In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance, or, in its minimal form, to simply oblige the executive or legislative bodies to consider the subject by submitting it to the order of the day. Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems A petition is a request to change some thing most commonly made to a government official or public entity A statute is a formal written enactment of a Legislative authority that governs a Country, State, City, or County. A local ordinance is a Law usually found in a municipal code. It is a form of direct democracy. Direct Democracy is a movement within the British Conservative Party dedicated to localism and Constitutional reform as a means of reviving public It has also been referred to as "minority initiative," thus relating it to minority influence . Minority influence is a form of Social influence, which takes place when a majority is being influenced to accept the Beliefs or Behaviour of a minority Furthermore, it is, in itself, a politically neutral tool, despite its name which refers it to the "people. An English Noun The English noun people has two distinct fields of application as a countable noun, a group of Humans " It can be used as well for conservative proposal as for progressive ends.
The initiative may take the form of either the direct or indirect initiative. Under the direct initiative, a measure is put directly to a vote after being submitted by a petition. Under the indirect initiative, a measure is first referred to the legislature, and then only put to a popular vote if not enacted by the legislature. A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation In United States usage, a popular vote on a specific measure is referred to as a referendum only when originating with the legislature. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation Such a vote is known, when originating in the initiative process, as an "initiative," "ballot measure" or "proposition. "
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The initiative is only available in a certain minority of jurisdictions. An election is a Decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Sortition, also known as allotment, is an equal-chance method of selection by some form of lottery such as drawing coloured pebbles from a bag A by-election or bye-election (called special election in the United States) is an Election held to fill a political office that has become vacant Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. A show election or a sham election is an Election that is held purely for show that is without any significant political purpose A Fixed-term election is an Election that occurs on a set date and cannot be changed by the incumbent politician A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election A primary election ( nominating primary) also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a Jurisdiction select candidates Indirect election is a process in which voters in an Election do not actually choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice Local Elections vary widely across Jurisdictions In Electoral systems that roughly follow the Westminster model, a terminology has evolved A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Apportionment is the process of allocating political power among a set of principles (or defined constituencies In multiple-party democratic primary elections crossover voting refers to a technique used by voters in which ballots are cast for the party a voter is opposed to in order to elect Gerrymandering is a form of redistribution in which electoral district or Constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage Redistricting, a form of redistribution, is the process of changing of political Borders in the United States The secret ballot is a voting method in which a Voter 's choices are confidential Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office. Elections by country gives information on Elections For each De jure and De facto sovereign state and dependent territory The list of election results by country gives information on Elections For each De jure and De facto sovereign state and It was included in the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1891, permitting a certain number of citizens (currently 100,000) to make a request to amend a constitutional article, or even to introduce a new article into the constitution. The Federal Constitution of 18 April 1999 (Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse Constituzione federale della Confederazione Right of initiative is also used at the cantonal and communal level in Switzerland; many cantons allow initiatives to enact regular non-constitutional law, but the federal system does not. If the necessary number of supporters is reached, the initiative will be put to a referendum about two or three years later; the delay helps prevent short-term political moods to introduce themselves into the constitution. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The parliament and government will both issue their official opinions on whether they recommend voting for or against the proposed amendment, and these opinions will be printed on the ballot. The parliament may also pass an alternative amendment suggestion which will also be included on the ballot; in this case, the voters cast two votes, one for whether or not they want an amendment, and one for which one they want, the original one from the initiative or the one introduced in parliament, in case a majority decides for amending. A citizen-proposed change to the constitution in Switzerland at the national level needs to achieve both a majority of the national popular vote and a majority of the canton-wide vote in more than half of the cantons to pass. The vast majority of national initiatives introduced since 1891 have failed to receive voter support.
Provision for the initiative was included in the 1922 constitution of the Irish Free State, but was hastily abolished when republicans organised a drive to instigate a vote that would abolish the Oath of Allegiance. Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament and Senators were required The initiative also formed part of the 1920 constitution of Estonia. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region
In the United States the initiative is in use, at the level of state government, in 24 states and the District of Columbia , and is also in common use at the local and city government level. The initiative has been recognized in the US since at least 1777 when provision was made for it by the first constitution of Georgia. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 1777 ( MDCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The modern U. S. system of initiative and referendum originated in the state of South Dakota. In US Politics, initiative and referendum is a process that allows citizens of many U South Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. South Dakota adopted initiative and referendum in 1898 by a vote of 23,816 to 16,483. In US Politics, initiative and referendum is a process that allows citizens of many U South Dakota is also the only state to have the idea develop on home soil without knowledge of the Swiss measure. Oregon was the second state to adopt, and did so in 1902, when the state's legislators adopted it by an overwhelming majority. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting The Oregon Legislative Assembly is the state legislature for the U The "Oregon System", as it was at first known, subsequently spread to many other states, and became one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s). The Progressive Era in the United States was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s Well known U. S. initiatives include various measures adopted by voters in states such as Washington, Oregon, California, Massachusetts and Alaska. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent
The first attempt to get National ballot initiatives occurred in 1907 when House Joint Resolution 44 was introduced by Rep. Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Elmer Fulton of Oklahoma. In 1977, both the Abourezk-Hatfield (National Voter Initiative) and Jagt Resolutions never got out of committee. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Senator Mike Gravel (now a Presidential candidate) was part of that effort. Maurice Robert "Mike" Gravel (grəˈvɛl (born May 13 1930 is a former Democratic United States Senator from Alaska, who served two terms from Gravel since discovered a (controversial) method to get a new proposal, the National Initiative for Democracy, into the Constitution without asking Congress. Registered U. S. voters can now vote at http://Vote.org to ratify the National Initiative, much as citizens—not the existing 13 State Legislatures—ratified the Constitution at the Constitutional conclusion. A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity
The rejected Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE) included a limited indirect initiative right (Article I-46(4)). The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented international Treaty intended The proposal was that 1,000,000 citizens, from a minimal numbers of different member states, could invite the executive body of the European Union (EU), the European Commission, to consider any proposal "on matters where citizens consider that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. " The precise mechanism had not been agreed upon. Critics underlined the weakness of this right of initiative, which did not ultimately entail any vote or referendum.
A restricted, local, indirect initiative was introduced on 28 March 2003 in the French Constitution in the frame of the decentralization laws (article 72-1, référendum d'initiative locale. A petition is a request to change some thing most commonly made to a government official or public entity The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958. __FORCETOC__ Decentralization or Decentralisation (see Spelling differences) is the process of dispersing Decision-making governance closer to the people ) However, it is only the initiative to propose to the local assembly (collectivité territoriale) the inscription of a subject to the order of the day. The local assembly then takes the decision to submit, or not, the question to popular referendum. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita