In grammar, an intransitive verb does not take an object. Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language. For English usage of verbs see the wiki article English verbs. An object in Grammar is a Sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. In more technical terms, an intransitive verb has only one argument (its subject), and hence has a valency of one. A syntactic verb argument, in Linguistics, is a Phrase that appears in a relationship with the Verb in a Clause. According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the In Linguistics, verb valency or valence refers to the number of arguments controlled by a verbal predicate. For example, in English, the verbs sleep, complain and die, are intransitive. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Some examples of sentences with intransitive verbs:
In languages where a passive voice exists, a transitive verb can be passivized in order to turn it into an intransitive one. In Grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state that the verb expresses and the participants identified For example, the transitive verb hug becomes the intransitive verb phrase be hugged. Passivization involves deleting the subject and replacing it by the direct object (this shift is called promotion of the object).
Intransitive verbs, of course, cannot be passivized in the strict sense, However, some languages (like Dutch) have so-called impersonal passives that allow one to transform, e. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname g. He phoned
In many languages, there are ambitransitive verbs, which can be either transitive or intransitive. An ambitransitive verb is a Verb that can be used both as intransitive or as transitive without requiring a morphological change For example, English play is ambitransitive (both intransitive and transitive), since it is grammatical to say His son plays, and it is also grammatical to say His son plays guitar. English is rather flexible with regards to verb valency, and so it has a high number of ambitransitive verbs; other languages are more rigid and require explicit valency changing operations (voice, causative morphology, etc. In Grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state that the verb expresses and the participants identified A causative form in Linguistics, is an expression of an agent causing or forcing a patient to perform an action (or to be in a certain condition ) to transform a verb from intransitive to transitive or vice versa.
In some ambitransitive verbs, called ergative verbs, the alignment of the syntactic arguments to the semantic roles is exchanged. In Linguistics, an ergative verb is a Verb that can be either transitive or intransitive, and whose subject when intransitive corresponds An example of this is the verb break in English.
In (1), the verb is transitive, and the subject is the agent of the action, i. e. the performer of the action of breaking the cup. In (2), the verb is intransitive and the subject is the patient of the action, i. e. it is the thing affected by the action, not the one that performs it. In fact, the patient is the same in both sentences, and sentence (2) is an example of implicit middle voice. In Grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state that the verb expresses and the participants identified This has also been termed an anticausative.
Other alternating intransitive verbs in English are change and sink.
In the Romance languages, these verbs are often called pseudo-reflexive, because they are signaled in the same way as reflexive verbs, using the clitic particle se. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all In Grammar, a reflexive verb is a Verb whose semantic agent and patient (typically represented syntactically by the subject and the direct object are the In Linguistics, a clitic is a grammatically independent and phonologically dependent Word. Compare the following (in Spanish):
Sentences (3a) and (3b) show Romance pseudo-reflexive phrases, corresponding to English alternating intransitives. As in The cup broke, they are inherently without an agent; their deep structure does not and can not contain one. In Linguistics, and especially the study of Syntax, the deep structure of a linguistic expression is a theoretical construct that seeks to unify several related structures The action is not reflexive (as in (4a) and (4b)) because it is not performed by the subject; it just happens to it. Therefore, this is not the same as passive voice, where an intransitive verb phrase appears, but there is an implicit agent (which can be made explicit using a complement phrase):
Other ambitransitive verbs (like eat) are not of the alternating type; the subject is always the agent of the action, and the object is simply optional. A few verbs are of both types at once, like read: compare I read, I read a magazine, and this magazine reads easily.
In many languages, including English, some or all intransitive verbs can take cognate objects — objects formed from the same roots as the verbs themselves; for example, the verb sleep is ordinarily intransitive, but one can say, "He slept a troubled sleep", meaning roughly "He slept, and his sleep was troubled. In Linguistics, a cognate object (or cognate accusative) is a Verb 's object that is Cognate with the verb "