IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by Mass. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties It is developed and kept up to date under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( IUPAC) (aɪjuːpæk or ay-yoo-pec) is an international Non-governmental organization
The rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book and the Red Book respectively. An organic compound is any member of a large class of Chemical compounds whose Molecules contain Carbon. Traditionally inorganic compounds are considered to be of mineral not biological origin A third publication, known as the Green Book, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Quantities Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry Third Edition (ISBN 978-0-85404-433-7 also known as the Green Book, Prepared for publication by E The musical instrument is spelled Cymbal. A symbol is something --- such as an object, Picture, written word a sound a piece A physical Quantity is a physical property that can be quantified The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics ( IUPAP) is an international Non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of Physics. Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0-86542-684-8 is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in Chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry and macromolecular chemistry . Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living Organisms It deals with the Structure and function of cellular components such as The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ( IUBMB) is an international Non-governmental organisation concerned with Biochemistry and Analytical chemistry is the study of the Chemical composition of natural and artificial Materials. Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary Science that deals with the Chemical synthesis and chemical properties of These books are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances which are published from time to time in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry. For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal. Pure and Applied Chemistry (abb Pure Appl Chem) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
This article treats the system of nomenclature in general, notably its aims and historical development. Separate articles treat the naming of organic compounds and inorganic compounds in more detail. The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming Inorganic Chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union
The primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that the person who hears or reads a chemical name is under no ambiguity as to which chemical compound it refers: each name should refer to a single substance. It is considered less important to ensure that each substance should have a single name, although the number of acceptable names is limited.
It is also preferable that the name convey some information about the structure or chemistry of a compound. CAS numbers form an extreme example of names which do not perform this function: each refers to a single compound but none contain information about the structure. CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to
The form of nomenclature which should be used depends on the public to which it is addressed: as such there is no single correct form, but rather different forms which are more or less appropriate in different circumstances.
A common name will often suffice to identify a chemical compound in a particular set of circumstances. To be more generally applicable, the name should indicate at least the chemical formula. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes To be more specific still, the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms may need to be specified.
In a few specific circumstances (such as the construction of large indices), it becomes necessary to ensure that each compound has a unique name: this requires the addition of extra rules to the standard IUPAC system (the CAS system is the most commonly used in this context), at the expense of having names which are longer and less familiar to most readers. Chemical Abstracts Service ( CAS) is a division of the American Chemical Society, and produces Chemical Abstracts, and related products Another system gaining popularity is the International Chemical Identifier—while InChI symbols are not human readable, they contain complete information about substance structure. The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier ( InChI, pronounced "INchee" is a textual Identifier for Chemical substances designed to provide a That makes them more general than CAS numbers.
The IUPAC system is often criticized for the above failures when they become relevant (for example in differing reactivity of sulfur allotropes which IUPAC doesn't distinguish). Allotropy (Gr allos, other and tropos, manner is a behavior exhibited by certain Chemical elements these elements can exist in two or more different While IUPAC has a human-readable advantage over CAS numbering, it would be difficult to claim that the IUPAC names for some larger, relevant molecules (such as rapamycin) are human-readable, and so most researchers simply use the informal names. Sirolimus ( INN) is a relatively new immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, and is especially useful in Kidney
The nomenclature of alchemy is rich in description, but does not effectively meet the aims outlined above. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Opinions differ whether this was deliberate on the part of the early practitioners of alchemy or whether it was a consequence of the particular (and often esoteric) theoretical framework in which they worked.
While both explanations are probably valid to some extent, it is remarkable that the first "modern" system of chemical nomenclature appeared at the same time as the distinction (by Lavoisier) between elements and compounds, in the late eighteenth century. A chemical element is a type of Atom that is distinguished by its Atomic number; that is by the number of Protons in its nucleus. A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more different elements chemically bonded together in a fixed proportion by Mass. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system
The French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau published his recommendations in 1782, hoping that his "constant method of denomination" would "help the intelligence and relieve the memory". This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau (also Guyton-Morveau after the French Revolution; January 4, 1737 &ndash January 2, 1816 Year 1782 ( MDCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The system was refined in collaboration with Berthollet, de Fourcroy and Lavoisier, and promoted by the latter in a textbook which would survive long after his death at the guillotine in 1794. Claude Louis Berthollet ( December 9, 1748 &ndash November 6, 1822) was a Savoyard Chemist who "became vice president Antoine François comte de Fourcroy ( June 15, 1755 &ndash December 16, 1809) was a French Chemist and a contemporary The guillotine ( pronounced /ˈgijətin/ or /ˈgɪlətin/ in English in French was a device used for carrying out executions by Decapitation. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a  The project was also espoused by Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who adapted the ideas for the German-speaking world. Friherre Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 &ndash 7 August 1848 was a Swedish chemist
The recommendations of Guyton covered only what would be today known as inorganic compounds. With the massive expansion of organic chemistry in the mid-nineteenth century and the greater understanding of the structure of organic compounds, the need for a less ad hoc system of nomenclature was felt just as the theoretical tools became available to make this possible. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar An international conference was convened in Geneva in 1892 by the national chemical societies, from which the first widely accepted proposals for standardization arose. Geneva (Genève is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French -speaking Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year 
A commission was set up in 1913 by the Council of the International Association of Chemical Societies, but its work was interrupted by World War I. Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All After the war, the task passed to the newly formed International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, which first appointed commissions for organic, inorganic and biochemical nomenclature in 1921 and continues to do so to this day. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry ( IUPAC) (aɪjuːpæk or ay-yoo-pec) is an international Non-governmental organization Year 1921 ( MCMXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1921 calendar of the Gregorian calendar
For inorganic compounds there are a number of different ways in which compounds can be named. These are compositional, substitutive and additive. The different methods of nomenclature are covered in the article IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005, which summarises the latest IUPAC recommendations. The IUPAC Recommendations 2005 Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry replaces their previous recommendations "Nomenclatureof Inorganic Chemistry IUPAC Recommendations 1990 (Red Book
Examples of compositional names are:
An alternative method uses the oxidation state on the metal in place of suffices e. g. :
This naming method generally generally follows established IUPAC organic nomenclature. Hydrides of the main group elements (groups 13-17) are given -ane base names, e. g. borane, BH3, phosphane, PH3(N. B. not phosphine). The compound PCl3 would be named substitutively as trichlorophosphane.
This naming method has been developed principally for coordination compounds although it can be more widely applied. An example of its application is:
Note that ligands such as chloride become chlorido- rather than chloro as in substitutive naming.