Like many wars, much of the American Revolutionary War was fought by means other than the armies of George Washington, Howe, John Burgoyne, and Cornwallis. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the William Howe 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC ( 10 August 1729 &ndash 12 July 1814) was a British General who General John Burgoyne ( February 24, 1722 &ndash August 4, 1792) was a British army officer Politician Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis ( 31 December 1738 &ndash 5 October 1805) was a British military commander and colonial
Also, see Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War, the main article on the subject. Intelligences in the American Revolutionary War was essentially monitored and sanctioned by the Continental Congress to provide Military intelligence to the
While intelligence committees of the Continental Congress were meeting in Philadelphia, Arthur Lee was meeting in London with Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, the successful author of Le Barbier de Séville (and later Le Mariage de Figaro), who was a French agent. The Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that became the governing body of the United States during the Dr Arthur Lee ( 20 December 1740 — 12 December 1792) was an American Diplomat during the American Revolutionary Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (24 January 1732 &ndash 18 May 1799 was a watch-maker inventor musician politician fugitive spy publisher arms-dealer and revolutionary The Barber of Seville (Le Barbier de Séville is a French play by Pierre Beaumarchais, with original music by Antoine-Laurent Baudron. The Marriage of Figaro ( French: La Folle Journée ou Le Mariage de Figaro —"folle journée" meaning "crazy day" is a comedy in Lee's inflated reports of patriot strength, which either he fabricated for Beaumarchais' benefit or were provided by Lee's regular correspondent, Samuel Adams, won the Frenchman to the American cause. Samuel Adams ( – October 2 1803 was an American Statesman, Politician, Writer and political philosopher, brewer Beaumarchais repeatedly urged the French Court to give immediate assistance to the Americans, and on February 29, 1776 addressed a memorial to Louis XVI quoting Lee's offer of a secret long-term treaty of commerce in exchange for secret aid to the war of independence. Leap years Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Louis XVI ( 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) Louis-Auguste de France, ruled as King of France and Navarre Beaumarchais explained that France could grant such aid without compromising itself, but urged that "success of the plan depends wholly upon rapidity as well as secrecy: Your Majesty knows better than any one that secrecy is the soul of business, and that in politics a project once disclosed is a project doomed to failure. "
With the memorial, Beaumarchais submitted a plan proposing that he set up a commercial trading firm as a cover for the secret aid; he requested and was granted one million livres to establish a firm called Roderigue Hortalez et Cie for that purpose. Being undercover is disguising one's own identity or using an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret information Beaumarchais' memorial was followed by one of March 12, 1776, by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Comte de Vergennes. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of France, is the cabinet minister responsible for the Foreign relations of France. Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes ( December 20, 1717 &mdash February 13, 1787) was a French statesman and diplomat Royal assent was granted, and by the time Silas Deane arrived in Paris, French arms and other aid was on its way to the revolutionaries. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of Lawmaking by formally assenting to an Silas Deane ( December 24 1737 &ndash September 23 1789) was a delegate to the American Continental Congress and Deane expanded the relationship, working with Beaumarchais and other French merchants to procure ships, commission privateers, recruit French officers, and purchase French military supplies declared "surplus" for that purpose.
On September 26, 1776, the Congress elected three commissioners to the Court of France, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and Silas Deane, resolving that "secrecy shall be observed until further Order of Congress; and that until permission be obtained from Congress to disclose the particulars of this business, no member be permitted to say anything more upon this subject, than that Congress have taken such steps as they judged necessary for the purpose of obtaining foreign alliance. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Benjamin Franklin ( April 17 1790 was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence Silas Deane ( December 24 1737 &ndash September 23 1789) was a delegate to the American Continental Congress and " Because of his wife's illness, Jefferson could not serve, and Arthur Lee was appointed in his stead.
With Franklin's arrival in France on November 29, 1776 — the first anniversary of the founding of the Committee of Secret Correspondence — the French mission became an intelligence and propaganda center for Europe, an unofficial diplomatic representation, a coordinating facility for aid from America's secret allies, and a recruiting station for such French officers as Lafayette and Kalb. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1776 ( MDCCLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In October 1777 the Continental Army won a crucial victory over the British at Saratoga, and on February 6, 1778, the French-American treaty of alliance was signed. Year 1777 ( MDCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The American Continental Army was an Army formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America Background See also Saratoga campaign The British plan and Howe's blunder The original conception of the campaign had been for Burgoyne with some eight Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats the combined army of Pompeian followers and Numidians under Metellus Scipio Year 1778 ( MDCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or On March 30, 1778, Franklin, Lee, and Deane were received at the French Court as representatives of the United States of America, and on July 7 Comte d'Estaing's fleet cast anchor in the Delaware River. Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Events 1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death Jean Baptiste Charles Henri Hector Comte d'Estaing ( November 24, 1729 &ndash April 28, 1794) was a French Admiral. The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. France was now in the war; the mission to Paris had succeeded.
Spain, at the urging of Vergennes, matched France's one million livres for the operation of Hortalez et Cie. But that was not the beginning of secret Spanish aid. During the summer of 1776 Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga, the governor of New Spain at New Orleans, had privately delivered five tons of gunpowder, out of the King's stores, to Captain George Gibson and Lieutenant Linn of the Virginia Council of Defense. Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga (1721 – 1790 also known ( Luis Unzaga Y Amezaga) was the first Spanish Louisiana Governor (from 1769 to 1777 as well as a captain general The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United George Gibson may refer to George Gibson (baseball, Canadian baseball player George Gibson (football, American football player Lieutenant (abbreviated Lt or Lieut) is a Military, Naval, Paramilitary, Fire service, Emergency medical services The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The gunpowder moved up the Mississippi under the protection of the flag of Spain and was used to thwart British plans to capture Fort Pitt. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to
Oliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, had interceded on behalf of the Virginians. Oliver Pollock (1737 Coleraine Ireland &ndash December 17, 1823, Pinckneyville Mississippi was a merchant and financier of the American Revolutionary A businessperson (also businessman or businesswoman) is someone who is employed at usually a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically someone When Bernardo de Galvez became governor of New Orleans, Pollock — who was soon appointed an agent of the Secret Committee there — worked closely with the young officer to provide additional supplies to the Americans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid Viscount of Galveston and Count of Gálvez (Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid vizconde de Gálveztown y conde de Gálvez ( July 23, 1746 New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana Galvez also agreed to grant protection to American ships while seizing British ships as smugglers, and to allow American privateers to sell their seized wares at New Orleans. Havana, too, became a focal point for dispensing secret Spanish aid to the Americans. Havana ( IPA: aˈβana officially Ciudad de La Habana, is the Capital city, major port and leading From Galvez the revolutionaries received gunpowder and supplies for the George Rogers Clark expedition, and from Galvez' secret service fund came the funds used by Colonel Clark for the capture of Kaskaskia and Vincennes. George Rogers Clark (November 19 1752 – February 13 1818 was a soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during The Kaskaskia were one of the several Cognate tribes that made up the Illiniwek Confederation. Vincennes is a commune of the Val-de-Marne located in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. When Spain formally entered the war on the American side on June 21, 1779, Oliver Pollock — who suffered personal bankruptcy in funding the purchase of supplies for the cause of independence — rode as aide-de-camp to Galvez in the capture of Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1779 ( MDCCLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common An aide-de-camp ( French for camp assistant) is a personal assistant secretary or Adjutant to a person of high rank usually a senior military officer Baton Rouge (French Bâton-Rouge ˌbætən ˈruːdʒ in English, and in French) is the capital city of Louisiana. Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the County seat of Escambia County.
Another center of secret aid was St. Eustatia Island in the West Indies. Sint Eustatius, also known as Statia, or Saint Eustace, is one of the islands which make up the Netherlands Antilles; it is in the northern Leeward The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting A Dutch free port set in the midst of English, French, Danish and Spanish colonies, St. Eustatia (now Sint Eustatius) became — in the words of a British intelligence document of the period — "the rendezvous of everything and everybody meant to be clandestinely conveyed to America. Sint Eustatius, also known as Statia, or Saint Eustace, is one of the islands which make up the Netherlands Antilles; it is in the northern Leeward " It was a major source of gunpowder for the American cause, and perhaps the safest and quickest means of communications between American representatives and agents abroad and with the Congress and others at home.
In July 1775, Benjamin Franklin and Robert Morris worked out a plan in collaboration with Colonel Henry Tucker, the head of a distinguished Bermuda family, to obtain the store of gunpowder in the Royal Arsenal at Bermuda. Ba (officially The Bermuda Islands or The Somers Isles) is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. See also Woolwich Arsenal railway station, Arsenal FC The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, originally known as the Woolwich Warren To give Bermuda much-needed food in exchange for the powder, Congress resolved on July 15, 1775 to permit the exchange of food for guns and gunpowder brought by any vessel to an American port. Events 1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final On the night of August 14, 1775, two American ships kept a rendezvous with Colonel Tucker's men off the coast of Bermuda, and sent a raiding party ashore. Events 1183 - Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures An American sailor was lowered into the arsenal through an opening in the roof, and opened the doors. An arsenal is an establishment for the construction repair storage and issue of Weapons and Ammunition. The barrels of gunpowder were rolled to waiting Bermudian whaleboats and transported to the American ships. A whaleboat is a type of open Boat that is relatively narrow and pointed at both ends enabling it to move either forwards or backwards equally well Twelve days later half of the powder was delivered to Philadelphia and half to American forces at Charleston. Charleston is a city in Charleston county in the US state of South Carolina.
America's second covert action effort ended in failure. General Washington, hearing independently of the Bermuda powder, dispatched ships to purchase or seize it. Lacking a centralized intelligence authority, he was unaware of the previous success; when Washington's ships arrived in Bermuda in October 1775, the gunpowder had been gone for two months and British ships patrolled Bermuda waters.
On the basis of information received by the Secret Correspondence Committee, on February 15, 1776 Congress authorized a covert action plan to urge the Canadians to become a "sister colony" in the struggle against the British. A French printer was dispatched to Canada "to establish a free press. . . for the frequent publication of such pieces as may be of service to the cause of the United Colonies. " Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase, and Charles Carroll were appointed from the Congress to undertake the mission, and Father John Carroll was invited to join the team to prevail upon the Catholic clergy of Canada. This article is about the signer of the Declaration of Independence Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19 1737 &ndash November 14 1832 was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later United States John Carroll, ( January 8 1735 &ndash December 3 1815) was the first Bishop and Archbishop in the United States The delegation was given a degree of authority over American expeditionary forces in Canada; it was empowered to raise six companies in Canada, and to offer sanctuary in the thirteen colonies "for all those who have adhered to us. A company is a Military unit, typically consisting of 75-200 Soldiers Most companies are formed of three to five Platoons although the exact number may vary " Excesses against the Canadian populace by the American military forces, the hostility of the clergy, and the inability of American commissioners to deliver little more than promises in exchange for Canadian defection, doomed the project. In Politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another With the arrival of summer, both military and political action in Canada had ended in failure.
The first intelligence agent enlisted by the Secret Correspondence Committee was Arthur Lee then living in London. On November 30, 1775, the day after its founding, the Committee appointed Dr. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Lee as its agent in England and told him that "it is considered of utmost consequence to the cause of liberty that the Committee be kept informed of developments in Europe. " Following the first Congressional appropriation for the work of the Committee on December 11, 1775, two hundred pounds was forwarded to Lee with the urging that he find out the "disposition of foreign powers towards us, and the admonition that we need not hint that great circumspection and impenetrable security are necessary. Events 359 - Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency "
The next agent recruited abroad by the Committee was Charles W. F. Dumas, a Swiss journalist at The Hague. Dumas was briefed personally by Thomas Story, a courier of the Committee, and instructed on the use of cover names and letter drops to be used for his reports to the Committee and for communication with Dr. A courier is a Person or company employed to deliver Messages packages and Mail. Lee in London. He also planted stories in a Dutch newspaper, Gazette de Leide, intended to give the United States a favorable rating in Dutch credit markets. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint.
On March 1, 1776, the Committee appointed Silas Deane, a former delegate to Congress and future ambassador to France, as its agent in there. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country He was instructed to pose as a Bermudian merchant dealing in Indian goods. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country He was also charged with making secret purchases and with attempting to gain secret assistance from the French Crown. Later, both Deane and Lee would be converted from agents to commissioners to the French Crown, albeit secret ones, until the open and formal alliance of France with the Americans.
Other agents of the Committee included William Bingham, who served first in France and then in Martinique, where he had once been British Consul; Major Jonathan Loring Austin, William Carmichael, and William Hodge. William Bingham (1752–1804 was an American statesman from Philadelphia Pennsylvania. Martinique is an Island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a land area of 1128 km² Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire William Carmichael (c 1739 - 1795 was an American statesman and diplomat from Maryland during and after the Revolutionary War. William Vallance Douglas Hodge FRS ( 17 June 1903 - 7 July 1975) was a Scottish Mathematician, specifically a Geometer.
After Benedict Arnold defected, several special operations, none successful, were mounted in an effort to capture him. Benedict Arnold V ( – June 14, 1801) was a General during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental In September 1780, Major Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee presented to Washington a plan to return the defector to American control and execute him. Henry Lee III called "Light Horse Harry", ( January 29 1756 – March 25 1818) was a Cavalry officer in Washington approved the plan, but insisted that Arnold not be killed or injured in carrying it out, even at the risk of allowing him to escape. "Public punishment," said Washington, "is the sole object in view. "
Lee's sergeant major, John Champe of Loudoun County, Virginia, was assigned to this special mission, and on the evening of October 19, 1780, "deserted" to the British under a hail of gunfire. Loudoun County (ˈlaʊdən "LOUD-un" is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, and is part of the Washington Metropolitan Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. The official documents he carried and his cooperative attitude during interrogation convinced the British he was a genuine deserter. He was appointed sergeant major of Benedict Arnold's American Legion (No relation to the moder American Legion), which was composed of deserters and Tories. For other uses of American Legion see American Legion (disambiguation The American Legion was chartered by the U Champe, now wearing a British uniform and having obtained freedom of movement in British-occupied New York City, made contact with American agents there and laid plans for Arnold's capture. A uniform is a set of standard Clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity The City of New York Arnold's legion embarked for Virginia on the night the operation was to take place, and the plan was aborted. Champe accomplished his other mission, namely finding out if other American officers were collaborating with the enemy. He found no evidence that any were.
In March 1781, an attempt to capture Arnold during his daily ride to the Virginia shore of the Chesapeake Bay was foiled by the chance anchoring of some British ships in the area. The Chesapeake Bay is the largest Estuary in the United States. Yet another plan, devised by Thomas Jefferson, called for General John Peter Muhlenberg to send hand-picked soldiers "to seize and bring off this greatest of traitors" at Portsmouth, Virginia. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg ( October 1, 1746 &ndash October 1, 1807) was a clergyman a Soldier and a Politician Portsmouth is an Independent city located in the US Commonwealth of Virginia. Unusual security precautions at the British outpost thwarted the attempt.
Recognizing the value of an important hostage, Washington approved in 1782 a plan to capture the son of King George III, The Prince William (the future king, William IV), during the young naval officer's royal visit to New York. George III (George William Frederick 4 June 1738 George III's long reign was marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdom much of the rest of Europe and places William IV (William Henry 21 August 1765 &ndash 20 June 1837 was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority The operation failed after British intelligence heard about it and the Prince increased security around himself. After William later became monarch, the American ambassador told him of the wartime plan and of Washington's edict that, if the mission were successful, the young Prince should suffer no "insult or indignity. " Upon hearing the story, William IV responded: "I am obliged to General Washington for his humanity, but I'm damned glad I did not give him an opportunity of exercising it towards me. "
On the high seas, British supply ships and troop ships often fell to American privateers operating under letters of marque and reprisal from the Continental Congress. International waterways Several international treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas A letter of marque is an official warrant or commission from a Government authorizing the designated agent to search seize or destroy specified assets Franklin, for example, ran a flotilla of Irish and French privateers from the American mission in Paris. Success in intercepting British vessels was so great that the British accused their captains of taking bribes from the Americans to surrender their ships. One privateer, operating under contract to Silas Deane and a French business associate and utilizing a French ship obtained by Benjamin Franklin, was the Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones. Five ships of the United States Navy have borne the name Bonhomme Richard or Bon Homme Richard (pronounced " bun-uhm ree-SHAR " John Paul Jones ( &ndash) was America's first well-known naval hero in the American Revolutionary War.
Only one sabotage mission is known to have been launched in England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Sometime after his arrival in Paris, Silas Deane was visited by a young man named James Aitken, recently returned from America. John the Painter (1752–1777 also known as James Aitken or John Aitkin, was a Scot who committed acts of terror in British Aitken produced crudely drawn but accurate plans of the Royal Navy dockyards in England and proposed to sabotage them by utilizing a unique incendiary device of his own design. Incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are Bombs designed to start Fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as Napalm, Thermite Deane engaged his services and issued Aitken a passport signed by French Foreign Minister Vergennes with instructions to French officials: "We will and command you very expressly to let pass safely and freely, Mr. James Actzen, going to England, without giving him or suffering him any hindrance; but on the contrary giving every aid and assistance that he shall want or occasion for. " In late November 1776, Aitken landed at Dover, and on December 7 he ignited a fire at the Portsmouth dockyard that burned from late in the afternoon until the following morning, destroying twenty tons of hemp, ten one-hundred-fathom (183 m) cables, and six tons of ship cordage. Dover is a town and major ferry port in the county of Kent, England. Events 43 BC - Marcus Tullius Cicero assassinated 1696 - Connecticut Route 108, one of the oldest highways History See also History of Portsmouth There have been settlements in the area since before Roman times mostly being offshoots of Portchester, which This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. A fathom is a unit of Length in the Imperial system (and the derived U A cable is one or more Wires or Optical fibers bound together typically in a common protective jacket or sheath After failing to penetrate the security at Plymouth, Aitken proceeded to Bristol, where he destroyed two warehouses and several houses. Plymouth ( is a city and unitary authority area on the coast of Devon, England about south west of London. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London A warehouse is a commercial Building for Storage of Goods. Warehouses are used by Manufacturers Importers Exporters House generally refers to a Shelter or Building that is a Dwelling or place for Habitation by Human beings. On January 16, 1777, the British cabinet met in emergency session and urged immediate measures to locate the mysterious "John the Painter" (Aitken was a house painter). Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Guards were augmented at all military facilities and arsenals, and a reward was posted. By January 20 the cabinet, again in extraordinary session, discussed suspending habeas corpus and placing the country under martial law. Habeas corpus (ˈheɪbiəs ˈkɔɹpəs ( Latin: command that you have the body is the name of a legal action or Writ, through which a person can seek relief Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice Five days later the reward was increased to one thousand pounds, and newspapers reported panic throughout England. Aitken was soon apprehended, with a pistol and inflammables in his possession. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied He would not admit to the sabotage when interrogated, but eventually confided in a friendly American visitor who was secretly in the pay of the British. Interrogation or questioning is Interviewing as commonly employed by officers of the Police and Military. Based on these confidences, personal effects, including the passport from Vergennes, were located. His trial was speedy, and on March 10, 1777, Aitken went to the gallows at Portsmouth dockyard, where his exploits had begun. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing A gallows is a frame typically wooden used for execution by Hanging.
His actions may have resulted in "arson in the Royal dockyards in the time of war" being added to the list of capital crimes in England, which was one of the last to be repealed. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment.
Probably the first organization under the Articles of Confederation created for counterintelligence purposes was the Committee for Detecting and Defeating Conspiracies, later the Commission. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, also the Articles of Confederation was the governing Constitution of the alliance of thirteen independent and It was made up of a series of groups established in New York between June 1776 and January 1778 to collect intelligence, apprehend British spies and couriers, and examine suspected British sympathizers. In effect, it was created a "secret service" which had the power to arrest, to convict, to grant bail or parole, and to imprison or to deport. An arrest is the act of depriving a person of his or her liberty usually in relation to the investigation and prevention of crime A convict is "a person found guilty of a Crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison" sometimes referred to in Slang Traditionally bail is some form of Property deposited or pledged to a Court in order to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding Parole may have different meanings depending on the field and judiciary system A prison, penitentiary, or correctional facility is a place in which individuals are physically confined or interned and usually deprived of a range of Deportation, not to be confused with Extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a place or Country. A company of militia was placed under its command. The Committee heard over 500 cases involving disloyalty and subversion. This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause For its use in business see Loyalty business model or Loyalty Marketing. Subversion refers to an attempt to overthrow structures of Authority, including the State. John Jay has been called the first chief of American counterintelligence because of his role in the Committee. John Jay (December 12 1745 – May 17 1829 was an American Politician, Statesman, revolutionary, Diplomat, a Supreme Court
Nathanial Sackett and Colonel William Duer were particularly successful in ferreting out British agents, but found their greatest success in the missions of one of the dozen or so agents of their own, Enoch Crosby. Crosby, a veteran of the Continental Army, had been mistaken by a Westchester County Loyalist as being someone who shared his views. He confided to Crosby that a secret enemy military company was being formed and introduced him to the group. Crosby reported the plot to the Committee and was taken with the group. He managed to "escape" and, as directed, infiltrated another secret Tory unit. This unit, including Crosby, was also taken and escaped once more. He repeated the operation at least two more times, before the loyalists started to get wise to his "escaping" and he retired. Crosby was the model for the central character in James Fenimore Cooper's book The Spy (1821), the first espionage novel written in English. James Fenimore Cooper (September 15 1789 &ndash September 14 1851 was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Another successful American agent was Captain David Gray of Massachusetts. David Gray may refer to David Gray perpetrator of the Aramoana massacre David Gray (poet, poet (1838-1861 David Gray Posing as a deserter, Gray entered the service of Colonel Beverly Robinson, a Tory intelligence officer, and became Robinson's courier. As a result, the contents of each of Robinson's dispatches were read by the Americans before their delivery. Gray eventually became the courier for Major Oliver DeLancey, Jr. , the head of the British secret service in New York. For two years, Gray, as DeLancey's courier to Canada, successfully penetrated the principal communications link of the British secret service. This article is about the form of gov policing For other meanings see Secret Service (disambiguation. Upon completing his assignment, Gray returned to the ranks of the Continental Army and his name was struck from the deserter list, where it had placed it at the beginning of the operation.
Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge, a senior intelligence officer under Washington, is credited with the capture of Major John André, who preceded DeLancey as chief of the British secret service in New York. Benjamin Tallmadge (1754-1835 was a member of the United States House of Representatives. For other uses see John André (disambiguation. Major John André ( May 2, 1750 &ndash October 2 Although he declined to discuss the episode in his memoirs, it is said that one Tallmadge's agents had reported to him that Major André was in contact with a "John Anderson" who was expecting the surrender of a major installation. Learning that a certain John Anderson passed through the lines en route to General Benedict Arnold, the commander at West Point, Tallmadge had Anderson apprehended and returned for interrogation. Benedict Arnold V ( – June 14, 1801) was a General during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental West Point is a federal military reservation (and a Census-designated place) located North of the Village of Highland Falls in Orange County New York "Anderson" admitted to his true identity (that he was André) and was tried, convicted, and executed as a spy. Arnold, learning that André had been taken and that his own treachery was no doubt was exposed, fled West Point before he could be captured, and joined the British forces.
General Washington demanded effective counterintelligence work from his subordinates. On March 24, 1776, for example, he wrote: "There is one evil I dread, and that is, their spies. I could wish, therefore, the most attentive watch be kept. . . I wish a dozen or more of honest, sensible and diligent men, were employed. . . in order to question, cross-question etc. See Structure of policy debate for cross-examination in Policy debate. , all such persons as are unknown, and cannot give an account of themselves in a straight and satisfactory line. . . . I think it a matter of importance to prevent them from obtaining intelligence of our situation. " Washington occasionally had to deal with rogue intelligence officers in his own ranks who used their positions for personal gain or undertook unauthorized or illegal operations that might have compromised parts of his intelligence apparatus. Once Washington discovered that two of his agents who supposedly were collecting intelligence on Long Island actually were "mere plundering parties. " He set up a special team to investigate and arrest the renegade operatives.
To offset British superiority in firepower and number of troops, General Washington made frequent use of deception and disinformation. Disinformation is the deliberate dissemination of false Information. He allowed fabricated documents to fall into the hands of enemy agents or be discussed in their presence. He allowed couriers carrying bogus information to be "captured" by the British, and inserted forged documents in intercepted British communications that were then permitted to continue on to their destination. He had army procurement officers make false purchases of large quantities of supplies in places picked to convince the British that a sizable rebel force was massing. Washington even had fake military facilities built. In all this he managed to make the British believe that his three-thousand-man army outside Philadelphia was forty thousand strong!
After learning from the Culper Ring that the British planned to attack a French expedition that had just landed in Newport, Rhode Island, Washington planted information with known British agents indicating that he intended to move against New York City. Newport is a city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km south of Providence The British commander held back the troops headed for Rhode Island. With elaborate deception, Washington masked his movement toward Chesapeake Bay and Yorktown by convincing the British that he was moving on New York.
At Yorktown, James Armistead, a slave who had joined Lafayette's service with his master's permission, crossed into Cornwallis' lines in the guise of an escaped slave, and was recruited by Cornwallis to return to American lines as a spy. Yorktown is a Census-designated place (CDP in York County, Virginia, United States. James Lafayette Armistead (c December 10, 1748 – August 9, 1830) was an African American slave to William Armistead The origins of Slavery in the colonial United States are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade Lafayette gave him a fabricated order that was destined for a large number of nonexistent replacements. Armistead delivered the bogus order in crumpled, dirty condition to Cornwallis, claiming to have found it along the road during his mission. Cornwallis believed him and did not learn he had been tricked until after his surrender. Armistead was granted his freedom by the Virginia Legislature as a result of this and other wartime service.
Another deception operation at Yorktown found Charles Morgan entering Cornwallis' camp as a deserter. When debriefed by the British, he convinced them that Lafayette had sufficient boats to move all his troops against the British in one landing operation. Cornwallis was duped by him and dug in rather than marched out of Yorktown. Morgan, in turn, escaped in a British uniform and returned to the American lines with five British deserters and a prisoner!
Upon receiving accurate intelligence that the British were hiring Hessian mercenaries for service in America, Congress appointed a three-man committee "to devise a plan for encouraging the Hessions and other foreigners. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national or a party to the conflict and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by . . to quit that iniquitous service. " The result was a resolution, believed to have been drafted by Thomas Jefferson, offering land grants to German deserters. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as It was translated into German and sent among the Hessians.
Benjamin Franklin, who joined the committee to implement the operation, arranged for the leaflets to be disguised as tobacco packets to make sure they would fall into the hands of ordinary Hessian soldiers. Christopher Ludwick was dispatched by Washington into the enemy camp, posing as a deserter, to contact the Hessians and encourage them to defect. He is credited with the defection of "many hundred soldiers" from the German ranks.
In 1777, after his arrival in France, Benjamin Franklin fabricated a letter purportedly sent by a German prince to the commander of his mercenaries in America. The letter disputed British casualty figures for the German troops, arguing that the actual number was much higher and that he was entitled to a great amount of "blood money", the amount paid to the prince for each of his men killed or wounded. Blood money is Money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally The prince also encouraged the officer to be humane and to allow his wounded to die, rather than try to save men who might only become cripples unfit for service to their prince. A humane society may be a group that aims to stop human or animal Suffering due to Cruelty or other reasons although in many countries it is now used mostly for societies
Between 5,000 and 6,000 Hessians deserted from the British side during the war, in part because of American propaganda.
Franklin also produced a newspaper report purporting to describe the transmittal of scalps of soldiers, settlers, women and children to the Royal Governor of Canada by Britain's Indian allies. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Indian transmittal letter indicated that a certain mark on scalps indicated they were those of women who "were knocked dead or had their brains beat out. "