The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy An oxidizing agent or oxidising agent (also called an oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) can be defined as either a Chemical compound A combustion chamber is the part of an Engine in which Fuel is burned This exothermic reaction creates gases at high temperature and pressure, which are permitted to expand. An exothermic reaction is a Chemical reaction that releases Heat. Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface The defining feature of an internal combustion engine is that useful work is performed by the expanding hot gases acting directly to cause movement of solid parts of the engine, by acting on pistons, rotors, or even by pressing on and moving the entire engine itself.
This contrasts with external combustion engines, such as steam engines and Stirling engines, which use an external combustion chamber to heat a separate working fluid, which then in turn does work, for example by moving a piston or a turbine. An external combustion engine (EC engine is a Heat engine where an (internal working Fluid is heated by combustion of an external source through the Engine A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. A Stirling engine is a closed-cycle regenerative Heat engine with a Gaseous working fluid
The term Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is almost always used to refer specifically to reciprocating piston engines, Wankel engines and similar designs in which combustion is intermittent. The Wankel engine is a type of Internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating However, continuous combustion engines, such as jet engines, most rockets and many gas turbines are also internal combustion engines.
The first internal combustion engines did not have compression, but ran on an air/fuel mixture sucked or blown in during the first part of the intake stroke. The most significant distinction between modern internal combustion engines and the early designs is the use of compression and, in particular, in-cylinder compression. Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to Compressive stress, resulting in reduction of Volume.
Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in automobiles, equipment, and other portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous, since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy-density. These engines have appeared in transport in almost all automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives, generally using petroleum (called All-Petroleum Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles or APICEVs). This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Where very high power is required, such as jet aircraft, helicopters and large ships, they appear mostly in the form of turbines. A jet aircraft is an Aircraft propelled by Jet engines Jet aircraft fly much faster than Propeller -powered aircraft and at higher altitudes -- as high as History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. A turbine is a rotary Engine that extracts Energy from a Fluid flow
They are also used for electric generators (i. In Electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts Mechanical energy to Electrical energy, generally using Electromagnetic e. , 12V generators) and by industry.
All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel, typically with the oxygen from the air, although other oxidizers such as nitrous oxide may be employed. In Thermodynamics, the word exothermic "outside heating" describes a process or reaction that releases Energy usually in the form of Heat, but Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of Fuel is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy Nitrous oxide, commonly known as " laughing gas," is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula N 2 O. Also see stoichiometry. Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry is the Calculation of Quantitative (measurable
The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from petroleum. In Organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an Organic compound consisting entirely of Hydrogen and Carbon. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit These include the fuels known as dieselfuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Diesel or Diesel fuel (ˈdiːzəl in general is any Fuel used in Diesel engines The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Propane is a three- Carbon Alkane, normally a gas but compressible to a liquid that is transportable Most internal combustion engines designed for gasoline can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications except for the fuel delivery components. Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Ethanol fuel is Ethanol (ethyl alcohol the same type of Alcohol found in Alcoholic beverages. Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by (more properly known as, TAG or triacylglyceride) is Glyceride in which the Glycerol is Esterified with three Fatty acids It is the Some can also run on hydrogen gas. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1
All internal combustion engines must achieve ignition in their cylinders to create combustion. Typically engines use either a spark ignition (SI) method or a compression ignition (CI) system. A spark plug (also very rarely nowadays in British English: a sparking plug) is an electrical device that fits into the Cylinder A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr In the past, other methods using hot tubes or flames have been used.
Electrical/gasoline-type ignition systems (that can also run on other fuels, as previously mentioned) generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction coil to provide a high-voltage electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French Physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of Rechargeable battery. An induction coil or "spark coil" ( archaically known as a Ruhmkorff coil) is a type of Disruptive discharge Coil. This battery can be recharged during operation using an electricity-generating device such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to Alternating current electrical energy Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress to less than 185 psi and use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder.
Diesel Engine ignition systems, such as the diesel engine and HCCI engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed Fuel and Oxidizer (typically air are The compression that occurs is usually twice or more higher than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process due to higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are also more susceptible to cold starting issues, though they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Most diesels also have battery and charging systems; however, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as luxury for ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories. Most new engines, however, rely on electrical systems that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.
Once ignited and burnt, the combustion products—hot gases—have more available energy than the original compressed fuel/air mixture (which had higher chemical energy). Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός The available energy is manifested as high temperature and pressure which can be translated into work by the engine. Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature Pressure (symbol 'p' is the force per unit Area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface In Physics, mechanical work is the amount of Energy transferred by a Force. In a reciprocating engine, the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders drive the engine's pistons.
Once the available energy has been removed, the remaining hot gases are vented (often by opening a valve or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows the piston to return to its previous position (top dead center, or TDC). Exhaust gas is Flue gas which occurs as a result of the Combustion of fuels such as Natural gas, Gasoline /petrol Diesel, Fuel A poppet valve is a Valve consisting of a hole usually round or oval and a tapered plug usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem The piston can then proceed to the next phase of its cycle, which varies between engines. Any heat not translated into work is normally considered a waste product and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid cooling system. In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature
Engine efficiency can be discussed in a number of ways but usually involves a comparison of the total chemical energy in the fuels and the useful energy abstracted from the fuels in the form of kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion The most fundamental and abstract discussion of engine efficiency is the thermodynamic limit for abstracting energy from the fuel defined by a thermodynamic cycle. A thermodynamic cycle is a series of Thermodynamic processes which returns a system to its initial state The most comprehensive is the empirical fuel economy of the total engine system for accomplishing a desired task, for example miles per gallon. Fuel economy in automobiles is the amount of Fuel required to move the Automobile over a given Distance. Miles per gallon ( MPG) is a metric term that measures how many miles a vehicle can travel on one gallon of fuel
Internal combustion engines are primarily heat engines and as such the phenomenon that limits their efficiency is described by thermodynamic cycles. A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts Thermal energy to mechanical output None of these cycles exceed the limit defined by the Carnot cycle which states that the overall efficiency is dictated by the difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures of the engine. The Carnot cycle is a particular Thermodynamic cycle, modeled on the hypothetical Carnot heat engine, proposed by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in 1824 and A terrestrial engine is usually fundamentally limited by the upper thermal stability of the material used to make the engine. All metals and alloys eventually melt or decompose, there is significant research into ceramic materials that can be made with higher thermal stabilities and desirable structural properties. The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across An alloy is a Solid solution or Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a Metal, which itself has The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Higher thermal stability allows for greater temperature difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures and thus greater thermodynamic efficiency.
The thermodynamic limits assume that the engine is operating in ideal conditions. A frictionless world, ideal gases, perfect insulators, and operation at infinite time. The real world is substantially more complex and all the complexities reduce efficiency. In addition real engines run best at specific loads and rates as described by their power curve. The power band which refers to the range of operating speeds under which the engine is able to operate efficiently For example a car cruising on a highway is usually operating significantly below its ideal load. The engine is designed for the higher loads desired for rapid acceleration. The application engines are used for contribute drag on the total system reducing overall efficiency, for example wind resistance for vehicles. In Fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called fluid resistance) is the force that resists the movement of a Solid object through a Fluid (a These and many other losses result in an engines real world fuel economy, usually measured in the units of miles per gallon (or kilometers per liter) for automobiles. In the MPG the miles represents a meaningful amount of work and the volume of hydrocarbon implies a standard energy content.
There are many inventions concerned with increasing the efficiency of IC-Engines. In general, practical engines are always compromises, or trade-off's, between different properties, such as efficiency, weight, power, response, exhaust emissions, noise etc. etc. Sometimes economy also plays a role, not only as the cost of manufacturing the engine itself, but also manufacturing and distribution of the fuel. Increasing the engine efficiency brings a better fuel economy, but only if the fuel cost per energy content is the same.
Internal combustion engines—particularly reciprocating internal combustion engines—produce air pollution emissions, due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Carbon (kɑɹbən is a Chemical element with the symbol C and its Atomic number is 6 The main derivatives of the process are carbon dioxide CO2, water and some soot, also called particulate matter (PM). Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Soot (ˈsʊt is a general term that refers to the black impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas The effects of inhaling particulate matter have been widely studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. There are however some additional products of the combustion process that include nitrogen oxides and sulfur and some uncombusted hydrocarbons, depending on the operating conditions and the fuel/air ratio. The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16
The fuel does not get completely burned in the engine and passes through the exhaust unchanged. The primary causes of this are the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline engines in order to achieve combustion (the fuel would burn more completely in excess air) and the "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls. Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry is the Calculation of Quantitative (measurable Quenching is commonly observed in diesel (compression ignition) engines that run on natural gas, when running at lower speed. It reduces the efficiency and increases knocking and sometimes causes the engine to stall. Increasing the amount of air in the engine reduces the amount of the first two pollutants but tends to encourage the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to combine to produce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health. The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Further chemicals released are Benzene and 1,3-Butadiene that are particularly harmful. Benzene, or benzol, is an organic Chemical compound and a known Carcinogen with the molecular formula C 6 H 6 Not all the fuel burns up completely, so Carbon Monoxide (CO) is also produced. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas.
Carbon fuels contain sulfur and impurities, leading to sulfur oxides (SOx) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust, promoting acid rain. Acid rain is Rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually Acidic It has harmful effects on plants aquatic animals and infastructure One final element in exhaust pollution is Ozone (O3). OZONE is an object oriented Operating system written in the C programming language. This is not emitted directly but made in the air by the action of sunlight on other pollutants to form "ground level Ozone", which, unlike the "Ozone Layer" in the high atmosphere, is regarded as a bad thing if levels are too high. Ozone is actually broken down by Nitrogen Oxides, so one tends to be lower where the other is higher.
For the pollutants described above (Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide, and Ozone) there are accepted levels, set by legislation, at which no harmful effects are observed even in sensitive population groups. For the other three (Benzene, 1:3 butadiene and particulates) there is no way of proving they are safe at any level, so the experts set standards where the risk to health is "exceedingly small".
Finally, significant contributions to noise pollution are made by internal combustion engines. Noise pollution (or environmental noise) is displeasing human- or machine-created sound that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life Most of this noise produced is due to automobile and truck traffic operating on highways and street systems.
For a four-stroke engine, key parts of the engine include the crankshaft (purple), one or more camshafts (red and blue), and valves. Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an Engine which translates reciprocating Linear The camshaft is an apparatus often used in Piston engines to operate Poppet valves It consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the Cylinder bank A poppet valve is a Valve consisting of a hole usually round or oval and a tapered plug usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust In both types of engines, there are one or more cylinders (grey and green), and for each cylinder, there is a spark plug (darker-grey), a piston (yellow), and a crank (purple). A spark plug (also very rarely nowadays in British English: a sparking plug) is an electrical device that fits into the Cylinder A piston is a component of Reciprocating engines Pumps and Gas compressors It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by Piston A crank is an arm at right angles to a shaft (an Axle or spindle by which motion is imparted to or received from the shaft it is also used to change circular into Reciprocating A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke. The downward stroke that occurs directly after the air/fuel mix passes from the carburetor or fuel injector to the cylinder where it is ignited is known as a power stroke.
A Wankel engine has a triangular rotor that orbits in an epitrochoidal (figure 8 shape) chamber around an eccentric shaft. The Wankel engine is a type of Internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating An epitrochoid (ɛpɨˈtrɒkɔɪd -ˈtroʊ- is a roulette traced by a point attached to a Circle of Radius r rolling around the outside The four phases of operation (intake, compression, power, exhaust) take place in what is effectively a moving, variable-volume chamber.
A Bourke Engine uses a pair of pistons integrated to a Scotch Yoke that transmits reciprocating force through a specially designed bearing assembly to turn a crank mechanism. The Bourke Engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the 1920s as an improved Two stroke engine The Scotch yoke, also spelled Scotch Yoke and scotch yoke, is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice-versa Intake, compression, power, and exhaust occur in each stroke.
At one time, the word "engine" (from Latin, via Old French, ingenium, "ability") meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity A siege engine is a device that is designed to Break or circumvent City walls and other Fortifications in Siege warfare. A "motor" (from Latin motor, "mover") is any machine that produces mechanical power. In Physics, power (symbol P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted or the amount of energy required or expended for Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines," but combustion engines are often referred to as "motors. An electric motor uses Electrical energy to produce Mechanical energy. " (An electric engine refers to locomotive operated by electricity). "Electric Trains" redirects here For the 1995 Squeeze single see Electric Trains (song. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train.
However, many people consider engines as those things which generate their power from within, and motors as requiring an outside source of energy to perform their work.
Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes (one up, one down) for every power stroke. A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is a Heat engine that uses one or more reciprocating Pistons to convert The crude oil engine is a type of Internal combustion engine similar to the Hot bulb engine. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. The term six stroke engine describes two different approaches in the Internal combustion engine, developed since the 1990s to improve its efficiency and reduce emissions The hotbulb, or hot bulb engine or Vaporizing oil engine is a type of Internal combustion engine. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr A poppet valve is a Valve consisting of a hole usually round or oval and a tapered plug usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem The sleeve valve is a type of Valve mechanism for Piston engines distinct from the more common Poppet valve. The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. The free-piston engine is a linear 'crankless' combustion engine in which the piston motion is not controlled by a Crankshaft but determined by the interaction of forces from The Bourke Engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the 1920s as an improved Two stroke engine Controlled Combustion Engine (CCE is a term used by Revetec to identify a type of Internal combustion engine (ICE designed by Brad Howell-Smith This article is about Internal combustion engines that do not use conventional Pistons See also Rotary engine (disambiguation for other uses of this The Wankel engine is a type of Internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating A nutating disc engine is a recently patented Internal combustion Engine comprising fundamentally only one moving part and a direct drive onto the Crankshaft The Sarich orbital engine is a type of Internal combustion engine, featuring rotary rather than reciprocating motion of its internal parts The Quasiturbine or Qurbine engine is a proposed Pistonless rotary engine using a rhomboidal rotor whose The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. A swing-piston engine is a type of Internal combustion engine in which the pistons move in a circular motion inside a ring-shaped "cylinder" moving closer and further A swing-piston engine is a type of Internal combustion engine in which the pistons move in a circular motion inside a ring-shaped "cylinder" moving closer and further A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas specific --->A jet engine is a Reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of Fluid to A rocket engine is a Jet engine that uses only Propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust Since there are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes, alternative methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. Scavenging, or necrophagy, is a Carnivorous Feeding behaviour in which a predator consumes Corpses or Carrion that were killed The most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize fresh charge in the crankcase, which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a For the GI Joe character see List of GI Joe ARAH characters. For the Transformers characters see Crankcase (Transformers.
Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their power output and mechanically very simple; however, they are also generally less efficient and more polluting than their four-stroke counterparts. However, in single-cylinder small motor applications, cc for cc, (cc meaning cubic centimeter), a two-stroke engine produces much more power than equivalent 4 strokes, due to the enormous advantage of having 1 power stroke for every 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720 degrees in a 4 stroke motor).
Small displacement, crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to scavenging, allowing some of it to escape out of the exhaust port. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use air-assisted fuel injection, which avoids this loss, and are more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke engines. Fuel injection is essential for a modern two-stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent emission standards.
Research continues into improving many aspects of two-stroke motors, including direct fuel injection, amongst other things. Initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts.
Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles, lawnmowers, weed-whackers, chain saws, jet skis, mopeds, outboard motors, and many motorcycles. A snowmobile (known locally as snowmachine, snowsled or by the Brandname Ski-Doo) is a land vehicle that is commonly propelled by A lawn mower or lawnmower is a machine that has one or more revolving blades to cut a Lawn at an even length Weedeater redirects here for the band see Weedeater (band A string trimmer, also called a line trimmer, Weedeater A chainsaw (or chain saw) is a portable mechanical motorized Saw. Jet Ski is the Brand name of Personal watercraft (PWC manufactured by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd Mopeds are a class of low-powered (typically under 50 cc displacement) motorized vehicle generally two or three wheeled An outboard motor is a propulsion system for smaller Boats General uses Outboard motors for a Boat are developed as a self-contained MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records.
The largest compression-ignition engines are two-strokes and are used in some locomotives and large ships. These engines use forced induction to scavenge the cylinders. Forced induction is a term used to describe Internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. An example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer turbocharged 2 stroke diesel as used in large container ships. The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C Turbocharged Two-stroke Diesel engine is currently considered the largest Reciprocating engine in the world It is the most efficient and powerful engine in the world, with over 50% thermal efficiency. For comparison, the most efficient small 4-stroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency (SAE 900648), and size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to area.
Engines based on the four-stroke or Otto cycle have one power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-up-down) and are used in cars, larger boats, some motorcycles, and many light aircraft. Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it They are generally quieter, more efficient, and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. There are a number of variations of these cycles, most notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of Internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. In Engineering, the Miller cycle is a combustion process used in a type of four-stroke Internal combustion engine. Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. The The steps involved here are:
Engines based on the five-stroke cycle are a variant of the four-stroke cycle. Normally the four cycles are intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust. The fifth cycle added by Delautour is refrigeration. Engines running on a five-stroke cycle are claimed to be up to 30 percent more efficient than equivalent four-stroke engines.
The six stroke engine captures the wasted heat from the 4-stroke Otto cycle and creates steam, which simultaneously cools the engine while providing a free power stroke. The term six stroke engine describes two different approaches in the Internal combustion engine, developed since the 1990s to improve its efficiency and reduce emissions This removes the need for a cooling system, making the engine lighter while giving 40% increased efficiency over the Otto Cycle.
Beare Head Technology combines a four-stroke engine bottom end with a ported cylinder, which closely resembles that of a two-stroke: thus, 4+2 = six-stroke. It has an opposing piston that acts in unison with auxiliary low pressure reed and rotary valves, allowing variable compression and a range of tuning options.
In this engine, two opposed cylinders are linked to the crank by a Scotch yoke. The Bourke Engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the 1920s as an improved Two stroke engine The Scotch yoke, also spelled Scotch Yoke and scotch yoke, is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice-versa The Scotch yoke mechanism prevents side thrust, preventing any piston slap, allowing operation as a detonation or "explosion" engine. Knocking (also called knock, detonation or spark knock, pinking in UK English or pinging in US English in spark-ignition This also greatly reduces friction between pistons and cylinder walls. The Bourke engine uses fewer moving parts and has to overcome less friction than conventional crank and slider engines with poppet valves. The Bourke Engine was designed by Russell Bourke in the 1920s as an improved Two stroke engine Friction is the Force resisting the relative motion of two Surfaces in contact or a surface in contact with a fluid (e However no independent testing of this engine has ever borne out any of these claims.
These are also cylinder-based engines, which may be one or two-stroke but use, instead of a crankshaft and piston rods, two gear-connected, counterrotating concentric cams to convert reciprocating motion into rotary movement. Controlled Combustion Engine (CCE is a term used by Revetec to identify a type of Internal combustion engine (ICE designed by Brad Howell-Smith These cams practically cancel out sideward forces that would otherwise be exerted on the cylinders by the pistons, greatly improving mechanical efficiency. The number of lobes of the cams (always an odd number not less than 3) determines the piston travel versus the torque delivered. In this engine, there are two cylinders that are 180 degrees apart for each pair of counterrotating cams. For single-stroke versions, there are as many cycles per cylinder pair as there are lobes on each cam, and twice as many for two-stroke engines.
The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes, so is more properly called a four-phase, rather than a four-stroke, engine. The Wankel engine is a type of Internal combustion engine which uses a rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating It operates with the same separation of phases as the four-stroke engine, with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine. This engine provides three power 'strokes' per revolution per rotor (while it is true that 3 power strokes occur per ROTOR revolution, due to the 3/1 revolution ratio of the rotor to the eccentric shaft, only 1 power stroke per shaft revolution actually occurs), typically giving it a greater power-to-weight ratio than piston engines. This type of engine is most notably used in the current Mazda RX-8, the earlier RX-7, and other models. The Mazda RX-8 is a Sports car manufactured by Mazda Motor Corporation. The Mazda RX-7 is a Sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002
Gas turbines cycles (notably jet engines) do not use the same system to both compress and then expand the gases; instead, separate compression and expansion turbines are employed, giving continuous power. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas specific --->A jet engine is a Reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of Fluid to Essentially, the intake gas (normally air) is compressed and then combusted with a fuel, which greatly raises the temperature and volume. The larger volume of hot gas from the combustion chamber is then fed through the gas turbine, which is then able to power the compressor. The exhaust gas may be used to provide thrust, supplying only sufficient power to the turbine to compress incoming air (jet engine); or as much energy as possible can be supplied to the turboshaft (gas turbine proper). Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton 's Second and Third Laws. A turboshaft engine is a form of Gas turbine which is optimized to produce Shaft power, rather than Jet thrust.
In some old noncompressing internal combustion engines: In the first part of the piston downstroke, a fuel/air mixture was sucked or blown in. In the rest of the piston downstroke, the inlet valve closed and the fuel/air mixture fired. In the piston upstroke, the exhaust valve was open. This was an attempt at imitating the way a piston steam engine works. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Since the explosive mixture was not compressed, the heat and pressure generated by combustion was much less, causing lower overall efficiency.
Nowadays, fuels used include:
Even fluidized metal powders and explosives have seen some use. See also Natural gas, Biofuel Biogas typically refers to a Gas produced by the biological breakdown of Organic matter in the Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 Engines that use gases for fuel are called gas engines, and those that use liquid hydrocarbons are called oil engines. However, gasoline engines are also often colloquially referred to as 'gas engines. '
The main limitations on fuels are that it must be easily transportable through the fuel system to the combustion chamber and that the fuel releases sufficient energy in the form of heat upon combustion to make use of the engine practical. Fuel injection is a system for mixing fuel with air in an Internal combustion engine. A combustion chamber is the part of an Engine in which Fuel is burned In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός In Physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is Energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in Temperature Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of
Diesel engines are generally heavier, noisier, and more powerful at lower speeds than gasoline engines. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an Internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol ( Gasoline) and similar volatile They are also more fuel-efficient in most circumstances, and are used in heavy road vehicles, some automobiles (increasingly so for their increased fuel efficiency over gasoline engines), ships, railway locomotives, and light aircraft. Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense is the same as Thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. A locomotive is a railway Vehicle that provides the motive power for a Train. Gasoline engines are used in most other road vehicles, including most cars, motorcycles and mopeds. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. Mopeds are a class of low-powered (typically under 50 cc displacement) motorized vehicle generally two or three wheeled Note that in Europe, sophisticated diesel-engined cars have taken over about 40% of the market since the 1990s. There are also engines that run on hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and biodiesel. A hydrogen vehicle is a Vehicle that uses Hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a Chemical compound Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, or Autogas) is a mixture of Hydrocarbon Gases used as a Fuel Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum-based Diesel fuel consisting of short chain Alkyl ( Methyl or ethyl) Esters made by Paraffin and tractor vaporizing oil (TVO) engines are no longer seen. In chemistry paraffin is the common name for the Alkane Hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H2 n +2
Since air is plentiful at the surface of the earth, the oxidizer is typically atmospheric oxygen, which has the advantage of not being stored within the vehicle, increasing the power-to-weight and power to volume ratios. There are other materials that are used for special purposes, often to increase power output or to allow operation under water or in space.
Some have theorized that in the future, hydrogen might replace such fuels. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 The hydrogen economy is a proposed method of deriving the Energy needed for Motive power (cars boats airplanes buildings or portable electronics by reacting Furthermore, with the introduction of hydrogen fuel cell technology, the use of internal combustion engines may be phased out. A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device It produces electricity from Fuel (on the Anode side and an oxidant (on the The advantage of hydrogen is that its combustion produces only water. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. This is unlike the combustion of fossil fuels, which produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide resulting from incomplete combustion; and other local and atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that lead to urban air pollution, acid rain, and ozone layer problems. Carbon dioxide ( Chemical formula:) is a Chemical compound composed of two Oxygen Atoms covalently bonded to a single Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO is a colorless odorless tasteless yet highly toxic Gas. The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any Binary compound of Oxygen and Nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds Nitric Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Acid rain is Rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually Acidic It has harmful effects on plants aquatic animals and infastructure The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were worked out by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930 However, free hydrogen for fuel does not occur naturally, and oxidizing it liberates less energy than it takes to produce hydrogen in the first place, due to the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of Thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing Entropy, stating that the entropy of an Isolated system which Note also, that if the atmosphere is used as the oxidizer in high temperature combustion, the resultant nitrogen oxide byproducts must be reduced by an appropriate catalytic converter.
Another problem with hydrogen as a fuel in a conventional four-stroke poppet valve engine is a tendency to preignite, due to the presence of a hot exhaust valve. Certain engine types such as the Wankel rotary engine and various uniflow reciprocating types do not have this inherent problem. Felix Heinrich Wankel Hon DEng (August 13 1902 &ndash October 9 1988 was a German Mechanical engineer and the inventor of the Wankel engine. A recently developed nutating disc engine also appears to offer an alternative solution to this problem. A nutating disc engine is a recently patented Internal combustion Engine comprising fundamentally only one moving part and a direct drive onto the Crankshaft
Being a thermodynamic process, the overall efficiency will likely be substantially less than if the hydrogen were converted to electricity in a fuel cell and stored in batteries or supercapacitors for high-demand portions of a vehicle's operating cycle.
Although there are multiple ways of producing free hydrogen, those require converting combustible molecules into hydrogen or consuming electric energy, so hydrogen does not solve any energy crisis (unless the energy is produced from a renewable source). An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price Rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. Moreover, it only addresses the issue of portability and some pollution issues. The disadvantage of hydrogen in many situations is its storage. The hydrogen economy is a proposed method of deriving the Energy needed for Motive power (cars boats airplanes buildings or portable electronics by reacting Liquid hydrogen has extremely low density (14 times lower than water) and requires extensive insulation, whilst gaseous hydrogen requires heavy tankage. Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2 is the Liquid state of the element Hydrogen. Although hydrogen has a higher specific energy, the volumetric energetic storage is still roughly five times lower than petrol, even when liquefied. The 'Hydrogen on Demand' process (see direct borohydride fuel cell), designed by Steven Amendola, creates hydrogen as it is needed, but has other issues, such as the high price of the sodium borohydride, the raw material. Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs are a subcategory of Alkaline fuel cells that use a solution of Sodium borohydride for fuel Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydroborate, has the Chemical formula Na[[boron B]] H 4 Sodium borohydride is renewable and could become cheaper if more widely produced.
Internal combustion engines can contain any number of cylinders, with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 (Lycoming R-7755) have been used. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses (that is, the mass of each piston can be less), thus making a smoother-running engine (since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons' moving up and down). Second, with a greater displacement and more pistons, more fuel can be combusted and there can be more combustion events (that is, more power strokes) in a given period of time, meaning that such an engine can generate more torque than a similar engine with fewer cylinders.
The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power. For high-performance gasoline engines using current materials and technology (such as the engines found in modern automobiles), there seems to be a break point around 10 or 12 cylinders, after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency, although exceptions such as the W16 engine from Volkswagen exist. A W16 engine is a sixteen cylinder piston Internal combustion engine in a W configuration.
An internal combustion engine can be classified by its ignition system. An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture
Today most engines use an electrical or compression heating system for ignition. A spark plug (also very rarely nowadays in British English: a sparking plug) is an electrical device that fits into the Cylinder A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr However, outside flame and hot-tube systems have been used historically. An outside flame ignitor was an early ignition device used in Internal-combustion engines that used a flame outside the engine and a sliding port on the cylinder head A hot-tube ignitor was an early device that fit onto the cylinder head of an Internal-combustion engine and ignites the compressed fuel/air mixture by means of a flame heating Nikola Tesla gained one of the first patents on the mechanical ignition system with , "Electrical Igniter for Gas Engines," on 16 August 1898. There have already been discussions about Tesla's ethnicity on the talk page Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common ignition systems are classified as follows.
The mixture is ignited by an electrical spark from a spark plug, the timing of which is very precisely controlled. An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture A spark plug (also very rarely nowadays in British English: a sparking plug) is an electrical device that fits into the Cylinder Almost all gasoline engines are of this type, but not diesel engines. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr
Ignition, after the engine is started, comes from oxidation heat and mechanical compression of the air or mixture. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels, in which the fuel is mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition temperature. In this case, the timing comes from the fuel injection system. Very small model engines, for which simplicity is more important than fuel cost, use special fuels to control ignition timing.
The point in the cycle at which the fuel/oxidizer mixture is ignited has a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. The thermodynamics of the idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a high temperature, resulting from compression—that is, near top dead center. In Physics, thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη therme meaning " Heat " and δυναμις dynamis meaning " A Carnot heat engine is a hypothetical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. The speed of the flame front is directly affected by compression ratio, fuel mixture temperature, and octane or cetane rating of the fuel. The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine particularly piston engines (but can be used on essentially any Internal-combustion Air-fuel ratio ( AFR) is the mass ratio of air to fuel present during combustion Octane is a straight-chain Alkane with the Chemical formula CH3(CH26CH3 Hexadecane (also called cetane) is an Alkane Hydrocarbon with the Chemical formula C16H34 Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly, requiring more advanced ignition timing. Ignition timing in an Internal combustion engine is the process of setting the time that a spark will occur in the combustion chamber (during the Power stroke) relative It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front (deflagration), not by a shock wave. Deflagration (Lat de + flagrare, "to burn down" is a technical term describing subsonic Combustion that usually propagates through Thermal conductivity Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or knocking. Detonation is a process of Supersonic Combustion in which a Shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it
So, at least in gasoline-burning engines, ignition timing is largely a compromise between an earlier "advanced" spark—which gives greater efficiency with high octane fuel—and a later "retarded" spark, which avoids detonation with the fuel used. For this reason, high-performance diesel automobile proponents such as Gale Banks believe that
Fuels burn faster and more completely when they have lots of surface area in contact with oxygen. In order for an engine to work efficiently, the fuel must be vaporized into the incoming air in what is commonly referred to as a fuel/air mixture. There are two commonly used methods of vaporizing fuel into the air: one is the carburetor, and the other is fuel injection. A carburetor (North American spelling or carburettor ( Commonwealth spelling) is a device that blends air and Fuel for an Internal
Often, for simpler reciprocating engines, a carburetor is used to supply fuel into the cylinder. However, exact control of the correct amount of fuel supplied to the engine is impossible. Carburetors are the current most widespread fuel mixing device used in lawn mowers and other small engine applications. Prior to the mid-1980s, carburetors were also common in automobiles.
Larger gasoline engines such as used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems (see Gasoline Direct Injection). Gasoline direct injection is a latest variant of Fuel injection employed in modern two- and four- stroke Petrol engines The petrol/gasoline Diesel engines always use fuel injection, because it is the fuel system that controls the ignition timing. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr
Autogas (LPG) engines use either fuel injection systems or open- or closed-loop carburetors. Autogas is the common name for Liquified petroleum gas (LPG when it is used as a Fuel in Internal combustion engines in Vehicles.
Other internal combustion engines like jet engines use burners, and rocket engines use various different ideas, including impinging jets, gas/liquid shear, preburners, and many other ideas. specific --->A jet engine is a Reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of Fluid to
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Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration , which affects their physical size and smoothness (with smoother engines producing less vibration). Engine configuration is an Engineering term for the layout of the major components of an Internal combustion engine. Oscillation is the repetitive variation typically in Time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of Equilibrium) or between two or more different states Common configurations include the straight or inline configuration, the more compact V configuration , and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration. Usually found in 4- and 6- cylinder configurations the straight engine (often designated Inline engines is an Internal-combustion engine with all cylinders A V engine is a common configuration for an Internal combustion engine. A flat engine is an Internal combustion engine with pistons that are all relatively horizontal Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration , which allows more effective cooling. The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion Engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central More unusual configurations, such as "H," "U," "X," or "W" have also been used. An H engine (or H-block is an Engine configuration in which the cylinders are aligned so that if viewed from the front they appear to be in a vertical or horizontal A U engine is a Piston engine made up of two separate Straight engines (complete with separate crankshafts joined by Gears or chains It is similar X engine is a Piston engine comprising twinned V-block engines horizontally-opposed to each other The W engine is an Engine configuration in which the cylinder banks resemble the letter W in the same way a V engine resembles the letter V
Multiple-crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all, but can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder, called an opposed piston design. An opposed piston engine is one in which the cylinders are double-ended with a piston at each end and no cylinder head This design was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine, using two crankshafts, one at either end of a single bank of cylinders, and most remarkably in the Napier Deltic diesel engines, which used three crankshafts to serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the corners. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The term Deltic (meaning in the form of the Greek letter Delta) is used to refer to both the opposed-piston high-speed diesel engine designed and produced by It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines, and continues to be used for marine engines, both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators. The Gnome Rotary engine, used in several early aircraft, had a stationary crankshaft and a bank of radially arranged cylinders rotating around it. Gnome et Rhône was a major French Aircraft engine manufacturer
An engine's capacity is the displacement or swept volume by the pistons of the engine. Engine displacement is defined as the total Volume of air/fuel mixture an Engine can draw in during one complete engine cycle it is normally stated in Cubic Engine displacement is defined as the total Volume of air/fuel mixture an Engine can draw in during one complete engine cycle it is normally stated in Cubic It is generally measured in liters (L) or cubic inches (c. The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of Volume. A cubic inch (plural cubic inches) is a non- SI unit of Volume, equal to the volume of a Cube with sides of one Inch. i. d. or cu in or in³) for larger engines and cubic centimeters (abbreviated cc) for smaller engines. A cubic centimetre or cubic centimeter (symbol cm3 —the abbreviation cc, though widely used is deprecated is a commonly used unit of Volume Engines with greater capacities are usually more powerful and provide greater torque at lower rpm but also consume more fuel.
Apart from designing an engine with more cylinders, there are two ways to increase an engine's capacity. The first is to lengthen the stroke, and the second is to increase the piston's diameter (See also: Stroke ratio). Stroke ratio, bore/stroke ratio and stroke/bore ratio are terms that are used to describe the form of a piston engine's cylinder when the In either case, it may be necessary to make further adjustments to the fuel intake of the engine to ensure optimal performance.
Internal combustions engines require lubrication in operation to allow moving parts to slide smoothly over each other. Lubrication is the process or technique employed to reduce wear of one or both surfaces in close proximity and moving relative to each another by interposing a substance called Insufficient lubrication will cause the engine to seize up.
Several different types of lubrication systems are used. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated by oil mixed into the fuel or injected into the induction stream as a spray. Early slow-speed stationary and marine engines were lubricated by gravity from small chambers, similar to those used on steam engines at the time, with an engine tender refilling these as needed. As engines were adapted for automotive and aircraft use, the need for a high power-to-weight ratio led to increased speeds, higher temperatures, and greater pressure on bearings, which in turn required pressure lubrication for crank bearings and connecting-rod journals, provided either by a direct lubrication from a pump or indirectly by a jet of oil directed at pickup cups on the connecting rod ends, which had the advantage of providing higher pressures as engine speed increased. The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an Engine which translates reciprocating Linear In a reciprocating Piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the Piston to the crank or Crankshaft. A journal bearing is a simple bearing in which a shaft, or "journal" or Crankshaft rotates in the bearing with a layer of Oil or
Engine On Board Diagnostics (also known as OBD) is a computerized system that allows for electronic diagnosis of a vehicle's powerplant. On-Board Diagnostics, or OBD, in an Automotive context is a generic term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability The first generation, known as OBD1, was introduced 10 years after the U. S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970 as a way to monitor a vehicle's fuel injection system. OBD2, the second generation of computerized on-board diagnostics, was codified and recommended by the California Air Resource Board in 1994 and became mandatory equipment aboard all vehicles sold in the United States as of 1996.
William Barnett was a British inventor who in 1838 applied for a patent for an Internal combustion engine design For the dynamometer used in railroading see Dynamometer car. A dynamometer or "dyno" for short is a machine used to measure The Electric Vehicle was an American Automobile manufactured only in 1899 An engine test stand is a facility used to develop characterize and test engines A heat pump is a machine or device that moves Heat from one location (the 'source' to another location (the 'sink' or 'heat sink' using work. A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle An external combustion engine (EC engine is a Heat engine where an (internal working Fluid is heated by combustion of an external source through the Engine Cox Models, a division of Estes Industries of Penrose Colorado, USA is a multimillion-dollar Hobby company is one of the hobby industry's