Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in The domestic Pig (or in some areas hog) is normally given the scientific name Sus scrofa scrofa, though some taxonomists use the term In this system of pig production, grower pigs are housed indoors in group-housing or straw-lined sheds, whilst pregnant sows are confined in sow stalls (gestation crates) and give birth in farrowing crates. A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a 7 ft by 2 ft metal enclosure in which a female breeding pig (sow may be confined
The use of sow stalls for pregnant sows has resulted in lower birth production costs, however, this practice has led to more significant animal welfare concerns. Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment Many of the world’s largest producers of pigs (U.S., Canada, Denmark) use sow stalls, but some nations (e. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe g. , the UK) and some US States (e. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government g. , Florida and Arizona) have banned them. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States.
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Intensive piggeries are generally large warehouse-like buildings. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture In Agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various Businesses involved in Food production including Farming, Seed Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact natural economic and Social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding Agronomy is the science and technology of using plants for food fuel feed and fiber Animal husbandry, also called Animal science, stockbreeding or simple husbandry, is the agricultural practice of breeding Extensive farming (as opposed to Intensive farming) is an agricultural production system that uses little inputs on vast areas of land such as the Great Plains. Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in Free range is a method of Farming Husbandry where the Animals are allowed to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of Livestock, Poultry, Fish, and Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an Agricultural production system characterized by the high Inputs of Capital, Fertilizers Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on Crop rotation, Green manure, Compost, Biological pest control, and mechanical Cultivation The word permaculture, coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren during the 1970s is a Portmanteau of perma nent agri' Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals environmental Stewardship, Farm Profitability and prosperous Farming communities Urban Agriculture and Peri-Urban Agriculture is the practice of cultivating processing and distributing food in or around (peri-urban a village town or city Agriculture was developed at least 10000 years ago and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation The Neolithic Revolution was the first Agricultural revolution &mdashthe transition from hunting and gathering communities and bands to Agriculture and The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in Agriculture known as the Arab Agricultural The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century which saw a massive increase in agricultural The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of Agriculture that began in 1945 at the request of the Mexican government to establish an agricultural research station to Aquaculture is the farming of freshwater and saltwater organisms including Molluscs Crustaceans and aquatic plants Christmas tree cultivation is an agricultural, Forestry, and horticultural occupation which involves growing Pine, Spruce, and Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an Animal husbandry enterprise for long-term production of Milk, which may be either processed on-site or Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular Hydroponics (from the Greek words hydro (water and ponos (labour is a method of growing Plants using mineral Nutrient solutions without Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA is a practice in which the by-products (wastes from one species are recycled to become inputs ( Fertilizers Food) for another Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica An orchard is an intentional planting of Trees or Shrubs maintained for Food production. Poultry farming is the practice of raising Poultry, such as Chickens turkeys ducks geese, as a subcategory of Animal husbandry A ranch is an area of landscape including various structures given primarily to the practice of ranching the practice of raising grazing livestock such as Cattle Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of Domestic sheep, and a subcategory of Animal husbandry. The System of Rice Intensification ( SRI) is a method of increasing the yield of Rice produced in Farming. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Indoor pig systems allow the pig’s condition to be monitored, ensuring minimum fatalities and increased productivity. Buildings are ventilated and their temperature regulated. Most domestic pig varieties are susceptible to heat stress, and all pigs lack sweat glands and cannot cool themselves. Pigs have a limited tolerance to high temperatures and heat stress can lead to death. Maintaining a more specific temperature within the pig-tolerance range also maximizes growth and growth to feed ratio. Indoor piggeries have allowed pig farming to be undertaken in countries or areas with unsuitable climate or soil for outdoor pig raising (e. g. , Australia).  In an intensive operation pigs will lack access to a wallow (mud), which is their natural cooling mechanism. Intensive piggeries control temperature through ventilation or drip water systems (dropping water to cool the system).
Pigs are naturally omnivorous and are generally fed a combination of grains and protein sources (soybeans, or meat and bone meal). Meat and bone meal (MBM is a product of the rendering industry Larger intensive pig farms may be surrounded by farmland where feed-grain crops are grown. Alternatively, piggeries are reliant on the grains industry. Pig feed may be bought packaged or mixed on-site. The intensive piggery system, where pigs are confined in individual stalls, allows each pig to be allotted a portion of feed. The individual feeding system also facilitates individual medication of pigs through feed. This has more significance to intensive farming methods, as the close proximity to other animals enables diseases to spread more rapidly. To prevent disease spreading and encourage growth, drug programs such as antibiotics, vitamins, hormones and other supplements are preemptively administered. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa A vitamin is an Organic compound required as a Nutrient in tiny amounts by an Organism. Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body
Indoor systems, especially stalls and pens (i. e. , ‘dry,’ not straw-lined systems) allow for the easy collection of waste. In an indoor intensive pig farm, manure can be managed through a lagoon system or other waste-management system. However, waste smell remains a problem which is difficult to manage. 
The way animals are housed in intensive systems varies. Breeding sows will spend the bulk of their time in sow stalls (also called gestation crates) during pregnancy or farrowing crates, with litter, until market.
Piglets can be subjected to a range of treatments including castration, tail docking to reduce tail biting, teeth clipped (to reduce injuring their mother's nipples) and their ears notched to assist identification. Treatments are usually made without pain killers. Weak runts may be slain shortly after birth. In a group of animals (usually a litter of animals born in multiple births a runt is a member which is smaller and/or weaker than the others
Piglets also may be weaned and removed from the sows at between two and five weeks old and placed in sheds. Weaning is the process of gradually introducing a Mammal Infant, either human or animal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's However, grower pigs - which comprise the bulk of the herd - are usually housed in alternative indoor housing, such as batch pens. During pregnancy, the use of a stall may be preferred as it facilitates feed-management and growth control. It also prevents pig aggression (e. g. , tail biting, ear biting, vulva biting, food stealing). Group pens generally require higher stockmanship skills. Such pens will usually not contain straw or other material. Alternatively, a straw-lined shed may house a larger group (i. e. , not batched) in age groups.
Many countries have introduced laws to regulate treatment of farmed animals. In the USA, the federal Humane Slaughter Act requires pigs to be stunned before slaughter, although compliance and enforcement is questioned. There is concern from animal liberation/welfare groups that the laws have not resulted in a prevention of animal suffering and that there are "repeated violations of the Humane Slaughter Act at dozens of slaughterhouses". 
Many industry experts advocate intensive swine farming. Regardless, intensive piggeries have been increasingly criticized in preference of free range systems. Free range is a method of Farming Husbandry where the Animals are allowed to roam freely instead of being contained in any manner Such systems usually refer not to a group-pen or shedding system, but to outdoor farming systems. Those that support outdoor systems usually do so on the ground that they are more animal friendly and better allow pigs to experience natural activities (e. g. , wallowing in mud, relating to young, rooting soil). Outdoor systems are usually less economically productive due to increased space requirements and higher morbidity, (though, when dealing with the killing of piglets and other groups of swine, the methods are the same. ) They also have a range of environmental impacts, such as denitrification of soil and erosion. Outdoor pig farming may also have welfare implications, for example, pigs kept outside may get sunburnt and are more susceptible to heat stress than in indoor systems, where air conditioning or similar can be used . Outdoor pig farming may also increase the incidence of worms and parasites in pigs . Management of these problems depends on local conditions, such as geography, climate, and the availability of skilled staff.
Transition of an indoor production system to an outdoor system presents obstacles. Some breeds of pig commonly used in intensive farming have been selectively bred to suit intensive conditions. Lean pink-pigmented pigs are unsuited for outdoor agriculture, as they suffer sunburn and heat stress. In certain environmental conditions – for example, a temperate climate – outdoor pig farming of these breeds is possible. However, there are many other breeds of pig suited to outdoor rearing, as they have been used in this way for centuries, such as Gloucester Old Spot and Oxford Forest. The Gloucestershire Old Spots (also "Gloucester Gloucester Old Spot Goucestershire Old Spot"or simply "Old Spots" is an English breed of Pig Following the UK ban of sow stalls, the British Pig Executive indicates that the pig farming industry in the UK has declined. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located . The increase in production costs has led to British pig-products being more expensive than those from other countries, leading to increased imports and the need to position UK pork as a product deserving a price premium.
Factory farming methods have come under increasing public scrutiny due to animal welfare and environmental concerns. Factory farming is the practice of raising Farm animals in confinement at high stocking density where a farm operates as a Factory &mdash a practice typical in Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment.
Organized campaigns by animal activists have focused on the use of the sow stalls, such as the 'gestation crate' and 'farrowing crate'. The sow stall has now been banned in the UK, certain U. S. states, and other European countries, although it remains part of pig production in much of the U. S. and European Union.
A ‘sow stall’ is the name of the confinement system for adult sows. It usually does not allow the pig to turn around, although it can sit or lie down . The major reason for their use is that it prevents attacks towards pregnant sows, thus reducing miscarriages and increasing litter survival and the farmer’s productivity.
Only the sows selected for breeding (i. e. , pregnant sows) will spend time in a sow stall. In an intensive system, the sow will be placed in a stall prior to service (mating) and will stay there for at least the start of her pregnancy, where the risk of miscarriage is higher. The length of the sow's gestation is 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days. In certain cases, sows may spend this time in the crate. However, a variety of farming systems are used and the time in the crate may vary from 4 weeks to the whole pregnancy.
There is also some criticism of 'farrowing crates'. A farrowing crate houses the sow in one section and her piglets in another. It allows the sow to lie down and turn around to feed her piglets, but keeps her piglets in a separate section. This prevents the large sow from sitting on her piglets and killing them, which is quite common where the sow is not separated from the piglets. Some models of farrowing crates may allow more space than others, and allow greater interaction between sow and young, although these increase the chance that the sow will crush her piglets. Some crates may also be designed with cost-effectiveness or efficiency in mind and therefore be smaller.
Another criticism of intensive piggeries is that they represent a corporatization of the traditional rural lifestyle. The rise of intensive piggeries has largely replaced family farming. For example, between 1982 and 1987 some 21% of Iowa hog farmers went out of business. Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar) Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. By 1992, another 12% had gone out of business. Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) In large part, this is because intensive piggeries are more economical than outdoor systems, pen systems, or the sty. A sty or pigsty is a small-scale outdoor enclosure for raising Pigs It is sometimes referred to as a pigpen, pig parlor, or pig-cote In many pork-producing countries (e. g. , US, Canada, Australia, Denmark) the use of intensive piggeries has led to market rationalization and concentration.