|United States||0. Gestational age is usually considered to be the age of an Embryo or Fetus (or newborn infant from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 17% (2000)|
Intact dilation and extraction (IDX or intact D&X), also known as intact dilation and evacuation (intact D&E), dilation and extraction (D&X), intrauterine cranial decompression and controversially in the United States as partial birth abortion, is a surgical abortion wherein an intact fetus is removed from the uterus via the cervix. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the The cervix (from Latin "neck" is the lower narrow portion of the Uterus where it joins with the top end of the Vagina. The procedure may also be used to remove a deceased fetus that is developed enough to require dilation of the cervix for its extraction. 
Though the procedure has had a low rate of usage, representing 0. 17% (2,232 of 1,313,000) of all abortions in the United States in 2000 according to voluntary responses to an Alan Guttmacher Institute survey, it has developed into a focal point of the abortion debate. The Guttmacher Institute is a Non-profit organization which works to advance Reproductive health as defined by the World Health Organization. The abortion debate refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of Abortion. In the United States, intact dilation and extraction was made illegal under some circumstances by the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, which the U. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U S Supreme Court upheld in the case of Gonzales v. Carhart. Gonzales v Carhart, 550 US ___ ( 2007) is a United States Supreme Court case which upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of
The term dilation and extraction, or D&X, was coined by Cincinnati physician W. Martin Haskell, MD in a monograph that was distributed by the National Abortion Federation in September of 1992. William Mudd Martin Haskell (born 1946 is an American Physician who in 1992 described an Abortion procedure known clinically as Intact dilation The National Abortion Federation (NAF is an organization of Abortion providers  Haskell's term was a variation on intact dilation and evacuation (shortened to intact D&E), the term preferred by Dr. James McMahon, who developed the procedure in 1983 as an alternative to dilation and evacuation or D&E. Dilation and evacuation (also sometimes called dilation and extraction) literally refers to the dilation of the Cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents 
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) has settled on the term intact dilation and evacuation (intact D&E) for this procedure. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ( ACOG) is a Professional association of Medical doctors specializing in Obstetrics and  The much smaller American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AAPLOG) contends that this was a contrived attempt by ACOG to legitimize the abortion technique in question, by wedding it to "D&E" (a long-recognized procedure) using a sort of legitimacy by association. The American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AAPLOG was originally put together in 1957 by a group of gynecologist in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Dilation and evacuation (also sometimes called dilation and extraction) literally refers to the dilation of the Cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents  The American Medical Association (AMA) has settled on the term intact dilation and extraction (intact D&X) for this procedure. The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States 
According to the American Medical Association, this procedure has four main elements. An Vacuum or suction aspiration uses aspiration to remove the contents of the Uterus through the Cervix. Dilation and evacuation (also sometimes called dilation and extraction) literally refers to the dilation of the Cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents Dilation (dilatation and curettage literally refers to the dilation (opening of the Cervix and surgical removal of the contents of the Uterus. Hysterotomy abortion is a form of Abortion in which the Uterus is opened through an abdominal incision and the Fetus is removed similar to a Instillation abortion is a rarely-used method of induced abortion, performed in the second trimester by injecting a solution into the uterus to cause uterine contractions Menstrual extraction is both a Surgical abortion method and a Menstrual hygiene technique which involves removing an entire menstrual period or a Blastocyst A medical abortion is a type of non-surgical Abortion in which a drug is used to induce the abortion Mifepristone is a synthetic Steroid compound used as a pharmaceutical. Misoprostol is a drug that is FDA -approved in the United States for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ( NSAID)-induced The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States  First, the cervix is dilated. The cervix (from Latin "neck" is the lower narrow portion of the Uterus where it joins with the top end of the Vagina. Cervical dilation is the opening of the Cervix, the entrance to the uterus during Childbirth, Miscarriage, induced abortion, or gynecological Second, the fetus is positioned for a footling breech. A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and A breech birth (also known as breech presentation) refers to the position of the Baby in the Uterus such that it will be delivered Third, the fetus is extracted except for the head. Fourth, the brain of the fetus is evacuated so that a dead but otherwise intact fetus is delivered via the vagina. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain The vagina (from Latin, literally " Sheath " or " Scabbard " is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the Uterus
Usually, preliminary procedures are performed over a period of two to three days, to gradually dilate the cervix using laminaria tents (sticks of seaweed which absorb fluid and swell). Laminaria is a Genus of 31 Species of Brown algae ( Phaeophyceae) all sharing the common name " Kelp " Sometimes drugs such as synthetic pitocin are used to induce labor. Oxytocin ( IPA: /ˌɔksɪˈtoʊsɪn/ (Greek "quick birth" is a Mammalian Hormone that also acts as a Neurotransmitter in the Once the cervix is sufficiently dilated, the doctor uses an ultrasound and forceps to grasp the fetus' leg. Forceps are a handheld hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and The fetus is turned to a breech position, if necessary, and the doctor pulls one or both legs out of the birth canal, causing what is referred to by some people as the 'partial birth' of the fetus. A breech birth (also known as breech presentation) refers to the position of the Baby in the Uterus such that it will be delivered The doctor subsequently extracts the rest of the fetus, usually without the aid of forceps, leaving only the head still inside the birth canal. In Anatomy, the head of an Animal is the Rostral part (from Anatomical position that usually comprises the Brain, Eyes The vagina (from Latin, literally " Sheath " or " Scabbard " is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the Uterus An incision is made at the base of the skull, scissors are inserted into the incision and opened to widen the opening, and then a suction catheter is inserted into the opening. In Medicine a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity duct or vessel The brain is suctioned out, which causes the skull to collapse and allows the fetus to pass more easily through the birth canal. The brain is the center of the Nervous system in animals All Vertebrates and the majority of Invertebrates have a brain The placenta is removed and the uterine wall is vacuum aspirated using a cannula. The placenta is an Ephemeral organ present in placental Vertebrates, such as Eutherial Mammals and Sharks during Gestation The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the Vacuum or suction aspiration uses aspiration to remove the contents of the Uterus through the Cervix. A cannula (from Latin "little reed" plural cannulae) or canula is a tube which can be inserted into the body often for the delivery or removal 
IDX, along with dilation and evacuation (D&E), early induction of labor, and rare procedures such as saline abortion, are only used in the late stages of pregnancy. Late-term abortions are Abortions which are performed during a later stage of Pregnancy. Dilation and evacuation (also sometimes called dilation and extraction) literally refers to the dilation of the Cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents Induction is a method of artificially or prematurely stimulating labour in a woman Instillation abortion is a rarely-used method of induced abortion, performed in the second trimester by injecting a solution into the uterus to cause uterine contractions Pregnancy ( Latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring known as a Fetus or Embryo, inside the Uterus of a Female Late-term abortions at 21 weeks or later account for 1. Late-term abortions are Abortions which are performed during a later stage of Pregnancy. 4% of all abortions in the USA.  Intact D&X procedures are used in approximately 15% of those late-term abortion cases. This is the equivalent of between 2,500 and 3,000 per year, using data from the Alan Guttmacher Institute for the year 2000. The Guttmacher Institute is a Non-profit organization which works to advance Reproductive health as defined by the World Health Organization. They are typically performed between the twentieth and twenty-fourth week of pregnancy. 
Women choose to have late-term abortions for a variety of reasons. Abortion in the United States is a highly-charged issue involving significant political and ethical debate Once a pregnant woman has made the decision to have a late-term abortion, she or a doctor may choose IDX over other available late-term abortion procedures because:
Reasons a woman or physician may not choose IDX, opting instead for another abortion procedure, include:
The term "partial-birth abortion" is primarily used in political discourse — chiefly regarding the legality of abortion in the United States. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U Abortion in the United States is a highly-charged issue involving significant political and ethical debate  The term is not recognized as a medical term by the American Medical Association nor the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ( ACOG) is a Professional association of Medical doctors specializing in Obstetrics and  This term was first suggested in 1995 by pro-life congressman Charles T. Canady, while developing the original proposed Partial-Birth Abortion Ban. A Member of Congress is a Politician who is a member of a Congress. Charles Terrance Canady (born June 22 1954 is a Republican politician and jurist from Florida. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U  Keri Folmar, the lawyer responsible for the bill's language, says the term developed in early 1995 in a meeting between her, Charles T. Canady, and National Right to Life Committee lobbyist Douglas Johnson. The National Right to Life Committee is the largest Right to life / Pro-life organization in the United States with affiliates in all 50 states and over  Canady could not find this particular abortion practice named in any medical textbook, and therefore he and his aides named it.  "Partial-birth abortion" was first used in the media on 4 June 1995 in a Washington Times article covering the bill. Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 The Washington Times is a daily Broadsheet Newspaper published in Washington D 
In the U. S. , a federal statute defines "partial-birth abortion" as any abortion in which the fetus is extracted "past the navel [of the fetus] . The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U . . outside the body of the mother," or "in the case of head-first presentation, the entire fetal head is outside the body of the mother," in order to cause death of the fetus. The U. S. Supreme Court has held that the terms "partial-birth abortion" and "intact dilation and extraction" are basically synonymous.  However, there are cases where these overlapping terms do not coincide. For example, the IDX procedure may be used to remove a deceased fetus (e. g. due to a miscarriage or feticide) that is developed enough to require dilation of the cervix for its extraction. Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a Pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving generally defined Feticide or foeticide is an act that causes the death of a fetus  Removing a dead fetus does not meet the federal legal definition of "partial-birth abortion," which specifies that partial live delivery must precede "the overt act, other than completion of delivery, that kills the partially delivered living fetus. " Additionally, a doctor may extract a fetus past the navel and then cut through the neck. This could fall within the terms of the statute, even though it would not result in an intact body and therefore would not be an intact dilation and extraction. 
In addition to the federal ban, there have also been a number of state partial-birth abortion bans. There, courts have found that state legislation (rather than federal legislation) intended to ban "partial-birth abortions" could be interpreted to apply to some non-intact dilation and evacuation (D&E) procedures. Dilation and evacuation (also sometimes called dilation and extraction) literally refers to the dilation of the Cervix and surgical evacuation of the contents  Though sometimes performed during the same developmental stage wherein most IDX procedures are done, non-intact D&E is a separate procedure.
There is debate over use of the term "partial-birth abortion". Those who oppose the term consider it a political term used to frame the argument in a way which is favorable to those who seek greater legal restrictions, or a total ban, on this or all abortion procedures, and have called the alleged political framing "partial truth abortion". A frame in Social theory consists of a schema of interpretation, that is a collection of Stereotypes that individuals rely on to understand and respond 
IDX is a target of pro-life advocates who believe the procedure illustrates their contention that abortion, and especially late-term abortion, is immoral. Late-term abortions are Abortions which are performed during a later stage of Pregnancy. Critics consider the procedure tantamount to infanticide, or murder, a position which many in the pro-life movement extend to cover all abortions. Infanticide is the practice of someone intentionally causing the death of an Infant. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries  Some advocates, both for and against abortion rights, see the IDX issue as a central battleground in the wider abortion debate, representing an attempt to set a legal precedent so as to gradually erode access to all abortion methods. An 
Dr. Martin Haskell has called the IDX procedure "a quick, surgical outpatient method" for late second-trimester and early third-trimester abortions. William Mudd Martin Haskell (born 1946 is an American Physician who in 1992 described an Abortion procedure known clinically as Intact dilation  The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 describes it as "a gruesome and inhumane procedure that is never medically necessary. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U "
According to a BBC report about the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in Gonzales v. Carhart, "government lawyers and others who favour the ban, have said there are alternative and more widely used procedures that are still legal - which involves dismembering the foetus in the uterus. Gonzales v Carhart, 550 US ___ ( 2007) is a United States Supreme Court case which upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of " An article in Harper's magazine stated that, "Defending the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban. Harper's Magazine (also Harper's) is a monthly general-interest Magazine of literature politics culture finance and the arts . . requires arguing to judges that pulling a fetus from a woman's body in dismembered pieces is legal, medically acceptable, and safe; but that pulling a fetus out intact, so that if the woman wishes the fetus can be wrapped in a blanket and handed to her, is appropriately punishable by a fine, or up to two years' imprisonment, or both. " The U. S. Supreme Court has stated that intact D&X remains legal as long as there is first an "injection that kills the fetus. "
There is also controversy about why this procedure is used. Although prominent defenders of the method asserted during 1995 and 1996 that it was used only or mostly in acute medical circumstances, Ron Fitzsimmons, executive director of the National Coalition of Abortion Providers (a trade association of abortion providers), told the New York Times (Feb. The National Coalition of Abortion Providers (NCAP is trade association which represents independent Abortion providers in the United States. 26, 1997): "In the vast majority of cases, the procedure is performed on a healthy mother with a healthy fetus that is 20 weeks or more along. " Some prominent self-described pro-choice advocates quickly defended the accuracy of Fitzsimmons' statements. 
In support of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, a nurse who witnessed three IDX procedures found them deeply disturbing, and described one performed on a 26½-week fetus with Down Syndrome in testimony before a Judiciary subcommittee of the US House of Representatives, where she states "[t]he baby’s little fingers were clasping and unclasping, and his little feet were kicking," right before the procedure. A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and Down syndrome, Down's syndrome, or trisomy 21 is a Chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. 
A journalist observed three IDX and two D&E procedures involving fetuses ranging from 19 to 23 weeks. She "watched for any signs of fetal distress, but . . . [she] could see no response, no reflexive spasm, nothing. Whether this was a result of the anesthesia or an undeveloped fetal system for pain sensitivity, one thing was clear: There was no discernible response by the fetus. "
Abortion provider Warren Hern asserted in 2003 that "No peer-reviewed articles or case reports have ever been published describing anything such as 'partial-birth' abortion, 'Intact D&E' (for 'dilation and extraction'), or any of its synonyms. Warren M Hern is an Abortion -providing Physician in Boulder Colorado. " Therefore, Hern expressed uncertainty about what all of these terms mean. The U. S. Supreme Court held in Gonzales v. Carhart that these terms of the federal statute are not vague because the statute specfically detailed the procedure being banned: it specified anatomical landmarks past which the fetus must not be delivered, and criminalized such a procedure only if an "overt" fatal act is performed on the fetus after "partial delivery. " 
Since 1995, led by Republicans in Congress, the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate have moved several times to pass measures banning the procedure. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Congress passed two such measures by wide margins during Bill Clinton's presidency, but Clinton vetoed those bills in April 1996 and October 1997 on the grounds that they did not include health exceptions. The United States Presidency of Bill Clinton, also known as the Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the Federal A veto, Latin for "I forbid" is used to Denote that a certain party has the right to stop unilaterally a certain piece of Legislation. Subsequent congressional attempts at overriding the veto were unsuccessful. Doctors "have been successfully sued for failure to refer patients for late-term abortions in cases of fetal abnormalities. "
A major part of the legal battle over banning the procedure relates to health exceptions, which would permit the procedure in special circumstances. The 1973 Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, which declared many state-level abortion restrictions unconstitutional, allowed states to ban abortions of post-viable fetuses unless an abortion was "necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother. Roe v Wade, 410 US 113 (1973 is a controversial United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a Landmark decision regarding " The companion ruling, Doe v. Bolton, upheld against a vagueness challenge a state law that defined health to include mental as well as physical health. Doe v Bolton, 410 US 179 ( 1973) was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court overturning the Abortion The Court has never explicitly held, as a matter of constitutional law, that states have to allow abortions of post-viable fetuses if doing so is necessary for the mother's mental health, but many read Doe as implying as much. The concern that the health exception can be read so liberally partly explains why supporters of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act did not want to include one.
The Act includes an exception for the life of the woman, but explicitly not for non-life-threatening health issues; opponents believe that this exception is too narrow and have mounted numerous legal challenges. Congress asserted that the procedure is never necessary for maternal health.
In 2003, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (H. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U R. 760, S. 3) was signed into law; the House passed it on October 2 with a vote of 281-142, the Senate passed it on October 21 with a vote of 64-34, and President George W. Bush signed it into law on November 5. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Events 1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany)
Beginning in early 2004, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, the National Abortion Federation, and abortion doctors in Nebraska challenged the ban in federal district courts in the Northern District of California, Southern District of New York, and District of Nebraska. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Planned Parenthood is the collective name of organizations worldwide who are members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF The National Abortion Federation (NAF is an organization of Abortion providers The United States district courts are the general Trial courts of the United States federal court system. The United States District Court for the Northern District of California is the federal United States district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S The United States District Court for the District of Nebraska is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is the state of Nebraska. All three district courts ruled the ban unconstitutional that same year. Their respective federal courts of appeals—the Ninth Circuit, Second Circuit, and Eighth Circuit, respectively—affirmed these rulings on appeal. The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the intermediate appellate courts The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with Appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit is a federal court with Appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following
The three cases were all appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, and were consolidated into the case Gonzales v. Carhart. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. Gonzales v Carhart, 550 US ___ ( 2007) is a United States Supreme Court case which upheld the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of On April 18, 2007, the Supreme Court voted to uphold the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act by a decision of 5-4. The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act (Public Law 108-105 HR 760 S 3 18 U  Justice Kennedy wrote for the majority and was joined by Justices Thomas, Scalia, Alito, and Chief Justice Roberts. Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) has been an Associate Justice of the U Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American Jurist. He has been serving as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United (born March 11, 1936) is an American Jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Samuel Anthony Alito Jr (born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. John Glover Roberts Jr (born January 27 1955) is the seventeenth and current Chief Justice of the United States. A dissenting opinion was written by Justice Ginsburg and joined by Justices Stevens, Souter and Breyer. Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15 1933 Brooklyn New York) is an Associate Justice on the U John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is currently the most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. For the Australian artist see David Henry Souter. David Hackett Souter (ˈsutɚ born September 17, 1939) has been an Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15 1938 is an American Attorney and Jurist.
Many states have bans on late-term abortions which apply to the IDX procedure if it is performed after viability. Late-term abortions are Abortions which are performed during a later stage of Pregnancy. A fetus (or foetus or fœtus) is a developing Mammal or other Viviparous Vertebrate, after the Embryonic stage and
Many states have also passed bans specifically on the IDX procedure. The first was Ohio, which in 1995 enacted a law that referred to the procedure as dilation and extraction. In 1997, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit found the law unconstitutional on the grounds that it placed a substantial and unconstitutional obstacle in the path of women seeking pre-viability abortions in the second trimester. Pregnancy ( Latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring known as a Fetus or Embryo, inside the Uterus of a Female
Between 1995 and 2000, 28 more states passed Partial-Birth Abortion bans, all similar to the proposed federal bans and all lacking an exemption for the health of the woman. Many of these state laws faced legal challenges, with Nebraska's the first to reach decision in Stenberg v. Carhart. Stenberg Attorney General of Nebraska et al v Carhart, 530 US The Federal District Court held Nebraska's statute unconstitutional on two counts. One being the bill's language was too broad, potentially rendering a range of abortion procedures illegal, and thus, creating an undue burden on a woman's ability to choose. The other count was the bill failed to provide a necessary exception for the health of the woman. The decision was appealed to and affirmed by both the Eighth Circuit and the Supreme Court on June 2000, thus resolving the legal challenges to similar state bans nationwide.
Since the Stenberg v. Carhart decision, Virginia, Michigan, and Utah have introduced laws that remain virtually identical to the unconstitutional Nebraska law. The Virginia and Michigan laws were similarly struck down due to broadness and the failure to provide a health exemption, Utah's law remains pending trial, though is unenforceable due to a court-issued preliminary injunction.
In 2000 Ohio introduced another "partial-birth abortion" ban. The law differed from previous attempts at the ban in that it specifically excluded D&E procedures, while also providing a narrow health exception. This law was upheld on appeal to the Sixth Circuit in 2003 on the grounds that "it permitted the partial birth procedure when necessary to prevent significant health risks. "
In 2003 the Michigan Senate introduced Senate Bill No. 395. The bill, which would change the legal definition of birth, would in effect ban partial birth abortions. The definition of birth as defined in the bill was that once any part of the body had passed beyond the vaginal plane of introitus it is considered a birth. The bill included an exemption for the mother's health. The bill was passed by both the Senate and House of Representatives but was vetoed by governor Jennifer Granholm. Jennifer Mulhern Granholm (born February 5 1959 in Vancouver British Columbia) is a Canadian -born American Politician, former Attorney
Questioned about UK government policy on the issue in Parliament, Baroness Andrews stated that "We are not aware of the procedure referred to as 'partial-birth abortion' being used in Great Britain. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (Elizabeth Kay Andrews Baroness Andrews OBE (born 16 May 1943) is a British Labour politician It is the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' (RCOG) belief that this method of abortion is never used as a primary or pro-active technique and is only ever likely to be performed in unforeseen circumstances in order to reduce maternal mortality or severe morbidity. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG is a professional association based in the UK. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific In Medicine, Epidemiology and Actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of poor health (from Latin "