|Invasion of Grenada|
|Part of the Cold War|
U. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the S. Army Rangers parachute into Grenada during the invasion.
| United States|
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
| Admiral Joseph Metcalf III|
H. Norman Schwarzkopf
| Hudson Austin|
|7,300||Grenada: 1,500 regulars|
Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)
|Casualties and losses|
|19 killed; 116 wounded||Grenada: 45 military and at least 24 civilian deaths; 358 wounded. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Antigua and Barbuda ( Spanish for "Ancient" and "Bearded" is an Island nation located on the eastern boundary of the Caribbean Sea Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation The Commonwealth of Dominica, commonly known as Dominica, is an Island nation in the Caribbean Sea. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles chain of the Caribbean Sea. Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Please see " Admiral " for other nations which use this rank In the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard and the General H Norman Schwarzkopf (also known as '''"Stormin' Norman"''' and '''"The Bear"''') (b Hudson Austin (born April 26 1938) is a former General in the Peoples Revolutionary Army of Grenada. A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive defensive and logistical structures for Warfare Other duties include the |
Cuba: 24 killed, 59 wounded, 638 taken prisoner. 
The Invasion of Grenada, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, was an invasion of the island nation of Grenada by the United States of America and several other nations in response to the illegal deposition and execution of Grenadan Prime Minister Maurice Bishop. An invasion is a military offensive consisting of all or large parts of the Armed forces of one geopolitical entity aggressively entering territory Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Deposition by Political means concerns the removal of a Politician or Monarch. Maurice Rupert Bishop ( May 29, 1944 &ndash October 19, 1983) was a Grenadian On October 25, 1983, the United States, Barbados, Jamaica and members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States landed ships on Grenada, defeated Grenadian and Cuban resistance and overthrew the military government of Hudson Austin. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States ( OECS) created in 1981 is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration protection of The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Hudson Austin (born April 26 1938) is a former General in the Peoples Revolutionary Army of Grenada.
The invasion received a mixed reception, although it enjoyed broad public support in the United States as well as in segments of the population in Grenada. October 25 is a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, to commemorate this event. Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Conversely, the invasion was criticised by the United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago and Canada. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (ˈtrɪnɪdæd ən təˈbeɪgoʊ is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Approximately 100 people lost their lives.
On March 13, 1979 the New Jewel Movement under Maurice Bishop launched a revolution against the government of Eric Gairy to establish a people's provisional government. The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare Education and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement, was a Marxist Leninist vanguard political party in the Maurice Rupert Bishop ( May 29, 1944 &ndash October 19, 1983) was a Grenadian Sir Eric Matthew Gairy ( February 18, 1920 - August 23, 1997) was a Grenadian politician who led Grenada either as Premier or as Prime The new government suspended the constitution and began to rule by decree. Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group and is used primarily by Dictators and Absolute monarchs All other political parties were banned and no elections were ever held. Internationally, the government quickly aligned itself with Cuba and other communist governments. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Under Bishop, Grenada began a military build-up.
The government also began constructing an international airport with the help of Canada, Mexico and other nations. Point Salines International Airport is located in the parish of St In March 1983 U.S. President Ronald Reagan called this runway evidence of "Soviet-Cuban militarization" and a potential threat to the United States. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by  Pointing to the 9,000-foot (2,700 m) runway and the oil storage tanks, he asserted that these were unnecessary for commercial flights, and could only mean that the airport was to become a Cuban-Soviet airbase.
The airport had been first proposed by the British government in 1954, when Grenada was still a colony. It had been designed by Canadians, underwritten by the British government, and partly built by a London firm. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The U. S. government accused Grenada of constructing facilities to aid a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean, and to assist Soviet and Cuban transports in transporting weapons to Central American insurgents. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Bishop’s government claimed that the airport was built to accommodate commercial aircraft carrying tourists, pointing out that such jets could not land at the existing airport on the island’s north. Neither could the existing airport, itself, be expanded as its runway abutted a mountain. On October 13, 1983, a party faction led by Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard seized power illegally. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Winston Bernard Coard (born August 10, 1944) is a former Grenadian Deputy Prime Minister in the Revolutionary Bishop was placed under house arrest. Mass protests against the action led to Bishop escaping detention and reasserting his authority as the head of the government. Bishop was eventually captured and murdered along with several government officials loyal to him. The army under Hudson Austin then stepped in and formed a military council to rule the country. Hudson Austin (born April 26 1938) is a former General in the Peoples Revolutionary Army of Grenada. The Governor-General of Grenada, Paul Scoon, was placed under house arrest. The Governor-General of Grenada has been the Viceroy of the Queen of Grenada since the country's independence from the United Kingdom in 1974 Sir Paul Scoon, GCMG, GCVO, OBE (b 4 July 1935) was Governor General of Grenada for 14 years from 1978 to The army announced a four-day total curfew where anyone seen on the streets would be subject to summary execution.
The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) appealed to the United States, Barbados, and Jamaica for assistance. The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States ( OECS) created in 1981 is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration protection of Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. According to Mythu Sivapalan of the New York Times (October 29, 1983), this formal appeal was at the behest of the U. Events 437 - Valentinian III, Western Roman Emperor, marries Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of his cousin Theodosius II Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) S. government, which had decided to take military action. U. S. officials cited the murder of Bishop and general political instability in a country near its own borders, as well as the presence of American medical students at St. George's University on Grenada, as reasons for military action. Medical education A medical school or faculty of medicine is a Tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches Medicine St George’s University School of Medicine was established by an act of Grenada's parliament on July 23, 1976. Sivapalan also claimed that the latter reason was cited in order to gain public support. 
In March 1983, President Reagan began issuing warnings about the threat posed to the United States by the "Soviet-Cuban militarization" as evidenced by the runway being built. 
As the U. S. invaded, Cuba released a series of official documents to the press. According to these documents, when the murder of Maurice Bishop was reported on October 20, the government of Cuba declared that it was "deeply embittered" by the murder and rendered "deep tribute" to the assassinated leader. The same official statement reported instructions to Cubans in Grenada that "they should abstain absolutely from any involvement in the internal affairs of the Party and of Grenada," while attempting to maintain the "technical and economic collaboration that could affect essential services and vital economic assistance for the Grenadian people. "
On October 22, 1983, Castro sent a message to Cuban representatives in Grenada, stressing that they should take no action in the event of a U. Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) S. invasion unless they are "directly attacked. " If U. S. forces "land on the runway section [of the airport that Cubans were constructing with British assistance] near the university or on its surroundings to evacuate their citizens," Cubans were ordered "to fully refrain from interfering. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located " The military rulers of Grenada were informed that "sending reinforcements is impossible and unthinkable" because of the actions in Grenada that Cuba and the Grenadan people deplore, and Cuba urged them to provide "total guarantees and facilities for the security and evacuation of U. S. , English and other nationals. " The message was repeated on October 23, stating that reinforcement would be politically wrong and "morally impossible before our people and the world" after the Bishop assassination. On October 24, Cuba again informed the Grenadan regime that Cubans would only defend themselves if attacked, and advised that the airport runway be cleared of military personnel.
On October 26, Alma Guillermoprieto reported in The Washington Post that at a "post-midnight news conference" with "almost 100 foreign and local journalists," Castro "released texts of what he said were diplomatic communications among Cuba, Grenada and the United States," giving the essential facts. Alma Guillermoprieto (born May 27, 1949) is a Mexican journalist who has written extensively about Latin America The Washington Post is the largest and most circulated Newspaper in Washington D U. S. sources "confirmed the exchange of messages," she added, but said they could not respond to Cuba at once because the telephone lines of the U. S. interest section in Havana were down from the evening of October 23 to late at night on October 24.
White House spokesman, Larry Speakes, said that "the U. Larry M Speakes (born September 13 1939) is a former acting spokesman for the White House under President Ronald Reagan, having held S. disregarded Cuban and Grenadan assurances that U. S. citizens in Grenada would be safe because, 'it was a floating craps game and we didn't know who was in charge'. Craps is a Dice game played against other players or a bank Craps developed from a simplification of the Old English game hazard. " The same issue was reported by Alan Berger in The Boston Globe on the same day. The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily Newspaper in Boston and in New England,
The invasion, which commenced at 05:00 on October 25, was the first major operation conducted by the U. S. military since the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Fighting continued for several days and the total number of American troops reached some 7,000 along with 300 troops from the OECS. The invading forces encountered about 1,500 Grenadian soldiers and about 700 Cubans, most of whom were construction workers but were highly trained as soldiers. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Also present were 60 advisors from the Soviet Union, North Korea, East Germany, Bulgaria, and Libya. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, The German Democratic Republic ( GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik DDR; commonly known in English as East Germany) was a Socialist state The History of Communist Bulgaria encompasses the period of Bulgarian history between 1944 and 1989 Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab
Official U. S. sources state that the defenders were well-prepared, well-positioned and put up stubborn resistance, to the extent that the U. S. called in two battalions of reinforcements on the evening of October 26. A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel However, the total naval and air superiority of the invading forces — including helicopter gunships and naval gunfire support — proved to be significant advantages. An attack helicopter, also known as a Helicopter Gunship, is a Military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground Naval gunfire support (NGFS is the use of Naval artillery to provide Fire support for amphibious assault and other troops operating within their range
U. S. forces suffered 19 fatalities and 116 injuries.  Grenada suffered 45 military and at least 24 civilian deaths, along with 358 soldiers wounded. Cuba had 24 killed in action, with 59 wounded and 638 taken prisoner.
A month after the invasion, Time magazine described it as having "broad popular support. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and " A congressional study group concluded that the invasion had been justified, as most members felt that the students could be taken hostage as U.S. diplomats in Iran had been four years previously. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 The group's report caused House Speaker Tip O'Neill to change his position on the issue from opposition to support. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer&mdashor speaker &mdashof the United States House of Representatives. Thomas Phillip "Tip" O'Neill Jr ( December 9, 1912 &ndash January 5, 1994) was an American politician.
However, some members of the study group dissented from its findings. Congressman Louis Stokes stated that "Not a single American child nor single American national was in any way placed in danger or placed in a hostage situation prior to the invasion. Louis Stokes (born February 23, 1925 in Cleveland Ohio) is a Democratic politician from Ohio. " The Congressional Black Caucus denounced the invasion and seven Democratic congressmen, led by Ted Weiss, attempted to impeach Reagan. The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing the African American members of the Congress of the United States. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Theodore S "Ted" Weiss ( September 17, 1927 &ndash September 14, 1992) was a Democratic member of the United  Although certainly planned for months, it was suggested at the time that the timing of the invasion two days after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing could have been a way to distract the public from that disastrous event. The Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. 
By a vote of 198 in favor to 9 ( Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, El Salvador, Israel, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and the United States) with 27 abstentions, the United Nations General Assembly adopted General Assembly resolution 38/7 which "deeply deplores the armed intervention in Grenada, which constitutes a flagrant violation of international law and of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of that State". Grenada voted in favor of the resolution. The Government of China termed the United States intervention an outright act of hegemonism. The USSR Government observed that Grenada had for a long time been the object of United States threats, that the invasion violated international law, and that no small nation not to the liking of the United States would find itself safe if the aggression against Grenada was not rebuffed. The governments of some countries stated that the United States intervention was a return to the era of barbarism. The governments of other countries said the United States by its invasion had violated several treaties and conventions to which it was a party. 
Grenada was part of the Commonwealth of Nations and — following the invasion — it requested help from other Commonwealth members. The invasion was opposed by the United Kingdom, Trinidad & Tobago and Canada, among others. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (ˈtrɪnɪdæd ən təˈbeɪgoʊ is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page  British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher personally opposed the U. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 S. invasion, and her Foreign Minister, Geoffrey Howe, announced to the House of Commons on the day before the invasion that he had no knowledge of any possible U. Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926 known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a British The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords S. intervention. Ronald Reagan, President of the United States, assured her that an invasion was not contemplated. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Reagan later said, "She was very adamant and continued to insist that we cancel our landings on Grenada. I couldn't tell her that it had already begun. "
After the invasion, Prime Minister Thatcher wrote to President Reagan:
Following the U. S. victory, Grenada's Governor-General Paul Scoon announced the resumption of the constitution and appointed a new government. The term governor general or governor-general refers to a vice-regal representative of a Monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription Sir Paul Scoon, GCMG, GCVO, OBE (b 4 July 1935) was Governor General of Grenada for 14 years from 1978 to US Forces remained in Grenada after combat operations finished in December. Elements remaining included military police, special forces, and a specialized intelligence detachment.
The invasion showed problems with the U. S. government's "information apparatus," which Time described as still being in "some disarray" three weeks after the invasion. For example, the U.S. State Department falsely claimed that a mass grave had been discovered that held 100 bodies of islanders who had been killed by Communist forces. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based 
Also of concern were the problems that the invasion showed with the military. There was a lack of intelligence about Grenada, which exacerbated the difficulties faced by the quickly assembled invasion force. For example, it was not known that the students were actually at two different campuses and there was a thirty-hour delay in rescuing students at the second campus.  Maps provided to soldiers on the ground were rudimentary, did not show contour or relief, and were not marked with crucial positions. The landing strip was drawn in by hand. Analysis by the U.S. Department of Defense showed a need for improved communications and coordination between the different branches of the Armed Forces. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government Some of these recommendations resulted in the formation of the United States Special Operations Command in 1987 . The United States Special Operations Command ( USSOCOM or SOCOM) is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations A somewhat fictionalized account of the invasion is shown in the 1986 Clint Eastwood movie, Heartbreak Ridge. Clinton "Clint" Eastwood Jr (born May 31 1930 is a four-time Academy Award winning American Actor and Filmmaker. Heartbreak Ridge is a 1986 Film, starring Clint Eastwood (who also produced and directed and Mario Van Peebles, about the 1983
** The 75th Ranger Regiment had not been formed at the time of Operation Urgent Fury. The 75th Ranger Regiment (Airborne is a Military unit of the United States Army. The United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group, commonly known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six ( ST6) by civilians is the United States For the computer game see Delta Force (video game. For the movie see The Delta Force (film. Both existing Ranger battalions, 1st Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry and 2nd Battalion (Ranger), 75th Infantry, took part in the operation. The 1st Ranger Battalion was formed upon America's entry into World War II. 2nd Ranger Battalion is the name of two distinct units of United States Army Rangers. A year later both units were incorporated into the newly formed 75th Ranger Regiment.
Independence Task Group USS Independence, USS Richmond K. Turner, USS Coontz, USS Caron, USS Moosbrugger, USS Clifton Sprague, USS Suribachi with the Invasion Tactical Planning conducted by Commander Timothy J. Coughlin and the Air Staff of the USS Independence
In addition, the following ships supported naval operations: USS America, USS Aquila, USS Aubrey Fitch, USS Briscoe, USS Portsmouth, USS Recovery, USS Saipan, USS Sampson, USS Samuel Eliot Morison, USS Taurus (PHM-3) and U. 1970's Between 27 May and 24 July the tank landing ship completed fitting out first at Long Beach and then at San Diego in July History as the Trenton Building process Her keel was laid down at Seattle Washington, on 8 August 1966 by the Lockheed 1960 – 1964 Independence operated off the Virginia Capes for the next year on training maneuvers and departed 4 August 1960 for her History Initial operations It departed Philadelphia Naval Shipyard August 10 1964 for her homeport of San Diego Calif Commissioning Coontz was laid at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in March 1957 just 39 years after Admiral Coontz left his post as the shipyard's Ship's history 1 July 1974 - Laid down 1 October 1977 - Commissioned History Moosbrugger was laid down 3 November 1975, launched 23 July 1977 and commissioned 16 December 1978 Construction and shakedown Originally ordered as an Enterprise -class nuclear carrier the ballooning costs of during construction caused the cancellation of the nuclear Source 1982 After commissioning Aubrey Fitch remained at Bath for another five weeks completing her outfitting propulsion plant examination and crew inspections Highlights Some highlights of her career include Setting a US Awards The ship deployed to 5th Fleet with the Nimitz Battle Group in 1995-1996 History Saipan was laid down on July 21, 1972 by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division Litton Industries, Pascagoula 1960s Following Shakedown off Guantanamo Bay in September Sampson tested and evaluated the Tartar missile system off Puerto Rico S. Coast Guard Cutter Chase.
Caribbean Peace Force (CPF)