|Wide use||Astronomical · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO|
|Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar|
|Selected use||Assyrian · Armenian · Attic · Aztec (Tonalpohualli – Xiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Celtic · Chinese · Coptic · Egyptian · Ethiopian · Calendrier Républicain · Germanic · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Julian · Korean · Lithuanian · Malayalam · Maya (Tzolk'in – Haab') · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad calendar · Rapa Nui · Roman · Soviet · Tamil · Thai (Lunar – Solar) · Tibetan · Burmese . The word Calendar consist of two words 1 Cal ( in Pashto means Year in Hindi and Persian is Sal- also means Year In current use Assyrian calendar Astronomical year numbering Bahá'í calendar Bengali calendar Astronomical year numbering is based on AD ( Anno Domini)/CE ( Common Era) year numbering but follows normal Decimal Integer numbering more strictly The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The ISO week date system is a Leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard A lunisolar calendar is a Calendar in many Cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar Year. A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. This article is about the calendar introduced in the 1950s See Old Assyrian calendar for the ancient calendar The Armenian calendar is the traditional calendar of Armenia. The Attic calendar is the Calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian Polis. The Aztec calendar is the Calendar system that was used by the Aztecs as well as other Pre-Columbian peoples of central Mexico. The tonalpohualli, a Nahuatl word meaning "count of days" is a 260-day sacred period (often termed a " Year " in use in Pre-Columbian The Xiuhpohualli was a 365-day Calendar used by the Aztecs and other Pre-Columbian Nahua peoples in central Mexico The Babylonian calendar was a Lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 Lunar months each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Bahá'í Faith, is a Solar calendar with regular years of 365 days and Leap The Bengali calendar ( বঙ্গাব্দ Bônggabdo or বাংলা সন Bangla Shôn) or Bangla calendar is a traditional solar Calendar The Berber calendar is the annual Calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. Bikram Samwat ( Bikram Sambat, or Vikram Samvat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत abbreviated "B The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland Southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar (formerly Burma The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, incorporating elements of a Lunar calendar with those of a Solar calendar. The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and still used in Egypt The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each plus 5 extra days (epagomenes Greek ἐπαγόμεναι The Ethiopian calendar ( Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) also called the Ge'ez calendar, The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar was a Calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government The Germanic calendars were the regional agricultural Almanacs used amongst the Germanic peoples prior to the adoption of the Julian and later the Gregorian The Hebrew calendar (הלוח העברי ha'luach ha'ivri) or Jewish calendar is a Lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious The Hellenic calendar &mdashor more properly the Hellenic calendars, for there was no uniform calendar imposed upon all of Classical Greece &mdashbegan in most Greek The Hindu calendar used in ancient times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization and today there are several regional Indian Calendars, as The Indian national calendar (sometimes called Saka calendar) is the official civil calendar in use in India. The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning in the Northern Hemisphere on the Equinoxes and Solstices, or the meteorological seasons Since January 1, 1873, Japan has used the Gregorian calendar, with local names for the months and mostly fixed holidays The Javanese calendar is a Calendar still in use by the Javanese people of Indonesia concurrently with two other important calendars the Gregorian The Juche Idea (주체사상 Juche Sasang) is the official state Ideology of North Korea and the Political system based on it The Revised Julian calendar or less formally New Calendar, is a Calendar scheme originated in 1923 which effectively discontinued the 340 years of divergence between The traditional Korean calendar is a Lunisolar calendar which like the traditional calendars of other East Asian countries was based on the Chinese calendar The Lithuanian calendar is unusual among Western countries in that neither the names of the months nor the names of the weekdays are derived from Greek or Norse mythology Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India The Maya calendar is a system of distinct Calendars and Almanacs used by the Maya civilization of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by Tzolk'in (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy Orthography which is now preferred formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by The Haab' is part of the Maya calendric system used by peoples of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. The Republic of China calendar (民國紀元 is the method of numbering years currently used in the Republic of China ( Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen The Nanakshahi (ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ nānakashāhī) calendar is a Solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee The Lunar calendar Nepal Sambat ( Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत is commonly used in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. The Pentecontad Calendar is a unique agricultural Calendar system thought to be of Amorite origin in which the year is broken down into seven periods of fifty days The Rapa Nui calendar was the indigenous Lunisolar calendar of Easter Island. The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. }The Tamil Calendar is used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, The Thai lunar calendar ( Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ Patitin Chantarakati) (literally Against-the-Sun Moon-Ways) is Thailand The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (สุริยคติ has been the official and prevalent Calendar in Thailand since it was adopted by King The Tibetan calendar is a Lunisolar calendar, that is the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 Lunar months each beginning and ending with a New moon The traditional Burmese calendar is a Lunisolar calendar based on both the phases of the moon and the motion of the sun Vietnamese· Xhosa · Zoroastrian|
|Runic · Mesoamerican (Long Count – Calendar Round)|
|Julian calendar · Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year|
|Rarely used||Darian calendar · Discordian calendar|
|Display types and applications||Perpetual calendar · Wall calendar · Economic calendar|
The Iranian calendar (Persian: تقویم هجری شمسی؛ گاهشماری هجری خورشیدی) is an astronomical solar calendar and one of the longest chronological records in history and is currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. This article is about the Vietnamese holiday For the 1968 military operation that began on that holiday see Tết Offensive. By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious Calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith and it is an approximation of the (tropical Solar calendar. The Runic calendar is a Perpetual calendar based on the 19 year long Metonic cycle of the Moon Mesoamerican calendars are the calendrical systems devised and used by the Pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica. In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of a 260-day period ( Tzolk'in in the Maya Calendar, Tonalpohualli The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches which determines when The Darian Calendar is a proposed system of time-keeping designed to serve the needs of any possible future human settlers on the planet Mars. The Discordian or Erisian calendar is an alternative Calendar used by some adherents of Discordianism. A perpetual calendar is a Calendar which is good for a span of many years such as the Runic calendar. A wall calendar is a Calendar intended for placement on a wall Economic calendar is a type of Calendar that is intended to inform financiers and traders about the scheduled major economic numbers (like CPI, A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Beginning each year on the vernal equinox as precisely determined by astronomical observations from Tehran (or the 52. An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of 5°E meridian, which also defines IRST), this makes it more accurate than the Gregorian Calendar in being synchronized with the solar year, but harder to work out when a particular date would occur before the New Year preceding that date. This article is about the geographical concept For other uses of the word see Meridian. Iran Standard Time ( IRST) or Iran Time ( IT) is the Time zone used in Iran. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today
Some people believe that the Jalali calendar, an ancestor of the Iranian calendar, was introduced on 15 March, 1079 by the Seljuk Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I, based on the recommendations of a committee of astronomers, including Omar Khayyam, at the imperial observatory in his capital city of Isfahan. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Seljuk ( Arabic: السلاجقة Turkish: Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the eponymous hero of the Seljuks Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Jalāl al-Dawlah Mālikshāh or simply Malik Shah ( Persian: fa ملكشاه Turkish: Melikşah) (died 1092 was the For the Thoroughbred racehorse see Omar Khayyam (horse Ghiyās od-Dīn Abol-Fath Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūri (غیاث الدین Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān They mention that the calendar included the most accurate computation of the solar year at the time, and month computations were based on solar transits through the zodiac, a system integrating ideas from the Surya Siddhanta (India, 4th c. The Surya Siddhanta is a treatise of Indian astronomy. Later Indian mathematicians and astronomers such as Aryabhata and Varahamihira AD). Later, some ideas from the Chinese-Uighur calendar (1258) were also incorporated. The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, incorporating elements of a Lunar calendar with those of a Solar calendar. They also claim that the Jalali calendar remained in use for eight centuries.
The official Iranian calendar was last changed in 1925 by a law of the Iranian Majlis to have fixed month lengths for the first eleven months of the year, with only the final month iterating between 29 and 30 days based on the year being leap or not. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Majlis (also spelled Majalis or Mejlis, Arabic مجلس is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting" used to describe various types of formal
The current Iranian Calendar year is AP 1387 (AP = Anno Persico/Anno Persarum = Persian year). The Iranian year usually begins on March 21 of the Gregorian calendar. Add 621 or 622 (depending on the time of the year) to an Iranian year to find the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar.
|Date||English name||Local name||Remarks|
|11th February||Revolution Day|
|10th March||Arba’in-e Hosseini (40th day after Ashura)||Arba’in-e Hosseini|
|18th March||Martyrdom of Imam Reza|
|19th March||Demise of Muhammad and Martyrdom of Imam Hassan|
|20th March||Nationalization of the oil industries|
|21st March to 23rd March||Persian New Year||Nowruz||of ancient Iranian origin|
|1st April||Iranian National Day/Islamic Republic Day||Proclamation of the Islamic Republic in 1979|
|2nd April||Nature Day||Sizdah Bedar||13th day after the new year, end of festivities for Nowruz|
|6th April||Anniversary of Muhammad and Anniversary of Imam Sadeq|
|4th June||Anniversary of the passing of Imam Khomeini||1989|
|5th June||Anniversary of the uprising against the Shah|
|18th June||Martyrdom of Fatima|
|28th July||Anniversary of Imam Ali|
|11th August||Mission of Muhammad||Be'sat|
|28th August||Anniversary of Imam Mahdi|
|3rd October||Martyrdom of Imam Ali|
|15th October||End of Ramadan||Eid-e-Fitr|
|6th November||Martyrdom of Imam Sadeq|
|21st December||Eid-e-Qorban||can vary by 1 day|
|There are 22 holidays. Holidays in Iran: Iran uses three official calendar systems The Iranian calendar as the main date the lunar Islamic calendar for religious The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed Arba'een ( اربعين, means "forty" or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu -speaking Muslims is a Shi'a religious observation The Day of Ashura ( ar عاشوراء, Ashura Ashoura and other spellings is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax Events 37 - The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius ' will and proclaims Caligula emperor An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Ali ibn Musa al-Rida ( علي بن موسى الرضا) (Commonly known as Ali ar-Ridha Ali Reza (Eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH – Seventeenth of Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ( ar الحسن بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (Fifteenth of Ramadhān, 3 AH – Seventh or Twenty-eighth of Safar Events 1600 - The Linköping Bloodbath takes place on Maundy Thursday in Linköping, Sweden. Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Events 1174 - Jocelin, Abbot of Melrose, is elected Bishop of Glasgow. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Jaʿfar al-Sadiq (702-765 in accurate transliteration Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( Persian:, pronounced muːsæviː-je xomejniː}}( September 24, 1902 – June 3 1989 Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Fatimah (فاطمة c 605 –632 was a daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from his first wife Khadija. Events 1540 - Thomas Cromwell is executed at the order of Henry VIII of England on charges of Treason. An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community According to Twelver Shi'as Imam Hujjat al-Mahdī ( ar المهدى) (or Hujjat ibn Hasan ibn Ali is the twelfth Imam and the Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH Ramadan or Ramazan ( Arabic: رمضان Ramaḍān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic Eid ul-Fitr or Id-ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr) often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim Holiday that marks the end of Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community Jaʿfar al-Sadiq (702-765 in accurate transliteration Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jaʿfar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Events 69 - The end of the Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian Eid al-Adha ( Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā, Urdu: بقرعید or the Festival of Sacrifice is a religious festival celebrated Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Eid al-Ghadeer is the anniversary commemorating Muhammad 's last sermon at Ghadir Khumm, which occurred on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic Dates for anniversaries are based on the persian calendar, muslim calendar or Zoroastrian calendar; the dates on the Gregorian calendar can vary from year to year. The Iranian calendar or Solar Hejri (تقویم هجری شمسی؛ سالنمای هجری خورشیدی Taqwim Hejri Shamsi Salanmay Hejri Khurshidi) is an astronomical The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious Calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith and it is an approximation of the (tropical Solar calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today|
Iranian year begins from 21 March of each Gregorian year and ends on the 20th of the next year. To convert the Iranian year into Gregorian year add 621 years to the reference year.
correspondence of Iranian and Gregorian calendars:
|Gregorian Year||Iranian Year|
Iran adopted Daylight saving time (DST), again, in 2008. Daylight saving time ( DST
Throughout recorded history, Persians have been keen on the idea and importance of having a calendar. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The word Calendar consist of two words 1 Cal ( in Pashto means Year in Hindi and Persian is Sal- also means Year They were among the first cultures to use a solar calendar, and have long favored a solar over lunar and lunisolar approaches. A solar calendar is a Calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the Sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving A lunar calendar is a Calendar that is based on cycles of the Moon phase. A lunisolar calendar is a Calendar in many Cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar Year. The Sun was always a symbol in Iranian culture.
Old Persian inscriptions and tablets indicate that early Iranians used a 360-day calendar based on the Babylonian system and modified for their beliefs and named days. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Months had two or three divisions depending on the phase of the moon. Twelve months of 30 days were named for festivals or activities of the pastoral year. Pastoral, as an adjective refers to the lifestyle of Shepherds and Pastoralists moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability A 13th month was added every six years to keep the calendar synchronized with the seasons.
The first calendars based on Zoroastrian cosmology appeared in the later Achaemenian period (650 to 330 BC). Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of They evolved over the centuries, but month names changed little until now.
The unified Achaemenian empire required a distinctive Iranian calendar, and one was devised in Egyptian tradition, with 12 months of 30 days, each dedicated to a yazata (Eyzad), and four divisions resembling the Semitic week. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Yazata is the Avestan language word for a Zoroastrian concept In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ Four days per month were dedicated to Ahura Mazda and seven were named after the six Amesha Spentas. Ahura Mazda ( ae Ahura Mazdā) is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator ae Amesha Spenta ( ae Aməša Spənta) is an Avestan language term for a class of divinity/divine concepts in Zoroastrianism, and literally means "Bounteous Thirteen days were named after Fire, Water, Sun, Moon, Tiri and Geush Urvan (the soul of all animals), Mithra, Sraosha (Soroush, yazata of prayer), Rashnu (the Judge), Fravashi, Bahram (yazata of victory), Raman (Ramesh meaning peace), and Vata, the divinity of the wind. This article is about the Zoroastrian Yazata Mithra (Miθra For other divinities with related names see the general article Mitra. Sraosha is the Avestan language name of the Zoroastrian divinity of "Obedience" or "Observance" which Rashnu is the Avestan language name of the Zoroastrian Yazata of justice In Zoroastrian doctrine a fravashi ( Avestan fravaši; Middle Persian fraward, frawahr, frohar, frawash Three were dedicated to the female divinities, Daena (yazata of religion and personified conscious), Ashi (yazata of fortune) and Arshtat (justice). Daena is a Zoroastrian concept representing insight and revelation Ashi ( aši) is the Avestan language word for the Zoroastrian concept of "that which is attained Arshtat ( ae arštāt) is the Avestan language name of a Zoroastrian principle and signifies either "justice" or "honesty The remaining four were dedicated to Asman (lord of sky or Heaven), Zam (earth), Manthra Spenta (the Bounteous Sacred Word) and Anaghra Raocha (the 'Endless Light' of paradise). Zam (Zām is the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of "earth" in both the sense of land and soil and in the sense of the world
The calendar had a significant impact on religious observance. It fixed the pantheon of major divinities, and also ensured that their names were uttered often, since at every Zoroastrian act of worship the yazatas of both day and month were invoked. It also clarified the pattern of festivities; for example, Mitrakanna or Mehregan was celebrated on Mithra day of Mithra month, and the Tiri festival (Tiragan) was celebrated on Tiri day of the Tiri month. Mehregān (alternatively Mihragān, مهرگان or Jashn-e-Mehregān is a Zoroastrian and Iranian festival celebrated in honor of Mithra
After the conquests by Alexander the Great and his death, the Persian territories fell to one of his generals, Seleucus (312 BC), starting the Seleucid dynasty of Iran. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Events By place Seleucid Empire Ptolemy and Seleucus, the Satrap of Babylonia, invade the satrapy of The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Based on the Greek tradition, Seuclids introduced the practice of dating by era rather than by the reign of individual kings. Their era became known as that of Alexander, or later the Seleucid era. The Seleucid era was a system of numbering Years in use by the Seleucid Empire and other countries among the ancient Hellenistic civilizations The era Since the new rulers were not Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian priests lost their function at the royal courts, and so resented the Seleucids. Although they began dating by eras, they established their own era of Zoroaster. Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت
That was the first serious attempt to determine the dates associated with the prophet Zoroaster's life. Priests had no Zoroastrian historical sources, and so turned to Babylonian archives famous in the ancient world. From these they learned that a great event in Persian history took place 228 years before the era of Alexander. In fact, this was the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus the Great in 539 BC. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Events and trends 539 BC — Babylon is conquered by Cyrus, defeating Nabonidus; noted in such documents as that of Africanus But the priests misinterpreted this date to be the time the "true faith" was revealed to their prophet, and since Avestan literature indicates that revelation happened when Zoroaster was 30 years old, 568 BC was taken as his year of birth. Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. Events and trends 568 BC — Amtalqa succeeds his brother Aspelta as king of Kush. The date entered written records as the beginning of the era of Zoroaster, and indeed, the Persian Empire. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia This incorrect date is still mentioned in many current encyclopedias as Zoroaster’s birth date.
The Parthians (Arsacid dynasty) adopted the same calendar system with minor modifications, and dated their era from 248 BC, the date they succeeded the Seleucids. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Events Births Deaths Their names for the months and days are Parthian equivalents of the Avestan ones used previously, differing slightly from the Middle Persian names used by the Sassanians. Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of Southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224-654 CE became a Prestige dialect The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire For example in Achaemenian times the modern Persian month ‘Day’ was called Dadvah (Creator), in Parthian it was Datush and the Sassanians named it Dadv/Dai (Dadar in Pahlavi).
In 224 AD, Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty, added five days at the end of the year, and named them ‘Gatha’ or ‘Gah’ days after the ancient Zoroastrian hymns of the same name. Events By Place Asia Ardashir I defeats the Arsacid King Artabanus IV at Hormizdegan, destroying the Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty, was ruler of Istakhr (206-241 subsequently Persia The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire This was a modification of the 365-day calendar adopted by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, based on the Egyptian solar calendar. Year 46 BC was the last year of the pre-Julian calendar. This year had 445 days due to the errors that had accumulated in the pre-Julian calendar Iranians had known about the Egyptian system for centuries but never used it. The new system created confusion and met resistance. Many rites were practiced over many days to make sure no holy days were missed. To this day many Zoroastrian feasts have two dates.
To simplify the situation, Ardeshir’s grandson, Hormizd I, linked the new and old holy days into continual six-day feasts. Hormizd I was the third Sassanid King of Persia from 272 to 273 Nowruz was an exception, as the first and the sixth day of the month were celebrated separately, and the sixth became more significant as Zoroasters’ birthday. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated But the reform did not solve all the problems, and Yazdgerd III, the last ruler, introduced the final changes. Yazdgerd III (also spelled Yazdegerd or Yazdiger, Persian: یزدگرد سوم "made by God") was the twenty-ninth and last king of The year 631 was chosen as the beginning of a new era, and this last imperial Persian calendar is known as the Yazdgerdi calendar. Events By Place Europe The Battle of Wogastisburg is fought between the Slavs led by Samo, and the Franks
But before the Yazdgerdi calendar was completed, Muslim Arabs overthrew the dynasty in the 7th century and established the Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری It was outlined in the Qu'ran, and in the last sermon of Muhammad during his farewell pilgrimage to Mecca. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Umar, the second caliph of Islam, began numbering years in AH 17 (638 CE), regarding the first year as the year of Muhammad's Hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina, in September 622 CE. Umar (a=عمر بن الخطاب|t=`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c 581-83 CE &ndash 7 November, 644) also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Events By Place Asia The Muslims capture Jerusalem, Antioch, Caesarea Maritima and Akko The Hijra (هِجْرَة or withdrawal is the migration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622 ( Common Era) Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Events Religion July 16 — Year one of the Islamic calendar begins during which the Hijra occurs — Prophet Muhammad The first day of the year continued to be the first day of Muharram. Muharram ( Arabic: ar محرم is the first month of the Islamic calendar. Years of the Islamic calendar are designated AH from the Latin Anno Hegirae (in the year of the Hijra). The Islamic lunar calendar was widely used until the end of the 19th century. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
The Jalali calendar was introduced in the 11th century by a panel of astronomers (including Omar Khayyám) at the imperial observatory in the Seljuk capital of Isfahan. For the Thoroughbred racehorse see Omar Khayyam (horse Ghiyās od-Dīn Abol-Fath Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūri (غیاث الدین Seljuk ( Arabic: السلاجقة Turkish: Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the eponymous hero of the Seljuks Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān It was a solar calendar, and was designed in response to the seasonal drift in the 354 day Islamic calendar. The work was commissioned in 1073 by the Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I, one of the Seljuk sultans, and were subject to the turbulent history of the times. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Jalāl al-Dawlah Mālikshāh or simply Malik Shah ( Persian: fa ملكشاه Turkish: Melikşah) (died 1092 was the The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Fortunately, the calendar work was completed well before the Sultan's death in 1092, after which the observatory would be abandoned. The calendar was adopted on March 15, 1079, and the calendar era was named Jalali in honor of the Sultan. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus,
The year was computed from the vernal equinox, and each month was determined by the transit of the sun into the corresponding zodiac region, a system that incorporated improvements on the ancient Indian system of the Surya Siddhanta(Surya=solar, Siddhanta=analysis, 4th c. An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle The Surya Siddhanta is a treatise of Indian astronomy. Later Indian mathematicians and astronomers such as Aryabhata and Varahamihira CE), also the basis of most Hindu calendars. The Hindu calendar used in ancient times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization and today there are several regional Indian Calendars, as Since the solar transit times can have 24-hour variations, the length of the months vary slightly in different years (each month can be between 29 and 32 days). For example, the months in two last years of the Jalali calendar had:
Because months were computed based on precise times of solar transit between zodiacal regions, seasonal drift never exceeded one day, and also there was no need for a leap year in the Jalali calendar. However, this calendar was very difficult to compute; it required the full ephemeris computations / actual observations to determine solar motion trajectories. An ephemeris (plural ephemerides; from the Greek word ἐφήμερος ephemeros "daily" is a table of values that gives the positions of Some claim that simplifications introduced in the intervening years may have introduced a system with 8 leap days in every cycle of 33 years. (Different rules, such as the 2820-year cycle, have also been accredited to Khayyam). However, the original Jalali calendar based on observations (or predictions) of solar transit would not have needed either leap years or seasonal adjustments.
The team also came up with the computation of the length of a solar year as 365. 24219858156 days. The number of decimal digits reflects their high confidence in this computation. Though it may not have been known at the time, the length of the year is changing in the sixth decimal place over a person's lifetime. Nonetheless, the result is astoundingly accurate: the length of the year at various points are:
However, owing to the variations in month lengths, and also the difficulty in computing the calendar itself, the Iranian calendar was modified to simplify these aspects in 1925 (1304 AP). Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On February 21, 1911, the second Persian parliament mandated government use of a simplified calendric computation system based on the solar calendar. Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Majlis of Iran ( Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی lit The present Iranian calendar was legally adopted on March 31, 1925, under the early Pahlavi dynasty. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The law said that the first day of the year should be the first day of spring in "the true solar year", "as it has been" (کماکان). Spring is one of the four Temperate Seasons Spring marks the transition from Winter into Summer. It also fixed the number of days in each month, which previously varied by year with the tropical zodiac. Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic It revived the ancient Persian names, which are still used. It specified the origin of the calendar (Hegira of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE). The Hijra (هِجْرَة or withdrawal is the migration of Muhammad and his followers to the city of Medina in 622 ( Common Era) IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Events Religion July 16 — Year one of the Islamic calendar begins during which the Hijra occurs — Prophet Muhammad It also deprecated the 12-year cycles of the Chinese-Uighur calendar which were not officially sanctioned but were commonly used. The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, incorporating elements of a Lunar calendar with those of a Solar calendar.
The first six months (Farvardin–Shahrivar) have 31 days, the next five (Mehr–Bahman) have 30 days, and the last month (Esfand) has 29 days or 30 days in leap years. The reason the first six months have 31 days and the rest 30 may have to do with the fact that the sun moves slightly more slowly along the ecliptic in the northern spring and summer than in the northern autumn and winter.
Afghanistan legally adopted this calendar in 1957, but with different month names. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) The Dari dialect of Persian language in Afghanistan uses the Arabic names of the zodiac signs; these names were also used in Iran before 1925. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Zodiac denotes an annual cycle of twelve stations along the Ecliptic, the apparent path of the sun across the heavens through the Constellations that divide the ecliptic Afghan Pashto language uses the Pashto names of the zodiac signs. Pashto ( Naskh: پښتو pəʂ'to also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto, Pashtu, Pushtu, also known as
The Persian calendar produces a five-year leap year interval after about every seven four-year leap year intervals. It usually follows a 33-year cycle with occasional interruptions by single 29-year or 37-year subcycles. By contrast, some less accurate predictive algorithms are suggestion based on confusion between average tropical year (365. 2422 days, approximated with near 128-year cycles or 2820-year great cycles) and the mean interval between spring equinoxes (365. 2424 days, approximated with a near 33-year cycle).
The Iranian calendar year begins at the start of Spring in the northern hemisphere: on the midnight between the two consecutive solar noons which include the instant of the Northern spring equinox, when the sun enters the northern hemisphere. Noon (also midday) is the hour of 1200 in an observer's local time zone or more loosely a time near the middle of the day when workers in many countries take a meal break An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle Northern Hemisphere is the half of a Planet that is North of the Equator —the word hemisphere literally means 'half ball' If between two consecutive noons the sun's altitude rises through its equinoctial altitude, then the first noon is on the last day of one calendar year and the second noon is on the first day (Nowruz) of the next year. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated The calendar has 12 months with Persian names.
(Variety of Persian in Afghanistan)
|IPA||Native Script||Romanized||Native Script||Romanized||Native Script||IPA||Native Script|
|1||31||farvardin||فروردین||Xakelêwe||خاكه ليوه||hamal (Aries)||حمل||wraj||وری|
|2||31||ordibeheʃt||اردیبهشت||Golan||گولا ن||sawr (Taurus)||ثور||ʁwajaj||غویی|
|3||31||xordɒd||خرداد||Jozerdan||جوزه ردان||dʒawzɒ (Gemini)||جوزا||ʁbargolaj||غبرګولی|
|4||31||tir||تیر||Poshper||پووش په ر||saratɒn (Cancer)||سرطان||tʃungaʂ||چنګاښ|
|5||31||mordɒd / amordɒd||مرداد / امرداد||Gelawêj||گلاويژ||asad (Leo)||اسد||zmaraj||زمری|
|6||31||ʃahrivar||شهریور||Xermanan||خه رمانان||sonbola (Virgo)||سنبله||wagaj||وږی|
|7||30||mehr||مهر||Rezber||ره زه به ر||mizɒn (Libra)||میزان||təla||تله|
|8||30||ɒbɒn||آبان||Gelarêzan||گه لا ريژان||haqrab (Scorpio)||عقرب||laɻam||لړم|
|9||30||ɒzar||آذر||Sermawez||سه ر ما وه ز||qaws (Sagittarius)||قوس||lindəj||لیندۍ|
|10||30||dej||دی||Befranbar||به فرانبار||dʒadi (Capricorn)||جدی||marʁumaj||مرغومی|
|11||30||bahman||بهمن||Rêbendan||ريبه ندان||dalwa (Aquarius)||دلو||salwɑʁə||سلواغه|
|12||29/30||espand / esfand||اسپند / اسفند||Resheme||ره شه مه||howt (Pisces)||حوت||kab||کب|
The first day of the calendar year is also the day of the greatest festival of the year in Iran, Afghanistan and surrounding regions, called Nowruz (a single word made up of two parts, now (new) and ruz (day), meaning "new day"). Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated
In the Iranian calendar, every week begins on Saturday and ends on Friday. The days of the week are called: ʃanbeh (شنبه in native script), jekʃanbeh (یکشنبه), doʃanbeh (دوشنبه), seʃanbeh (سه شنبه), tʃahɒrʃanbeh (چهارشنبه), pandʒʃanbeh (پنجشنبه), and dʒomhe (جمعه originally in Arabic) or ɒdineh (آدینه) (in pɒrsi). In most Islamic countries, dʒumʕa is the holiday.
Calculating the day of the week is easy, using an anchor date. One good such date is Sunday, 1 Farvardin 1372, which equals 21 March 1993. Assuming the 33-year cycle approximation, move back by one weekday to jump ahead by one 33-year cycle. Similarly, to jump back by one 33-year cycle, move ahead by one weekday.
As in the Gregorian calendar, dates move forward exactly one day of the week with each passing year, except if there is an intervening leap day when they move two days. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The anchor date 1 Farvardin 1372 is chosen so that its 4th, 8th, . . . , 32nd anniversaries come immediately after leap days, yet the anchor date itself does not immediately follow a leap day.
The image below shows the difference between the Iranian calendar (using the 33-year arithmetic approximation) and the seasons. The Y axis is "days error" and the X axis is Gregorian calendar years. Each point represents a single date on a given year. The error shifts by about 1/4 day per year, and is corrected by a leap year every 4th year regularly, and one 5 year leap period to complete a 33-year cycle. One can notice a gradual shift upwards over the 500 years shown.
By comparison, the Gregorian calendar, introduced in 1582, is almost as accurate in the long term, but has larger swings of seasonal errors over centuries. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today