|Partido Revolucionario Institucional|
|Leader||Beatriz Paredes Rangel|
|Founded||March 4, 1929 (PNR)|
March 30, 1938 (PRM)
January 18, 1946 (PRI)
|Headquarters||59 Avenida Insurgentes N|
|Political Ideology||Center, Corporatism, Nationalism, Social Democracy|
|International Affiliation||Socialist International|
|Continental Affiliation||Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America and the Caribbean|
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. Beatriz Elena Paredes Rangel (b August 18, 1953 in Tlaxcala) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico In Politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting Moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Social democracy is a Political ideology of the left and centre-left Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties Red is any of a number of similar Colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of Light discernible by the human eye in the wavelength Green is a Color, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a Wavelength of roughly 520–570- nm. The United Mexican States are a federal presidential representative democratic Republic whose government' is This article lists political parties in Mexico. Mexico has a Multi-party system which means that there are more than two dominant political parties The United Mexican States elects on the national level a Head of state – the President – and a Legislature. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral The PRI is a member of the Socialist International, as is the rival Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), making Mexico one of the few nations with two major, competing parties part of the same international grouping. Socialist International is a worldwide organization of socialist ( social democratic and labour) political parties The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. However, PRI is far from a socialist party and more often acts as a centre or rightist party. Its membership in the International dates from the Mexican revolution and the founding of the party by Plutarco Elías Calles, when the party had a clearer socialist orientation. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Plutarco Elías Calles ( September 25 1877 – October 19 1945) was a Mexican general and politician
The adherents of the PRI party are known in Mexico as priistas and the party is nicknamed el tricolor because of its use of the colors green, white and red.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party is described by some scholars as a "state party", a term which captures both the non-competitive history and character of the party itself, and the inextricable connection between the party and the Mexican nation-state for much of the 20th century. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on
Although the armed phase of the Mexican revolution had ended in 1920, Mexico had continued to encounter political unrest, and presidential elections were usually preceded by military uprisings. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar A grave political crisis caused by the 1928 assassination of president-elect Álvaro Obregón led to the founding in 1929 of the National Revolutionary Party (Spanish: "Partido Nacional Revolucionario" or PNR) by Plutarco Elías Calles, Mexico's president from 1924 to 1928. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For other uses including places named after this person see Obregón. Plutarco Elías Calles ( September 25 1877 – October 19 1945) was a Mexican general and politician The intent was to institutionalize the Mexican Revolution. The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I In the first years of the party's existence, the PNR was, above all, an instrument Calles, 'Maximum Chief' of the party, used to continue exercising power in an era known as the Maximato. The presidents of this period, Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio and Abelardo L. Rodríguez were little more than puppets of Calles. Emilio Portes Gil ( October 3 1890 &ndash December 10 1978) was President of Mexico from 1928 to 1930 Pascual Ortiz Rubio (10 March 1877 – 4 November 1963 was a Mexican politician Abelardo Rodríguez Luján, commonly known as Abelardo L Rodríguez ( May 12 1889 &ndash February 13 1967) was the interim This ended with the election of Lázaro Cárdenas, a candidate handpicked by Calles, in 1934. This article is about Gen Lázaro Cárdenas del Río For his grandson see Lázaro Cárdenas Batel. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It quickly became clear Cárdenas was not accepting a subordinate role like his predecessors did. After establishing himself in the presidency, in 1936 Cárdenas had Calles and dozens of his corrupt associates arrested or deported to the United States. Cárdenas became perhaps Mexico's most-popular 20th-century president and most renowned for expropriating the oil interests of the United States and European petroleum companies in the run-up to World War II. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on The Constitutional Citizen President of the United Mexican States (the official title in Spanish is Ciudadano Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos The Expropiación Petrolera ("Oil expropriation" is one of the Fiestas Patrias of Mexico, celebrating the date when the President, The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including He was a person of leftist ideas who nationalized different industries and provided many social institutions which are dear to the Mexican people and had the party renamed to Party of the Mexican Revoluion (PRM). Cárdenas' successor Manuel Ávila Camacho gave the party its present name in 1946. Manuel Ávila Camacho ( April 24, 1897 &ndash October 13, 1955) served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946 Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
After several decades in power the PRI became a symbol of corruption and electoral fraud.  Because of this latter, its left went on to form its own party the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) in 1989. The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. The conservative National Action Party (PAN) became a stronger party after 1976 when it obtained the support from businessmen after recurring economic crises. The National Action Party ( Spanish Partido Acción Nacional) known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian democratic  The growth of these two parties consolidated in the loss of the presidency in 2000, won by the PAN and in 2006, won by the PAN with a small margin over the PRD. Many prominent members of the PAN (Manuel Clouthier, Addy Joaquín Coldwell and Demetrio Sodi), most of the PRD (most notably all three Mexico City mayors Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas and Marcelo Ebrard), the PVEM (Jorge González Torres) and New Alliance (Roberto Campa) were once members of the PRI, including many presidencial candidates from the opposition (Clouthier, López Obrador, Cárdenas, González Torres, Campa and Porfirio Muñoz Ledo, among many others). Manuel de Jesús Clouthier del Rincón, also known as Maquío ( June 13, 1934 &ndash October 1, 1989) was a Mexican Addy Cecilia Joaquín Coldwell is a Mexican politician from Cozumel, Quintana Roo. Demetrio Javier Sodi de la Tijera (b September 25, 1944 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician who has served in the upper and The Head of Government (Jefe de Gobierno wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b October 10, 1959 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic Jorge González Torres (born in 1942 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician founder of the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico. This article is about the Mexican Party for other political parties of the same name see New Alliance Party (disambiguation The New Alliance Roberto Rafael Campa Cifrián (b January 11, 1957 in Mexico City) is a Mexican lawyer and politician who was the New Alliance presidential Porfirio Alejandro Muñoz Ledo y Lazo de la Vega (b July 23, 1933 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician
The PRI was criticized for using the colors of the national flag in its logo, something considered not unreasonable in many countries, but frowned upon in Mexico, while there is no law that forbids this act. The Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico is a vertical tricolor of Green, White, and Red with Critics claim electoral fraud, with voter suppression and violence, was used when the political machine did not work and elections were just a ritual to simulate the appearance of a democracy. Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. Voter suppression is a form of Electoral fraud and refers to the use of governmental power political campaign strategy and private resources aimed at suppressing (i A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on Patronage, the Spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control and longstanding Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system However, the three major parties now make the same claim against each other (PRD against Fox's PAN and PAN vs. Vicente Fox Quesada ( born July 2 1942) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006 and currently The National Action Party ( Spanish Partido Acción Nacional) known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian democratic López Obrador's PRD, and the PRI against the PAN at the local level and local elections such as the Yucatán state election, 2007). Andrés Manuel López Obrador, (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. Local elections were held in the Mexican state of Yucatán on May 20, 2007. Two other PRI presidents Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas de Gortari privatized many outmoded industries, including banks and businesses, entrered the General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade and also negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement. Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (born December 12, 1934) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI who served Carlos Salinas de Gortari ( Mexico City, April 3, 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary
Greater economic stability since the last major economic crisis in Mexico (the 1995 peso crisis) was achieved in great part through economic reforms begun under Ernesto Zedillo, who was the last successive PRI-nominated president to serve since the Mexican Revolution, and who's tenure commenced just as the peso crisis was coming to a head. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Subsequent administrations maintained stability with continued assistance from PRI members such as Secretary of Finance Francisco Gil Diaz and Bank of Mexico Governor Guillermo Ortiz. Francisco Gil Díaz (b 2 September 1943 in Mexico City) is a Mexican Economist who serves in the board of corporate directors of Guillermo Ortiz Martínez (born July 21, 1948 in Mexico City) Ortiz Martínez is the son of Gen
The party was the result of Plutarco Elías Calles's efforts to stop the violent struggle for power between the victorious factions of the Mexican Revolution, and guarantee the peaceful transmission of power for members of the party. Plutarco Elías Calles ( September 25 1877 – October 19 1945) was a Mexican general and politician The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana was a major armed struggle that started with an uprising led by Francisco I Lázaro Cárdenas (president of the party and, in 1938, president of Mexico) renamed the party as Party of the Mexican Revolution (Spanish: "Partido de la Revolución Mexicana", PRM) whose aim was to establish a democracy of workers and socialism. This article is about Gen Lázaro Cárdenas del Río For his grandson see Lázaro Cárdenas Batel. The Constitutional Citizen President of the United Mexican States (the official title in Spanish is Ciudadano Presidente Constitucional de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos  However, this was never achieved and his main intention was to create the broad-based political alliances necessary for the PRI's long-term survival, splitting the party into mass organizations representing different interest groups and acting as the political consciousness of the country in a more personal level (for example, the Confederación Nacional Campesina , the farmer's group). Historically corporatism (corporativismo refers to a political or Economic system in which power is held by civic assemblies that represent Economic His strategy with the party mirrored the balanced ticket approach of 1930s Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak, who created the Cook County Democratic Organization, characteristic of Chicago by balancing ethnic interests. In United States politics balancing the ticket is when a political candidate chooses a Running mate with the goal of bringing more widespread appeal to the campaign The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Anton (Tony Joseph Cermak, in Czech Antonín Josef Čermák, (ˈantɔɲiːn ˈjɔzɛf ˈtʃ͡ɛrmaːk ( May 9, 1873 &ndash March Chicago machine redirects here For the Major League Lacrosse team see Chicago Machine. Settling disputes and power struggles within the party structure helped prevent congressional gridlock and possible armed rebellions, but this style of dispute resolution also created a "rubber stamp" legislative apparatus. A rubber stamp, as a political metaphor, refers to a person or institution with De jure considerable formal power but little De facto power one that rarely
The party, under its three different names, held every political position until 1946 when the PAN started winning posts for municipal president and federal deputies and senators, starting in 1946, after the party changed its name to its current name Partido Revolucionario Institucional. A presidente municipal ( English: " municipal president " is the chief of government of Municipios in Mexico The Chamber of Deputies (in Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, Mexico 's bicameral The Senate ( Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexico 's Bicameral Congress. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The party had, by then, acquired a reputation for corruption, and while this was admitted (to a degree) by some of its affiliates, its supporters maintained that the role of the party was crucial in the modernization and stabilization of Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
The first four decades of government of the PRI are dubbed the "Mexican Miracle", a period of economic growth through substitution of imports and low inflation. Much of the growth was spurred by successful national development plans which, following the steps of the Soviet Union, provided for major investment on infrastructure. From 1940 to 1970 GDP increased sixfold and the population only doubled while the peso-dollar parity was maintained.
The improvement of the economy had a disparate impact in different social sectors and discontent started growing within the low classes. The Tlatelolco Massacre, also known as The Night of Tlatelolco (from a book title by the Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska) took place on the afternoon and night of In 1968 Mexico City became the first city in the Spanish and Portuguese speaking world to be chosen to host an Olympic Games. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games Using the international focus on the country, students at the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) protested the lack of democracy and social justice. The National Polytechnic Institute (in Spanish: Instituto Politécnico Nacional IPN) is one of the largest and finest public universities President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (1964-1970) ordered the army to occupy the university to suppress the revolt and minimize the disruption of the Olympic Games. Gustavo Díaz Ordaz ( March 12, 1911 - July 15, 1979) served as the President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970 On October 2, 1968 student groups demanding the withdrawal of the IPN protested at the Plaza de las Tres Culturas. Events 1187 - Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Plaza de las Tres Culturas ("Square of the Three Cultures" is the main square within the Tlatelolco neighbourhood of Mexico City. Unaccustomed to this type of protests, the Mexican Government made an unusual move by asking the United States for assistance, through LITEMPO, a spy-program to inform the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the US to obtain information from Mexico. near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all The CIA responded by sending military radios, weapons and ammunition.  The LITEMPO had previously provided the Díaz Ordaz government with 1,000 . 223 Colt automatic ammunition in 1963.  During the protests shots were fired and a number of students died (officially 39, unofficially hundreds) and hundreds were arrested. The President of the Olympic Committee then declared that the protests were against the government and not the Olympics so the games proceeded. 
The government of Luis Echeverría (1970-76), secretary of interior during the Díaz Ordaz administration, increased social spending, through external debt, at a time when oil production and prices were surging. Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born January 17, 1922) served as President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976 However, the growth of the economy came accompanied by inflation and then by a plummeting of oil prices and increases in interest rates. Investment started fleeing the country and the peso became overvalued, to prevent a devaluation and further fleeing of investments, the Bank of Mexico borrowed 360 million dollars from the Federal Reserve with the promise of stabilizing the economy. The Bank of Mexico (Banco de México abbreviated BdeM or Banxico is Mexico 's Central bank and Lender of last resort. External debt reached the level of $25 billion dollars.  Unable to contain the fleeing of dollars, Echeverría allowed the peso to float for the first time on August 31, 1976, then again later and the peso lost half of its value. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Echeverría designated José López Portillo, his secretary of Finance, as his successor for the term 1976-82, hoping that the new administration would have a tighter control on inflation and to preserve political unity. José López Portillo y Pacheco ( June 16 1920 – February 17 2004) was the President of Mexico from 1976 to 1982 
During his campaign, López Portillo promised to defend the peso "like a dog", López Portillo refused to devaluate the currency since he said that a president that devaluates, gets devaluated himself.  The discover of significant oil sites in Tabasco and Campeche helped the economy to recover and López Portillo promised to "administer the abundance". Tabasco is a state in Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz to the west Chiapas to the south and Campeche to the Campeche is the name of both a state in Mexico and its capital city The development of the promising oil industry was financed through external debt which reached 59 billion dollars (compared to 25 billion during Echeverría). Oil production increased from 94,000 barrels a day at the beginning of his administration to 1. 5 million barrels a day at the end of his administration and Mexico became the fourth largest oil producer in the world.  The price for a barrel of oil also increased from three dollars in 1970 to 35 dollars in 1981. 
Mexico increased its international presence during López Portillo, in addition to becoming the world's fourth oil exporter Mexico re-started relations with the post Franco-Spain in 1977, allowed the Pope John Paul II to visit Mexico, welcomed American president Jimmy Carter and broke relations with Somoza and supported the Sandinista National Liberation Front in its rebellion against the United States. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid Pope James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. López Portillo also proposed the Plan Mundial de Energéticos in 1979 and summoned a North-South World Summit in Cancún in 1981 to seek solutions to social problems. Cancún (pronounced as kanˈkun is a coastal city in Mexico 's easternmost state Quintana Roo, on the Yucatán Peninsula.  In 1979, the PRI founded the COPPPAL, the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America and the Caribbean, an organization created "to defend democracy and all lawful political institutions and to support their development and improvement to strengthen the principle of self determination of the people’s of Latin America and the Caribbean". 
López Portillo also freed political prisoners and proposed a reform called Ley Federal de Organizaciones Políticas y Procesos Electorales which gave official registry to opposition groups such as the Partido Demócrata Mexicano and the Partido Comunista Mexicano. The Mexican Democratic Party ( Partido Demócrata Mexicano PDM in Spanish) was an ultra- Catholic social conservative The Mexican Communist Party ( Spanish: Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM was a Communist party in Mexico. This law also created positions in the lower chamber of congress for opposition parties through proportionality of votes, relative majority, uninominal and plurinominal. As a result 1979 saw the first independent (non-PRI) communist deputies in the Congress of Mexico. Congress (formally Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the Legislative branch of the Mexican government. 
Social programs were also created through the Alliance for Production, Global Development Plan, el COPLAMAR, Mexican Nourishing System, to attain independency on food, to reform public administration. López Portillo also created the secretaries of Programming and Budgeting, Agriculture and Water Resources, Industrial Support, Fisheries and Human Settlements and Public Works. Mexico then obtained high economic growth, a recuperation of salaries and an increase in spending on education and infrastructure. This way, social and regional inequalities started to diminish. 
All this prosperity ended when the over-supply of oil in early 1982 caused oil prices to plummet and damaged severely the national economy. Interest rates skyrocketed in 1981 and external debt reached 86 billion dolars and exchange rate went from 26 to 70 pesos per dollar and inflation of 100%. This all culminated in the suspension on payments of external debt the nationalization of the banking industry in 1982, this latter diminished the consequences of the crises but did not stop from López Portillo's reputation to plummet and his character became the butt of jokes from the press. 
Miguel de la Madrid was the first of a series of economists to rule the country, a technocrat who started to implement neoliberal reforms, causing the number of state-owned industries to decline from 1155 to a mere 412. Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (born December 12, 1934) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI who served Technocracy: A form of government in which scientists and technical experts are in control "technocracy is described as that society in which those who govern justify themselves Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism After the 1982 default, crisis lenders were unwilling to loan Mexico and this resulted in currency devaluations to finance spending. An earthquake in September 1985, in which his administration was criticised for its slow and clumsy reaction, added more woe to the problems. Galloping inflation continued to plague the country, hitting a record high in 1987 at 159. 2%.
In 1986, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas (former Governor of Michoacán formed the Corriente Democrática (Spanish: "Democratic Current") of the PRI, which criticized the federal government for reducing spending on social programs to increase payments on foreign debt. Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (born May 1 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Michoacán de Ocampo the exercise of the Ejectivo Power of this Mexican organization it is deposited in a single individual The members of the Democratic Current were expelled from the party and formed the National Democratic Front (FDN, Spanish: "Frente Democrático Nacional") in 1987. The National Democratic Front (Frente Democrático Nacional was a coalition of left-wing Mexican political parties created in 1988 presidential elections, and that is the immediate The following year, the FDN elected Cárdenas as presidential candidate for the 1988 presidential election which was won by Carlos Salinas de Gortari, obtaining 50. The general election was held in Mexico on Wednesday July 6, 1988. Carlos Salinas de Gortari ( Mexico City, April 3, 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary 89% of the votes (according to official figures) versus 32% of Cárdenas. The official results were delayed, with the Secretary of the Interior (until then, the organizer of elections) blaming it on a computer system failure. Cárdenas, who claimed to have won and claimed such computer failure was caused by a manipulation of the system to count votes. Manuel Clouthier also claimed to have won, although not as vocally. Manuel de Jesús Clouthier del Rincón, also known as Maquío ( June 13, 1934 &ndash October 1, 1989) was a Mexican Clouthier, Cárdenas and Rosario Ibarra de Piedra then complained before the building of the Secretary of the Interior. Rosario Ybarra de la Piedra (born in Saltillo, Coahuila in 1927 is an activist and prominent figure of the Politics of Mexico. History In 1821 with the integration of the Junta Provisional Gubernativa ( Provisional Government Junta) and an urge to organize the country the regulation that would  Clouthier and his followers then set up other protests, among them one at the Chamber of Deputies, demanding that the electoral packages be opened. Chamber of deputies is the name given to a legislative body such as the Lower house of a Bicameral legislature or can refer to a Unicameral legislature In 1989, Clouthier presented an alternative cabinet (a British style Shadow Cabinet) with (Diego Fernández de Cevallos, Jesús González Schmall, Fernando Canales Clariond, Francisco Villarreal Torres, Rogelio Sada Zambrano, María Elena Álvarez Bernal, Moisés Canales, Vicente Fox, Carlos Castillo Peraza and Luis Felipe Bravo Mena as cabinet members and Clouthier as cabinet coordinator). Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Shadow Cabinet (also called the Shadow Front Bench) is a senior group of opposition spokespeople in the Westminster system of government who together under the Diego Fernández de Cevallos Ramos (b March 16, 1941 in Mexico City) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the conservative National Action Fernando de Jesús Canales Clariond (b July 21, 1946 in Monterrey) is a Mexican politician and businessman affiliated to the National Vicente Fox Quesada ( born July 2 1942) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006 and currently Carlos Enrique Castillo Peraza ( Mérida, Yucatan, April 17, 1947 - Bonn, Germany, September 8, 2000 Luis Felipe Bravo Mena (b September 28, 1952 in León Guanajuato) is a Mexican politician The purpose of this cabinet was to vigilate the accions of the government. Clouthier died next October in an accident with Javier Calvo, a federal deputy. The accident was claimed by the PAN as a state assassination since then.  That same year, the PRI lost its first state government with the election of Ernesto Ruffo Appel as governor of Baja California. Ernesto Ruffo Appel ( June 25 1952, San Diego, California, US The Governor of Baja California represents the executive branch of the government of the state of Baja California, Mexico, per the state's constitution
In 1990 Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa called the government under the PRI la dictadura perfecta ("The perfect dictatorship"). Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Jorge Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (born March 28 1936 is a Peruvian writer Politician, Journalist, and Essayist. In 1994, for the first time since the revolution a presidential candidate was murdered, Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta. Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta ( February 10 1950 &ndash March 23 1994) was a Mexican politician and PRI presidential candidate His campaign director, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon, was subsequently elected in the first presidential election monitored by international observers. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician The 1994 economic crisis in Mexico caused the PRI to lose its absolute majority in both chambers of the federal congress for the first time in 1997. The 1994 economic crisis in Mexico, widely known as the Mexican peso crisis, was triggered by the sudden Devaluation of the Mexican peso in the early Congress (formally Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the Legislative branch of the Mexican government.
Prior to the 2000 general elections, the PRI held its first primaries to elect the party's presidential candidate. The primary candidates, nicknamed "los cuatro fantásticos" (Spanish for The Fantastic Four), were:
The favorites in the primaries were Labastida and Madrazo, and the latter initiated a campaign against the first, perceived as Zedillo's candidate since many former secretaries of the interior were chosen as candidates by the president. Francisco Labastida Ochoa (born August 14, 1942 in Los Mochis, Sinaloa) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated List of Governors of the Mexican state of Sinaloa:Name PartyTerm History In 1821 with the integration of the Junta Provisional Gubernativa ( Provisional Government Junta) and an urge to organize the country the regulation that would Roberto Madrazo Pintado (born July 30, 1952) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI List of governors of the Mexican state of Tabasco See also List of Mexican state governors Source Manuel Bartlett Díaz (b Puebla de Zaragoza, Puebla, 1936- was Mexico's Secretary of the Interior during the six year term of Miguel de la Madrid His campaign, produced by prominent publicist Carlos Alazraki, had the motto "Dale un Madrazo al dedazo" or "Give a Madrazo to the dedazo" with "madrazo" being slang for a "strike" and "dedazo" a slang used to describe the unilaterally choosing of candidates by the president (literally "finger-strike"). Carlos Alazraki Grossmann (born Circa 1949 Mexico City) is one of the most prominent publicists of Mexico. In the presidential elections of July 2, 2000, its candidate Francisco Labastida Ochoa was defeated by Vicente Fox, after getting only 36. Mexico held a general election on Sunday July 2 2000. At stake were the Presidency of the Republic, all 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Francisco Labastida Ochoa (born August 14, 1942 in Los Mochis, Sinaloa) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated Vicente Fox Quesada ( born July 2 1942) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006 and currently 1% of the popular vote. It was to be the first Presidential electoral defeat of the PRI. Many considered that this event would mark the party's downfall. In the senatorial elections of the same date, the party won with 38. Mexico held a general election on Sunday July 2 2000. At stake were the Presidency of the Republic, all 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies 1%, or 33 out of 128 seats in the Senate of Mexico. The Senate ( Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexico 's Bicameral Congress.
After much restructuring, the party was able to make a recovery, winning the greatest number of seats (5% short of a true majority) in Congress in 2003: at these elections, the party won 224 out of 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, remaining as the largest single party in both the Chamber of Deputies and Senate. A number of Elections, both federal and local took place in Mexico during 2003: 6 July 2003 Federal Congress The Chamber of Deputies (in Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, Mexico 's bicameral The Chamber of Deputies (in Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, Mexico 's bicameral The Senate ( Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexico 's Bicameral Congress. In the Federal District the PRI obtained only one borough mayorship (jefe delegacional) out of 16, and no first-past-the-post members of the city assembly. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México DF, México or simply Méjico) is the Capital city of Mexico The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member The PRI recouped some significant losses on the state level (most notably, the governorship of former PAN stronghold Nuevo León). A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government Nuevo León ( Spanish for "New León " after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in northeastern Mexico. On August 6, 2004, in two closely-contested elections in Oaxaca and Tijuana, PRI candidates Ulises Ruiz Ortiz and Jorge Hank Rhon won the races for the governorship and municipal presidency respectively. Events 1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca ( Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), in Spanish phonemically /oa'xaka/ named for its largest city, is one of the Tijuana (ˌtiːəˈwɑːnə Spanish, ti'xwana|ti'ʍana is the largest city of the Mexican state of Baja California, situated on the U Ulises Ruiz Ortiz (born in Chalcatongo, Oaxaca, on April 9 1958) is a Mexican Politician and current Governor Jorge Hank Rhon is a Mexican billionaire Businessman, the owner of Mexico's largest sports betting company Caliente. A presidente municipal ( English: " municipal president " is the chief of government of Municipios in Mexico The PAN had held control of the president's office of the municipality of Tijuana for 15 years. Municipalities ( municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative division in Mexico (where the first-level administrative division is the Six out of eight gubernatorial elections held during 2005 were won by the PRI: Quintana Roo, Hidalgo, Colima, Estado de México, Nayarit, and Coahuila. Quintana Roo (kinˈtana ˈro is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. For the state capital of the same name see Colima Colima. There is also a volcano named Colima, and a spider genus Colima ( Zodariidae Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to " Edomex " from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the Nayarit is one of Mexico’s 31 states and is located on the central west coast bordering the Pacific Ocean. Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of Mexico 's 31 component states. The PRI then controlled the states on the country's northern border with the US except for Baja California. Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico.
Later that year Roberto Madrazo, president of the PRI, left his post to seek a nomination as the party's candidate in the 2006 presidential election. Roberto Madrazo Pintado (born July 30, 1952) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI Presidents of the Institutional Revolutionary Party of Mexico As Partido Revolucionary Institucional (PRI As Partido According to the statutes, the presidency of the party would then fall on the head of Elba Esther Gordillo as party secretary. Elba Esther Gordillo Morales (b Comitán, Chiapas, February 6 1945) is a Mexican politician formerly affiliated to the Institutional The rivalry between Madrazo and Gordillo caused Mariano Palacios Alcocer instead to become president of the party. Mariano Palacios Alcocer (born May 27, 1952 in Santiago de Querétaro) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary After what was perceived an imposition of Madrazo as candidate a group was formed called Unidad Democrática (Spanish: "Democratic Unity"), although nicknamed Todos Unidos Contra Madrazo (Spanish: "Everybody United Against Madrazo" or "TUCOM") which was formed by governors and former state governors:
Montiel won the right to run against Madrazo for the candidacy but withdrew when it was made public that he and his French wife had multi-million properties in Europe. Arturo Montiel Rojas (b October 15, 1943 in Atlacomulco, State of México) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Institutional The Governor of the State of Mexico (Spanish Gobernador Constitucional del Estado de México wields executive power in the State of Mexico (aka Edomex Enrique Jackson Ramírez (born December 24, 1945) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI Tomás Jesús Yarrington Ruvalcaba (b March 7, 1957 in Matamoros) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Revolutionary Institutional List of governors of Tamaulipas since it became a state of Mexico in 1917 Enrique Martinez y Martinez (b November 10, 1948 in Saltillo) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Revolutionary Institutional Governors of the Mexican state of Coahuila de Zaragoza. See also List of Mexican state governors Manuel Ángel Núñez Soto (b January 30, 1951) is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Revolutionary Institutional Party (PRI List of governors of the Mexican state of Hidalgo. (1925 - 1929 Matías Rodríguez (1929 - 1933 Bartolomé Vargas Lugo  Madrazo and Everardo Moreno contended in the primaries which was won by the first.  Madrazo then represented the PRI and the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM) in the Alliance for Mexico coalition. The Ecologist Green Party of Mexico ( Spanish: Partido Verde Ecologista de México known by the abbreviation PVEM)is one of the six political parties The Alliance for Mexico (Alianza por México is the name of two different multi-party Electoral alliances in Mexico; one from 2000 and the other from During his campaign Madrazo declared that the PRI and PRD were "first cousins", to this Emilio Chuayffet Chemor responded that if that was the case then Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO), candidate of the PRD would also be a first cousin and he might win the election. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District 
AMLO was, by then, the favorite in the polls, with many followers within the PRI. Madrazo, second at the polls, then released TV spots against AMLO with little success, his campaign was managed again by Alazraki. Felipe Calderón ran a more successful campaign and then tied with Madrazo and later surpassed him as the second favorite. This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. Gordillo, also the teacher's union leader, resentful against Madrazo, helped a group of teachers constitute the New Alliance Party. This article is about the Mexican Party for other political parties of the same name see New Alliance Party (disambiguation The New Alliance Divisions within the party and a successful campaign of the PAN candidate caused Madrazo to fall to third place. The winner, as announced by the Federal Electoral Institute and valuated by the Mexican Election Tribunal amidst a controversy, was Felipe Calderón of the ruling PAN Party. The Federal Electoral Institute ( Spanish: Instituto Federal Electoral, IFE is an autonomous public organization responsible for organizing federal elections This article is about the current president of Mexico For the Filipino politician and historical figure see Felipe Calderón y Roca. The National Action Party ( Spanish Partido Acción Nacional) known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian democratic On November 20 of the same year, a group of young PRI politicians launched a movement that is set to reform and revolutionize the party. Events 284 - Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor. 762 - Bögü Khan of the Uyghurs, 
In the 2006 legislative elections the party won 106 out of 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 35 out of 128 Senators. A number of Elections on the federal and local level took place in Mexico during 2006. The Chamber of Deputies (in Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, Mexico 's bicameral The Senate ( Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexico 's Bicameral Congress.
In 2007 the PRI re-gained the governorship of Yucatán and was the party with the most mayorships and state congresspeople in the elections in Yucatán (tying with the PAN in the number of deputies), Chihuahua, Durango, Aguascalientes, Veracruz, Chiapas and Oaxaca. The PRI obtained the most mayorships in Zacatecas and the second most deputies in the congressional elections of Zacatecas and Baja California.