Kurdish: جه لال تاله بانی / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní جلال طالباني) (born November 12, 1933 
The Iraqi Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). Cheekha Dar, or Black Tent is the local Kurdish name for the mountain currently thought to be the highest in Iraq. There are many rivers flowing and running through mountains of the region making it distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature.
The mountainous nature of Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters, make Kurdistan a land of agriculture and tourism. In addition to various minerals, oil in particular, which for a long time was being extracted via pipeline only in Kurdistan through Iraq.
The largest lake in the region is Lake Dukan. Lake Dukan is the largest Lake in Kurdistan Region which lies in northeastern Iraq.
The term "Northern Iraq" is a bit of a geographical ambiguity in usage. "North" typically refers to the Kurdistan Region. "Center" and "South" or "Center-South" when individually referring to the other areas of Iraq or the rest of the country that is not the Kurdistan Region. Most media sources continually refer to "North" and "Northern Iraq" as anywhere north of Baghdad.
Iraqi Kurdistan is divided among seven governorates of which currently three are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government. |||} Iraq is divided into 18 Governorates (or Provinces ( Muhafazah) Baghdād These governorates are called in Kurdish parêzge. The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. Particularly in Iraqi government documents, the term governorate is preferred:
A referendum was scheduled to be held on 15 November 2007 to determine whether these governorates, or parts of them, will be included in the Kurdish Regional Government. Ninawa ( Arabic: نینوى Kurdish: Neynewa, Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Nîněwâ) is a governorate A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The referendum is intended to cover all districts of Kirkuk Governorate, the Khanaquin and Kifri districts of Diyala Governorate, the Touz-Khur-Mati district of Salah ad Din Governorate, and the Akra and Shekan districts of Ninewa Governorate. This referendum has been postponed, first to 31 December 2007, and subsequently for up to a further six months. Kurds insist that the referendum be held as soon as possible.
The population is about 5-6 million. The majority of these are Sunni Muslims. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion There are also significant numbers of Yazidis, Kakeyís, Jews and Christians. The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: ئزیدی or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزدي Assyrian/Syriac: ܓ̰ܠܟܝܐ is a The Ahl-e Haqq or Yârsân ( Kurdish: ﯼاڔﮦساﻥ Yâresân اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth" are members of a religion founded Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. Kurds comprise the ethnic majority in the region (about 95%) while the Turkmen, Assyrians, Armenians and Arabs who reside particularly in the western part of the area make up the rest. The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) ( Turkish: Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding
Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. Kurdish culture ( Kurdish:کۆلتاری كوردی (Koltari Kurdi or çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people The Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily of two layers of indigenous (Hurrian), and of the ancient Iranic (Medes). The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran.
Among their neighbours, the Kurdish culture is closest to Iranian culture . For example they celebrate Newroz as the new year day, which is celebrated on March 21. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated It is the first day of the month of Xakelêwe in Kurdish calendar and the first day of spring. 
Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). Kurdish Music ( Sorani Kurdish:گۆرانی کوردی Gorani Kurdi) ( Kurmanji Kurdish: Muzîk û strana kurdî) refers to music performed in Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in Words Images and Sounds often by Improvisation or embellishment minstrel was a medieval European Bard who performed songs whose lyrics told stories about distant places or about real or imaginary historical events Etymology The word is a Loanword from descendant languages of Proto-Celtic *bardos, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *gwerh2 There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs are epic in nature, such as the popular lawiks which are heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes of the past like Saladin. An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation Salahadin Ayyubi ( Arabic:صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب Kurdish: سهلاحهدین ئهیوبی Selah'edînê Eyubî; c Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love. Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed specifically in autumn. Love songs, dance music, wedding and other celebratory songs (dîlok/narînk), erotic poetry and work songs are also popular. A work song is typically a Rhythmic A cappella Song sung by people working on a physical and often repetitive task
Peshmerga is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters, they have been labelled by some as freedom fighters. Peshmerga, Peshmerga or Peshmerge ( Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters Freedom fighter is a term to describe those that engage in a struggle to achieve freedom for themselves or to free others in some matter Literally meaning "those who face death" (pêş front + merg death e is) the peshmerga forces of Kurdistan have been around since the advent of the Kurdish independence movement in the early 1920s, following the collapse of the Ottoman and Qajar empires which had jointly ruled over the area known today as Kurdistan. History See also History of the Kurdish people Ancient period See also Hurrians, Guti, Mannaeans, Medes The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The Qajar dynasty (also known as Ghajar or Kadjar ( ( - or دودمان قاجار) is a common term to describe Iran (then known as Persia) under
Peshmerga forces also played a significant role with coalition troops in the war against the Ba'ath government in Northern Iraq.
Kurdistan’s official universities are listed below, followed by their English acronym (if commonly used), internet domain, establishment date and latest data about the number of students.
|Institute||Internet Domain||Est. Date||Students|
|Salahaddin University (SU)||www.salahaddin-ac.com||1968||7,048 (2007)|
|University of Sulaimania (US)||www.univsul.com||1968||(3067) (2006)|
|University of Dohuk||www.uod.ac||1992||1,689 (2007)|
|University of Koya (KU)||www.koyauniversity.org||2003||(?) (2006)|
|University of Kurdistan||www.ukh.ac||2006||400 (2006)|
|American University of Iraq - Sulaimani||www.auis.org||2007||50 (2007)|
|Hawler Medical University (HMU)||www.hawlermu.org||2006||(?) (2006)|
|Business & Management University (BMU)||www.bmu-me.net||2007||(?) (2007)|
A view of the city of Dohuk
An Assyrian church named Church Of Martyrs, in Sumail; There is a significant Assyrian population in the Kurdistan region. Salahaddin University ( Zankoy Selaheddîn in Kurdish) is located in Arbil ( Hewler) capital of Kurdistan Region of Iraq The University of Sulaimani is a University located in Sulaymani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Founded on the 31st of October 1992 with two colleges and a total of 149 students University of Dohuk includes now 11 colleges with more than 7435 undergraduate students University of Koya is located in Arbil ( Hewler) capital of Kurdistan Region of Iraq The University of Kurdistan - Hawler ( UKH) is the fifth university located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq established in 2006 The American University of Iraq - Sulaimani (AUI-S is a new addition to the American universities in the Middle East, opening its first classes in October Hawler Medical University is located in Arbil ( Hewler) capital of Kurdistan Region of Iraq The Business & Management University (The Labanese French University for Business & Management University in Arbil is established in 2007 in Arbil ( Hewler Mamikonian or Mamikoneans (Մամիկոնյան was a noble family which dominated Armenian politics between the 4th and 8th century The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi Simele or Sumail ( Assyrian: syr ܣܡܠܐ Arabic, سميل) is a town located in the Iraqi province of The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria.
Restored section of the ancient city wall.
Outside Wall at Kirkuk Citadel
The snow is still on the ground at the higher elevations on a mountain located near Arbil.
This spring-fed waterfall is a favorite tourist destination, and it located outside of Arbil.
This unidentified river flows in front of a residence through an area near Arbil.