Architecture in "Greater Iran" has a continuous history from at least 5000BCE to the present, with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Syria to North India and the borders of China, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Greater Iran (in Irān-e Bozorg, or fa ایرانزمین Irān-zamīn; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Geography Northern India lies mainly on continental India and a very small part of it lies on the Indian peninsula Borders define geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions such as Governments States or subnational administrative China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Zanzibar ( is part of the East African republic of Tanzania. It consists of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses, and garden pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has ever seen". A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground A tea house or tearoom is a venue centered on drinking Tea. Their function varies widely depending on the culture and some cultures have a variety of distinct The tradition and style of Garden design of Persian gardens ( Persian باغ ایرانی influenced the design of gardens from Andalusia to India In Architecture a pavilion (from French, "pavillon" from Latin "papilio" has two main significations 
Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, developing gradually and coherently out of prior traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, and despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries".  Its paramount virtues are several: "a marked feeling for form and scale; structural inventiveness, especially in vault and dome construction; a genius for decoration with a freedom and success not rivaled in any other architecture". A Vault (French voute Italian volta German Gewölbe Polish sklepienie, Spanish for the town in Afghanistan see Gonbad Afghanistan In traditional Persian architecture, a Dome is referred to as a gonbad 
Traditionally, the guiding, formative, motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven". "Symbolic" redirects here For other uses see Symbolism (disambiguation and Symbolic (disambiguation.  This theme, shared by virtually all Asia and persisting even into modern times, not only has given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional characters as well.
|“||"The supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture. The supremacy of architecture applies to both pre-and post-Islamic periods. "||”|
Traditional Iranian architecture has maintained a continuity that, although frequently shunned by western culture or temporarily diverted by political internal conflicts or foreign intrusion, nonetheless has achieved a style that could hardly be mistaken for any other.
In this architecture, "there are no trivial buildings; even garden pavilions have nobility and dignity, and the humblest caravanserais generally have charm. A caravanserai ( kārvānsarā, Turkish kervansaray) was a roadside Inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey In expressiveness and communicativity, most Persian buildings are lucid-even eloquent. The combination of intensity and simplicity of form provides immediacy, while ornament and, often, subtle proportions reward sustained observation. "
Iranian architecture is based on several fundamental characteristics. These are:
Available building materials dictate major forms in traditional Iranian architecture. Greater Iran (in Irān-e Bozorg, or fa ایرانزمین Irān-zamīn; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term The " Pre parsi style " (شیوه معماری پیش از پارسی is a style ( sabk) of architecture when categorizing the history of Iranian architecture The " Parsi style " (شیوه معماری پارسی is a style ( sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history The " Parthian style " (شیوه معماری پارتی is a style ( sabk) of historical Iranian architecture. The " Khorasani style " (شیوه معماری خراسانی is a style ( sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history The " Razi style " (شیوه معماری رازی is a style ( sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history The " Azari style " (شیوه معماری آذری is a style ( sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history The " Esfahani style " (شیوه معماری اصفهانی is a style ( sabk) of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history Heavy clays, readily available at various places throughout the plateau, have encouraged the development of the most primitive of all building techniques, molded mud, compressed as solidly as possible, and allowed to dry. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and In computer gaming, a MUD ( Multi-User Dungeon, Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of This technique used in Iran from ancient times has never been completely abandoned. The abundance of heavy plastic earth, in conjunction with a tenacious lime mortar, also facilitated the development of the brick. Mortar is a workable paste formed by mixture of Cement, Water and fine aggregate Masonry to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. 
Iranian architecture makes use of abundant symbolic geometry, using pure forms such as the circle and square, and plans are based on often symmetrical layouts featuring rectangular courtyards and halls.
Certain design elements of Persian architecture have persisted throughout the history of Iran. See Also Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the " Iranian Cultural Continent The most striking are a marked feeling for scale and a discerning use of simple and massive forms. Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object such as its length or weight relative to some standard ( unit of measurement) such as The consistency of decorative preferences, the high-arched portal set within a recess, columns with bracket capitals, and recurrent types of plan and elevation can also be mentioned. Portal is a general term describing an opening in the walls of a building gate or fortification and especially a grand entrance to an important structure A column in Structural engineering is a vertical structural element that transmits through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural Through the ages, these elements have recurred in completely different types of buildings constructed for various programs and under the patronage of a long succession of rulers. The following is a comprehensive list of kings of Persia, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Iran
The columned porch, or talar, seen in the rock-cut tombs near Persepolis, reappear in Sassanid temples, and in late Islamic times it was used as the portico of a palace or mosque, and adapted even to the architecture of roadside tea-houses. A porch is a structure attached to a building forming a covered entrance to a vestibule or doorway Talar is the architectural term given to the throne of the Persian monarchs which is carved on the rock-cut tomb of Darius at Naqsh-e Rostam, near Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Similarly, the gonbad on four arches, so characteristic of Sassanid times, is a still to be found in many cemeteries and Imamzadehs across Iran today. for the town in Afghanistan see Gonbad Afghanistan In traditional Persian architecture, a Dome is referred to as a gonbad Boumehenjpg|thumb|right|Tomb of Sultan Mutahhar, near Roudehen. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The notion of earthly towers reaching up toward the sky to mingle with the divine towers of heaven lasted through the 19th century, while the interior court and pool, the angled entrance and extensive decoration are ancient but still common features of Iranian architecture. 
The pre-Islamic styles draw on 3-4 thousand years of architectural development from various civilizations of the Iranian plateau. The post-Islamic architecture of Iran in turn, draws ideas from its pre-Islamic predecessor, and has geometrical and repetitive forms, as well as surfaces that are richly decorated with glazed tiles, carved stucco, patterned brickwork, floral motifs, and calligraphy. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water In art a motif is a repeated idea pattern image or theme Paisley designs are referred to as motifs Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17
As such, Iran ranks seventh in the world in terms of possessing historical monuments, museums, and other cultural attractions and is recognized by UNESCO as being one of the cradles of civilization. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 The cradle of civilization is any of the possible locations for the emergence of Civilization. 
Each of the periods of Elamites, Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanids were creators of great architecture that over the ages has spread wide and far to other cultures being adopted. Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Although Iran has suffered its share of destruction, including Alexander The Great's decision to burn Persepolis, there are sufficient remains to form a picture of its classical architecture. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial
The Achaemenids built on a grand scale. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The artists and materials they used were brought in from practically all territories of what was then the largest state in the world. Pasargadae set the standard: its city was laid out in an extensive park with bridges, gardens, colonnaded palaces and open column pavilions. Pasargadae (پاسارگاد was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an Archaeological site and one of only five of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage In Classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of Columns joined by their Entablature, often free-standing as in the famous elliptically Pasargadae along with Susa and Persepolis expressed the authority of The King of Kings, the staircases of the latter recording in relief sculpture the vast extent of the imperial frontier. Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa) Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial
With the emergence of the Parthians and Sassanids there was an appearance of new forms. Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Parthian innovations fully flowered during the Sassanid period with massive barrel-vaulted chambers, solid masonry domes, and tall columns. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves in the case This influence was to remain for years to come.
The roundness of the city of Baghdad in the Abbasid era for example, points to its Persian precedents such as Firouzabad in Fars. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous For the city in Uttar Pradesh, see Firozabad Firouzabad or Firuzabad ( Sassanid Middle Persian Ardasher-Khwarrah Fars (pronounced/fɑː(ɹs ( Persian: فارس Fârs) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran.  The two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a former Jew from Khorasan. Al-Mansur Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712&ndash775 Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور was the second Nobakht Ahvazi (نوبخت اهوازى also transliterated 'Naubakht' and his sons were Astrologers from Ahvaz (in the present-day Khuzestan Province layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings Masha'allah ibn Atharī (c740-d815 AD was an eighth century Persian Jewish astrologer and astronomer from the city of Basra (now located in 
The ruins of Persepolis, Ctesiphon, Jiroft, Sialk, Pasargadae, Firouzabad, Arg-é Bam, and thousands of other ruins may give us merely a distant glimpse of what contribution Persians made to the art of building. Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire Sialk is a large ancient archeological site near Kashan, Iran, tucked away in the suburbs of the city of Kashan, in central Iran, close to Pasargadae (پاسارگاد was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an Archaeological site and one of only five of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage For the city in Uttar Pradesh, see Firozabad Firouzabad or Firuzabad ( Sassanid Middle Persian Ardasher-Khwarrah The Arg-é Bam ( ارگ بم in Persian, " Bam citadel" was the largest Adobe building in the world located in Bam, a city
The fall of the Persian empire to invading Islamic forces ironically led to the creation of remarkable religious buildings in Iran. Arts such as calligraphy, stucco work, mirror work, and mosaic work, became closely tied with architecture in Iran in the new era. Calligraphy (from Greek kallos "beauty" + graphẽ "writing" is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996 17 The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Archaeological excavations have provided sufficient documents in support of the impacts of Sasanian architecture on the architecture of the Islamic world.
Many experts believe the period of Persian architecture from the 15th through 17th Centuries to be the most brilliant of the post-Islamic era. Various structures such as mosques, mausoleums, bazaars, bridges, and different palaces have mainly survived from this period.
Safavi Isfahan tried to achieve grandeur in scale (Isfahan's Naghsh-i Jahan Square is the 6th largest square worldwide) knowledge about building tall buildings with vast inner spaces. Safavi is a Persian surname best known as the surname of the royal family of the Safavid Dynasty. Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān Naghsh-e Jahan Square ( Persian: ميدان نقش جهان maidaan-e naqsh-e jehaan) is situated at the center of Isfahan city Iran This article lists the largest city squares ordered by area. Areas given are in Square meters (m² as noted in the articles or the reference provided but may not However, the quality of ornaments was decreased in comparison with those of the 14th cnd 15th centuries.
In the old Persian architecture, semi-circular and oval-shaped vaults were of great interest, leading Safavi architects to display their extraordinary skills in making massive domes. Domes can be seen frequently in the structurae of bazaars and mosques, particularly during the Safavi period in Isfahan. Iranian domes are distinguished for their height, proportion of elements, beauty of form, and roundness of the dome stem. The outer surfaces of the domes are mostly mosaic faced, and create a magical view. In the words of D. Huff, a German archaeologist, the dome is the dominant element in Persian architecture.
Another aspect of this architecture was the harmony it presented and manifested with the people, their environment, and their beliefs. At the same time no strict rules were applied to govern this form of Islamic architecture. The great mosques of Khorasan, Isfahan, and Tabriz each used local geometry, local materials, and local building methods to express in their own ways the order, harmony, and unity of Islamic architecture. Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān Tabriz ( تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. And thus when the major monuments of Islamic Persian architecture are examined, they reveal complex geometrical relationships, a studied hierarchy of form and ornament, and great depths of symbolic meaning. In the words of Arthur U. Pope, who carried out extensive studies in ancient Persian and Islamic buildings:
Architecture of Bridges. Sassanid or Safavid, bridges have a Special place in Iranian architecture. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz
Architecture of Persian Gardens. The tradition and style of Garden design of Persian gardens ( Persian باغ ایرانی influenced the design of gardens from Andalusia to India Khalvat-i Karim-khani, in the gardens of the Golestan Palace. Golestān Palace (کاخ گلستان is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran 's capital city
Architecture of shrines and monuments. Shrine of Omar Khayyám, Nishapur. For the Thoroughbred racehorse see Omar Khayyam (horse Ghiyās od-Dīn Abol-Fath Omār ibn Ebrāhīm Khayyām Neyshābūri (غیاث الدین Nishapur, or Neyshābūr ( is a city in the Razavi Khorasan province in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot
Places of worship: mosques and cathedrals. Thaddeus Monastery, 68CE, West Azarbaijan province. The Saint Thaddeus Monastery (Սուրբ Թադէոս վանք - Sourb Tadeos Vank; Azerbaijani: قره کیلسه - Qara kilsə; قرهکلیسا This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation.
Architecture of Palaces. Pasargad and Persepolis. Pasargadae (پاسارگاد was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an Archaeological site and one of only five of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial
Architecture of Bazaars. Qazvin ( also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran with an estimated population of 331409 in 2005 A bazaar ( بازار) (pazar is a permanent merchandising area Marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold Timcheh-e-Amin o Dowleh, Bazaar of Kashan. Kashan is a city in the province of Isfahan, Iran. It had an estimated population of 272359 in 2005.
Contemporary architecture in Iran begins with the advent of the first Pahlavi period in the early 1920s. Some designers, such as Andre Godard, created works, such as the National Museum of Iran that were reminiscent of Iran's historical architectural heritage. André Godard (1881 Chaumont &mdash 1965 Paris) was a French born Archeologist and Architect. The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ملي ايران Mūze-ye Millī-ye Irān, or موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân Others, made an effort to merge the traditional elements with modern designs in their works. The Tehran University main campus is one such example. The University of Tehran ( also known as Tehran University and UT, is the oldest and largest university of Iran. And yet, others such as Heydar Ghiai and Houshang Seyhoun tried creating completely original works that were independent of any precedental influences. Biography Heydar Gholi Khan Ghiaï- Chamlou who graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1952 was known as a pioneer of modern Architecture in Iran Hooshang Seyhoon (b 1920 &ndash) is a prominent Iranian Architect.
Iran Senate House Traditional persian mythology such as the chains of justice of Nowshiravan and essences of Iranian architecture have been incorporated by Heydar Ghiai to create a new modern iranian architecture. Biography Heydar Gholi Khan Ghiaï- Chamlou who graduated from the École des Beaux-Arts in 1952 was known as a pioneer of modern Architecture in Iran
Tehran city theater, Pahlavi period.
Tehran's Museum of Contemporary Arts is based on traditional Iranian elements such as Badgirs, and yet has a spiraling interior reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim. Contemporary arts tehran2jpg|thumb|right|The Museum has a sculpture Garden adjacent to Tehran's Laleh Park A windcatcher ( Persian: بادگیر Bâdgir, Arabic: بارجيل Baarjiil) is a traditional Persian architectural device This article refers to the Guggenheim's landmark New York museum
Facade influences of Qajar era architecture on modern high rise buildings.
Tehran University College of Social Sciences shows obvious traces of architecture from Persepolis. Persepolis ( Old Persian: Pārsa, Modern Persian: تخت جمشید/پارسه Takht-e Jamshid or Chehel Minar) was the ceremonial
The Azadi Tower is the symbol of Tehran, Iran, and marks the entrance to the city. The Azadi Tower ( Borj-e Azadi meaning in Freedom Tower (previously known as the Shahyād Āryāmehr, King Memorial Tower is the symbol of Tehran
Major construction projects are undergoing all around Iran. Borj-e Milad (or Milad Tower) is the tallest tower in Iran and is the fourth tallest tower in the world. Borj-e Milad (aka Milad Tower,) (birth is the tallest Tower in Iran. The Flower of the East Development Project is the biggest project on Kish Island in the Persian Gulf. The Flower of the East ( complex is a 17 billion Euro tourism attraction project begun in 2004 in Kish Island and is expected to be finished by 2010 KISH (1029 FM) is Guam 's first all- Chamorro Music formatted FM station The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The project, includes a '7-star' and two '5-star' hotels, three residential areas, villas and apartment complexes, coffee shops, luxury showrooms and stores, sports facilities and marina.
Persian architects were a highly sought after stock in the old days, before the advent of Modern Architecture. following is a list of Iranian architects or Mi'mars to be more exact This is a list of contemporary Iranian architects List of historical Iranian architects A-F Farhad Ahmadi Hossein Amanat This article is concerned with architectural aspects of Modernism; for the most recent developments in architecture see Contemporary architecture. For example, Ostad Isa Shirazi is most often credited as the chief architect (or plan drawer) of Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal (tɑdʒ  These artisans were also highly instrumental in the designs of such edifices as Afghanistan's Minaret of Jam, The Sultaniyeh Dome, or Tamerlane's tomb in Samarkand, among many others. Soltaniyeh (سلطانيه situated in the Zanjan Province of Iran, some 240 km to the north-west from Tehran, used to be the capital of Ilkhanid Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of
Tomb of Humayun, India. Humayun's tomb is a complex of buildings in Mughal architecture built as Mughal Emperor Humayun 's tomb India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Many Iranian architects built edifices outside their homeland.
The medieval royal courtyard and its Chahar Bagh garden in Samarkand. Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of
Sassanid fortress in Darband Russia. Derbent (Дербе́нт Azeri: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Дербент Avar: Дербенд; Persian: دربند Darband
The following is a list of World Heritage Sites designed or constructed by Iranians (Persians), or designed and constructed in the style of Iranian architecture: