The Internet protocol suite (commonly TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. In the field of Telecommunications, a communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation signaling authentication and error detection required to A protocol stack (sometimes communications stack) is a particular software implementation of a Computer networking protocol suite The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks It is named for two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were also the first two networking protocols defined. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. The Internet Protocol ( IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a Packet-switched Internetwork using the Internet Protocol Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of two developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely LANs (Local Area Networks) and the Internet, which, together with the invention of the World Wide Web by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, have revolutionized computing. The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng FRSA (born 8 June 1955 is an English computer scientist who is credited Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar)
The Internet protocol suite—like many protocol suites—can be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. In Computer networking, the term upper layer protocol ( ULP) refers to a more abstract protocol when performing encapsulation. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. In Computer networking, the term lower layer protocol ( LLP) refers to a more specific protocol when performing encapsulation. The TCP/IP reference model consists of four layers . The TCP/IP model is a specification for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. From lowest to highest, these are the link layer, the network layer, the transport layer, and the application layer.
The Internet protocol suite came from work done by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the early 1970s. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new Technology After building the pioneering ARPANET in the late 1960s, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. The ARPANET ( Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) developed by ARPA of the United States Department of Defense, was the world's first operational The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969 In 1972, Robert E. Kahn was hired at the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across them. Robert Elliot Kahn, (born December 23 1938) invented the TCP protocol and along with Vinton G In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol for the ARPANET. Vinton Gray "Vint" Cerf His contributions have been recognized repeatedly with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, and The ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP provided the middle layers of the Protocol stack running on an ARPANET host computer
By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had soon worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. In networking, a Communications protocol or network protocol is the specification of a set of rules for a particular type of Communication. (Cerf credits Hubert Zimmerman and Louis Pouzin [designer of the CYCLADES network] with important influences on this design. In 1991 Hubert Zimmerman was awarded the SIGCOMM Award for "20 years of leadership in the development of computer networking and the advancement of international standardization" Louis Pouzin, (1931 -) born in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert ( Nièvre) France, invented the datagram and designed the first packet communications The CYCLADES Packet switching network was an extremely influential French network system in the early 1970s similar to the ARPANET. )
With the role of the network reduced to the bare minimum, it became possible to join almost any networks together, no matter what their characteristics were, thereby solving Kahn's initial problem. One popular saying has it that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, will run over "two tin cans and a string. " There is even an implementation designed to run using homing pigeons, IP over Avian Carriers (documented in Request for Comments 1149  ). In Computer networking, IP over Avian Carriers (IPoAC is a humorously-intended proposal to carry Internet Protocol (IP traffic by Birds In Computer network Engineering, a Request for Comments (RFC is a Memorandum published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF describing
A computer called a router (a name changed from gateway to avoid confusion with other types of gateway) is provided with an interface to each network, and forwards packets back and forth between them. In Telecommunications, the term gateway has the following meaning In a Communications network, a network node equipped for interfacing with In Information technology, a packet is a formatted unit of Data carried by a Packet mode Computer network. Requirements for routers are defined in (Request for Comments 1812). 
The idea was worked out in more detailed form by Cerf's networking research group at Stanford in the 1973–74 period, resulting in the first TCP specification (Request for Comments 675)  (The early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around the same period of time (i. PARC (Palo Alto Research Center Inc formerly Xerox PARC, is a Research and development company in Palo Alto California that began as a division of The PARC Universal Packet (commonly abbreviated to PUP, although the original documents usually use Pup) was one of the two earliest Internetwork Protocol e. contemporaneous), was also a significant technical influence; people moved between the two).
DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, and the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in University College London ( UCL) is a multi-faculty university institution based in the United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London Four versions were developed: TCP v1, TCP v2, a split into TCP v3 and IP v3 in the spring of 1978, and then stability with TCP/IP v4 — the standard protocol still in use on the Internet today.
In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London (UCL). In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between the U. S. , UK, and Norway. Between 1978 and 1983, several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centers. A full switchover to TCP/IP on the ARPANET took place January 1, 1983. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) 
In March 1982, the US Department of Defense made TCP/IP the standard for all military computer networking.  In 1985, the Internet Architecture Board held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, helping popularize the protocol and leading to its increasing commercial use. The Internet Architecture Board (IAB is the committee charged with oversight of the technical and Engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society
On November 9, 2005 Kahn and Cerf were presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for their contribution to American culture. Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Presidential Medal of Freedom is a decoration bestowed by the President of the United States and is along with the equivalent Congressional Gold Medal bestowed
The IP suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services. A router ('rautər in the USA 'rutər in the UK and Ireland, or either pronunciation in Australia and Canada is a Computer whose software and hardware are usually User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. The Internet Protocol ( IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a Packet-switched Internetwork using the Internet Protocol In Computer networking encapsulation is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from Generally a protocol at a higher level uses a protocol at a lower level to help accomplish its aims. The Internet protocol stack has never been altered, by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), from the four layers defined in RFC 1122. The IETF makes no effort to follow the seven-layer OSI model and does not refer to it in standards-track protocol specifications and other architectural documents. The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer Network protocol
|Application||DNS, TFTP, TLS/SSL, FTP, Gopher, HTTP, IMAP, IRC, NNTP, POP3, SIP, SMTP, SNMP, SSH, TELNET, ECHO, RTP, PNRP, rlogin, ENRP|
|Routing protocols like BGP, which for a variety of reasons run over TCP, may also be considered part of the application or network layer. The Application Layer is the seventh level of the seven-layer OSI model, and the top layer of the TCP/IP model The Domain Name System (DNS is a hierarchical naming system for computers services or any resource participating in the Internet. Trivial File Transport Protocol ( TFTP) is a very simple file transfer protocol, with the functionality of a very basic form of FTP; it was Transport Layer Security ( TLS) and its predecessor Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL) are Cryptographic protocols that provide secure For other uses see Gopher. Gopher is a distributed Document search and retrieval Network protocol designed Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP) is a Communications protocol for the transfer of information on the Internet. The Internet Message Access Protocol or IMAP is one of the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for E-mail retrieval the other being POP3 The Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP is an Internet application protocol used primarily for reading In Computing, local E-mail clients use the Post Office Protocol version 3 ( POP3) an application-layer Internet standard protocol The Session Initiation Protocol ( SIP) is a signalling protocol widely used for setting up and tearing down Multimedia Communication sessions Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP) is a De facto standard for electronic mail (e-mail transmissions across the Internet. Simple Network Management Protocol ( SNMP) forms part of the Internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF Secure Shell or SSH is a Network protocol that allows data to be exchanged using a Secure channel between two networked devices Telnet ( Tel ecommunication net work is a Network protocol used on the Internet or local area network (LAN connections The echo service is an Internet protocol defined in RFC 862 It was originally proposed for testing and measurement of round-trip times in IP networks The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers In Computing, rlogin is a Unix software utility that allows users to log in on another host via a network, communicating via The Endpoint Handlespace Redundancy Protocol is used by the Reliable server pooling (RSerPool framework for the communication between Pool Registrars to maintain and The Border Gateway Protocol ( BGP) is the core routing protocol of the Internet.|
|Transport||TCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP, IL, RUDP|
|Internet||Routing protocols like OSPF, which run over IP, are also to be considered part of the network layer, as they provide path selection. In Computer networking, the Transport Layer is a group of methods and protocols within a layered architecture of network components within which it is responsible for encapsulating The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. User Datagram Protocol ( UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. The Datagram Congestion Control Protocol ( DCCP) is a message-oriented Transport Layer protocol. In Computer networking, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP is a Transport Layer protocol, serving in a similar role as the popular protocols The Internet Link protocol or IL is a connection-based Transport layer protocol designed at Bell Labs originally as part of the Plan 9 operating In Computer networking the Reliable User Datagram Protocol ( RUDP) is a Transport layer protocol designed at Bell Labs for the The Network Layer is Layer 3 (of seven in the OSI model of networking Open Shortest Path First ( OSPF) is a dynamic Routing protocol for use in Internet Protocol (IP networks ICMP and IGMP run over IP and are considered part of the network layer, as they provide control information. The Internet Control Message Protocol ( ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. The Internet Group Management Protocol ( IGMP) is a Communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol Multicast groups|
|IP (IPv4, IPv6)|
|ARP and RARP operate underneath IP but above the link layer so they belong somewhere in between. The Internet Protocol ( IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a Packet-switched Internetwork using the Internet Protocol Internet Protocol version 4 ( IPv4) is the fourth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol (IP and it is the first version of the protocol to be widely Internet Protocol version 6 ( IPv6) is an Internet Layer protocol for packet -switched internetworks. In Computer networking the Address Resolution Protocol ( ARP) is the method for finding a host's hardware address when only its Network Layer address is Reverse Address Resolution Protocol ( RARP) is a Link layer networking protocol used by a host computer to obtain its IPv4 address given only its link-layer|
|Network access (combines Data link and Physical)||Ethernet, Wi-Fi, token ring, PPP, SLIP, FDDI, ATM, Frame Relay, SMDS|
Some textbooks have attempted to map the Internet protocol suite model onto the seven layer OSI Model. The Data Link Layer is Layer 2 of the seven-layer OSI model. It responds to service requests from the Network Layer and issues service requests to the The Physical Layer is the first level in the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. Ethernet is a family of frame -based Computer networking technologies for Local area networks (LANs Wi-Fi (ˈwaɪfaɪ is the trade name for the popular wireless technology used Token ring Local area network (LAN technology is a local area network protocol which resides at the Data link layer In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol, or PPP, is a data link protocol commonly used to establish a direct connection between two nodes The Serial Line Internet Protocol ( SLIP) is a mostly Obsolete encapsulation of the Internet Protocol designed to work over Serial ports Fiber distributed data interface ( FDDI) provides a standard for Data transmission in a Local area network In electronic digital data transmission systems the Network protocol Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM encodes data traffic into small fixed-sized cells In the context of Computer networking, frame relay consists of an efficient Data transmission technique used to send digital information SMDS, which stands for Switched Multi-megabit Data Services, was a Connectionless service used to connect LANs MANs and WANs to The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer Network protocol The mapping often splits the Internet protocol suite's Network access layer into a Data link layer on top of a Physical layer, and the Internet layer is mapped to the OSI's Network layer. The Data Link Layer is Layer 2 of the seven-layer OSI model. It responds to service requests from the Network Layer and issues service requests to the The Physical Layer is the first level in the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Reference Model or OSI Model) is an abstract description for layered communications and computer Network protocol The Network Layer is Layer 3 (of seven in the OSI model of networking These textbooks are secondary sources that contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources. The IETF has repeatedly stated that Internet protocol and architecture development is not intended to be OSI-compliant.
RFC 3439, on Internet architecture, contains a section entitled: "Layering Considered Harmful": Emphasizing layering as the key driver of architecture is not a feature of the TCP/IP model, but rather of OSI. Much confusion comes from attempts to force OSI-like layering onto an architecture that minimizes their use. 
Today, most commercial operating systems include and install the TCP/IP stack by default. For most users, there is no need to look for implementations. TCP/IP is included in all commercial Unix systems, Mac OS X, and all free-software Unix-like systems such as Linux distributions and BSD systems, as well as Microsoft Windows. Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX, sometimes also written as Unix with Small caps) is a computer Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix) Operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system while not necessarily conforming Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Microsoft Windows is a series of Software Operating systems and Graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft.
Unique implementations include Lightweight TCP/IP, an open source stack designed for embedded systems and KA9Q NOS, a stack and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and personal computers connected via serial lines. lwIP ( lightweight IP) is a widely used Open source TCP/IP stack designed for Embedded systems lwIP was originally developed by Adam Open source is a development methodology which offers practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge An embedded system is a special-purpose Computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with Real-time computing constraints KA9Q, also called KA9Q NOS or simply NOS was a popular early implementation of TCP/IP and associated protocols for amateur Packet radio systems and smaller Personal Packet radio is a form of Digital Data transmission used to link computers A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated