Internet radio (also known as web radio, net radio, streaming radio and e-radio) is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. For the band see Broadcast (band Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or Video signals which transmit The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. A webcast is a media file distributed over the Internet using Streaming media technology Internet radio involves a streaming medium that presents listeners with a continuous "stream" of audio over which they have no control, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from "on-demand" file serving. Streaming multimedia is Multimedia that is constantly received by and normally presented to an end-user while it is being delivered by a streaming provider (the Internet radio is also distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming. A podcast is a series of audio or Video digital-media files which is distributed over the Internet by syndicated Download To download is to receive data from a remote or central system such as a Webserver, FTP server, mail server or other similar systems Many Internet radio "stations" are associated with a corresponding traditional (or "terrestrial") radio station or radio network. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. A radio network is a network system which distributes programming to multiple stations simultaneously or slightly delayed for the purpose of extending total Internet-only radio stations are independent of such associations.
Internet radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world—for example, one could listen to an Australian station from Europe or America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America Some major networks like Clear Channel in the US and Chrysalis in the UK restrict listening to in country because of music licensing and advertising concerns. Internet radio remains popular among expatriates and listeners with interests that are often not adequately served by local radio stations (such as progressive rock, ambient music, folk music, classical music, and stand-up comedy). An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing Progressive rock (often shortened to " progressive " " prog " or " prog rock " is a form of Rock music that evolved Ambient music is a Musical genre in which sound is more important than notes Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—everything that is available on traditional radio stations.
The most common way to distribute Internet radio is via streaming technology using a lossy audio codec. Streaming multimedia is Multimedia that is constantly received by and normally presented to an end-user while it is being delivered by a streaming provider (the A lossy compression method is one where compressing data and then decompressing it retrieves data that may well be different from the original but is close enough to be useful An audio codec is a Hardware device or a Computer program that compresses/decompresses Digital audio data according to a given Audio file Popular streaming audio formats include MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Windows Media Audio, RealAudio and HE-AAC (sometimes called aacPlus). MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a Digital audio encoding format using a form of Lossy data compression Vorbis is a free and open source, lossy audio Codec project headed by the Xiph Windows Media Audio ( WMA) is an Audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. RealAudio is a proprietary Audio format developed by RealNetworks. High Efficiency AAC ( HE-AAC) is a Lossy data compression scheme for Digital audio. High Efficiency AAC ( HE-AAC) is a Lossy data compression scheme for Digital audio. The bits are "streamed" (transported) over the network in TCP or UDP packets, then reassembled and played within seconds. A bit is a binary digit, taking a value of either 0 or 1 Binary digits are a basic unit of Information storage and communication The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. In Information technology, a packet is a formatted unit of Data carried by a Packet mode Computer network. (The delay is referred to as lag time. In Computing and especially Computer networks lag (slang is a symptom where the result of an action appears later than expected )
Internet radio was pioneered by Carl Malamud. Carl Malamud (1959&ndash) is a technologist author and public domain advocate currently known for his foundation Resource In 1993, Malamud launched "Internet Talk Radio" which was the "first computer-radio talk show, each week interviewing a computer expert. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) " However, as late as 1995, this service was not available via multicast streaming; it was distributed "as audio files that computer users fetch one by one. "
A November 1994 Rolling Stones concert was the "first cyberspace multicast concert. " Mick Jagger opened the concert by saying, "I wanna say a special welcome to everyone that's, uh, climbed into the Internet tonight and, uh, has got into the M-bone. And I hope it doesn't all collapse. "
On November 7, 1994, WXYC (89. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) WXYC (893 FM) is a Radio station broadcasting a College radio format 3 FM Chapel Hill, NC USA) became the first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet. Chapel Hill is a town in Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina and the home of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the WXYC used an FM radio connected to a system at SunSite, later known as Ibiblio, running Cornell's CU-SeeMe software. CU-SeeMe is an Internet Video-conferencing client Unlike modern videoconferencing programs in which clients contact each other directly CU-SeeMe required the use of server WXYC had begun test broadcasts and bandwidth testing as early as August, 1994.  WREK (91. WREK Atlanta (" Wreck " from the Rambling Wreck) is the radio station staffed by the students of the Georgia Institute of Technology 1 FM, Atlanta, GA USA) started streaming on the same day using their own custom software called CyberRadio1. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule However, unlike WXYC, this was WREK's beta launch and the stream was not advertised until a later date. 
Some of the first Internet-only commercial radio stations emerged in 1995. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 NetRadio "was one of the Internet's original Webcasters," eventually "streaming more than 100 channels including both music and spoken material. NetRadio (Netradio NetRadio NetRadio Network was a Minneapolis Minnesota -based company founded by Scott Bourne and radio veteran Scot Combs in 1994. " Nonetheless, NetRadio Corporation ceased operations in 2001.  Radio HK was "the first full-time Internet radio station. " HardRadio debuted on the last day of the year and is described on its web site as "The World's First . HardRadio was the first.com Internet-only Radio station. It debuted on December 31, 1995 with a Hard rock and Heavy metal com Internet Only Radio Station".  Unlike NetRadio and Radio HK, HardRadio weathered the dot-com downturn of the late 1990s and (as of 2008) is still broadcasting.
In 2002, the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel (CARP) system was initiated by the United States Congress in order to oversee decisions regarding royalty rates and terms, particularly in regard to digital distribution of audio. The Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel (CARP system is a part of the United States Congress involved in making decisions regarding copyright royalties Many webcasters believed the 2002 proposed royalty structure to be overly burdensome and intended to disadvantage independent Internet-only stations.  CARP was later phased out in favor of the Distribution Reform Act of 2004. Carp is a common name for various Freshwater Fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large 
In 2006, Phonographic Performance Limited in the UK informed broadcasters that it could only provide stations with licences to broadcast to listeners in the UK. From April 1, 2006, the streams of all independent internet radio stations were restricted so that they could only be listened to from within the UK. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. This deprived many overseas fans of popular stations such as Classic FM and Capital Radio from listening to their favourite radio programmes. Classic FM is one of the United Kingdom 's three Independent National Radio stations broadcasting classical music in a popular and accessible style 
On May 1, 2007, the United States Copyright Royalty Board approved a rate increase in the royalties payable to performers of recorded works broadcast on the internet. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Copyright Royalty Board is a US system of three Copyright Royalty Judges who determine rates and terms for copyright Statutory licenses and make determinations This was the result of a two year proceeding, with dozens of witnesses and hundreds of documents from over twenty different parties, including (but not limited to) large webcasters, small webcasters, NPR, college stations, and SoundExchange. SoundExchange is a Non-profit Performance rights organization that collects Royalties on the behalf of sound recording copyright owners (SRCOs and featured The CRB was privy to private financial records and business models of the webcasters, and after reviewing the evidence and testimony, issued their decision on May 1, 2007 (which is currently under appeal). Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The rates include a minimum fee of $500 (U. S. ) per year, per channel, with escalating fees for each song played. The decision is retroactive, so for 2006 the applicable fee would be $0. 0008 per performance. Since the inception of rates in 1998, the webcaster has been charged on a per performance basis. A performance is defined as streaming one song to one listener, a webcaster with 10,000 listeners would pay 10,000 times the going rate for every streamed song. The fee increases in increments each year, which amounts to $0. 0019 per song by 2010. " If enforced, this decision will undermine the business models of many Internet radio stations, which had previously relied on the rate of $0. 000768 per song that had been unchanged from 1998-2005.  These rules were scheduled to go into effect on May 1, 2007, with the first due date being July 15, 2007, and apply retroactively to January 1, 2006. Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
According to a report by Club Net Radio released in March 2007, under the new rates, annual fees for all station owners are projected to reach $2. 3 billion by 2008. This figure is more than four times that for traditional radio broadcasters who, due to terms set forth in the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, are exempt from the additional royalties imposed on digital broadcasting outlets, which compensate the performers and "copyright owners" of recorded works. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA is a United States Copyright Law which implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Both traditional radio and Internet/digital radio broadcasters are responsible for royalties collected by performance rights organizations (ASCAP, BMI, SESAC) on behalf of the composers of recorded works.
Many performers of recorded works have voiced their opposition to the Copyright Royalty Board's rate increases, fearing that the rate increases would cripple the internet broadcasters that have given them valuable exposure. The Copyright Royalty Board is a US system of three Copyright Royalty Judges who determine rates and terms for copyright Statutory licenses and make determinations Many others have voiced their support for the rate increases, which have been flat since 1998. Some have proposed moving Internet broadcasts to foreign jurisdictions where US royalties do not apply. "For example, Mercora, a service that allows individuals to launch their own webcasts, has established a Canadian site that they believe falls outside U. S. regulatory and royalty rules. " Business leaders fear that the royalty change would simply move the majority of the industry to Canada where royalty rates are equivalent to radio, though any transmission occurring in the U. S. would be subject to U. S. Copyright laws.
On 26 April 2007, the Internet Radio Equality Act (HR 2060) was proposed to reverse the CRB's decision. Events 1467 - The miraculous image in Our Lady of Good Counsel appear in Genazzano, Italy. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Internet Radio Equality Act, originally introduced as, is proposed legislation to nullify the May 1, 2007, determination of the Copyright Royalty Board  This bill was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives by Congressmen Jay Inslee (D-WA) and Donald Manzullo (R-IL). The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Jay Robert Inslee (born February 9, 1951) is an American politician currently serving as U Donald A Manzullo (born March 24 1944) American politician has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives Its Senate counterpart was introduced on 10 May 2007 by Senators Ron Wyden (D-Ore. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Ronald Lee Wyden (born May 3, 1949) is an American politician ) and Sam Brownback (R-Kansas). Samuel Dale Brownback (born September 12 1956) is the senior United States Senator from the U As of June 25 the legislation has over 100 Congressional co-sponsors. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians
US Internet broadcasters organized a nationwide coalition to oppose the rate hike and in support of the Internet Radio Equality Act. On June 26, many of them participated in a "Day of Silence" — either shutting off their audio streams entirely, or replacing their streams with static, ocean sounds or other ambience, interspersed with brief public service announcements — to focus attention on the consequences of the impending rate hike. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. A public service announcement (PSA or community service announcement (CSA is a non-commercial advertisement broadcast on radio or television ostensibly for the Public
Rhapsody, SomaFM, Live365, MTV, Pandora, RauteMusik.FM, SHOUTcast, and Digitally Imported were among the participants in the Day of Silence. Rhapsody is an online music service run by RealNetworks. Launched in December 2001 Rhapsody was the first music service to offer streaming on-demand access to nearly SomaFM is a listener-supported non-commercial Internet -only streaming Music station which started broadcasting out of Rusty Hodge 's garage in Live365 is an Internet radio network where members can create their own online radio station or listen to other Live365 broadcasters' online stations MTV ( Music Television) is an American Cable television network based in New York City. Pandora is an automated music recommendation and Internet radio service created by the Music Genome Project. RauteMusik (also RM or #Musik) is an Internet radio station based in Germany SHOUTcast is a server for Streaming media developed by Nullsoft. Digitally Imported ( DIfm) is a multi-channel Internet radio service based in New York City specializing in Electronic dance music genres Last.FM and Slacker did not participate, saying that they did not want to punish their listeners for the station's problems. Lastfm is a UK -based Internet radio and Music Community website, founded in 2002 Slacker is a US only interactive Internet radio service It allows users to create their own customized music stations starting with either Slacker's presets or a list of one  Supporters of the increase in royalty rates, however, point to the fact that CBS recently purchased Last. FM for 280 million dollars, and if internet radio is to build businesses off of the product of recordings, the performers and owners of those recordings should receive fair compensation. They also point to the fact that the rates were flat from 1998 through 2005 (see above), without even being increased to reflect cost-of-living increases.
SoundExchange recently came to an agreement with certain large webcasters regarding the minimum fees that were modified by the recent determination of the Copyright Royalty Board on May 1, 2007. SoundExchange is a Non-profit Performance rights organization that collects Royalties on the behalf of sound recording copyright owners (SRCOs and featured Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. While the CRB decision imposed a $500 per station or channel minimum fee for all webcasters, certain webcasters represented through DiMA negotiated a $50,000 "cap" on those fees with SoundExchange. 
SoundExchange also recently offered alternative rates and terms to certain eligible small webcasters, that allows them to calculate their royalties as a percentage of their revenue or expenses, instead of at a per performance rate. 
An April 2008 survey showed that more than one in seven persons aged 25-54 years old listen to online radio each week.  In 2008, 13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, compared with 11 percent in 2004. 
2004. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic.