Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio, to set on fire) is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = "dead" is the name given to unnatural Death of cells and living tissue. Pus is a whitish-yellow yellow or yellow-brown substance produced during Inflammatory responses of the body that can be found in regions of Pyogenic bacterial Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious It is a protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli as well as initiate the healing process for the tissue. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. Even in cases where inflammation is caused by infection it is incorrect to use the terms as synonyms: infection is caused by an exogenous pathogen, while inflammation is the response of the organism to the pathogen.
In the absence of inflammation, wounds and infections would never heal and progressive destruction of the tissue would compromise the survival of the organism. However, inflammation which runs unchecked can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Hay Fever is a comic play written by Noel Coward in 1924 and first produced in 1925 with Marie Tempest as the first Judith Bliss Atherosclerosis is a Disease affecting arterial Blood vessels It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries in large part due to the accumulation Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder that causes the Immune system to attack the Joints, where It is for this reason that inflammation is normally tightly regulated by the body.
Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended A cascade of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterised by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.
|Causative agent||Pathogens, injured tissues||Persistent acute inflammation due to non-degradable pathogens, persistent foreign bodies, or autoimmune reactions|
|Major cells involved||Neutrophils, mononuclear cells (monocytes, macrophages)||Mononuclear cells (monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells), fibroblasts|
|Primary mediators||Vasoactive amines, eicosanoids||IFN-γ and other cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, hydrolytic enzymes|
|Duration||Few days||Up to many months, or years|
|Outcomes||Healing, abscess formation, chronic inflammation||Tissue destruction, fibrosis|
|Loss of function||Functio laesa**|
|All the above signs may be observed in specific instances, but no single sign must, as a matter of course, be present. A burn is a type of Injury that may be caused by Heat, cold, Electricity, Chemicals, Light, Radiation, or Irritation or exacerbation, in Biology and Physiology, is a state of Inflammation or painful reaction to Allergy or cell-lining damage Frostbite ( congelatio in Medical terminology) is the Medical condition whereby damage is caused to Skin and other tissues A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = "dead" is the name given to unnatural Death of cells and living tissue. Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction refers to undesirable (damaging discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal reactions produced by the normal immune system Image talkNew_radiation_symbol_ISO_21482svg for details --> Ionizing radiation |
These are the original, so called, "cardinal signs" of inflammation. *
Functio lasea is a bit of an apocryphal notion, as it is not really unique to inflammation and is a characteristic of many disease states. **
Acute inflammation is a short-term process which is characterized by the classic signs of inflammation - swelling, redness, pain, heat, and loss of function - due to the infiltration of the tissues by plasma and leukocytes. It occurs as long as the injurious stimulus is present and ceases once the stimulus has been removed, broken down, or walled off by scarring (fibrosis). Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous Connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process as opposed to a formation of Fibrous The first four characteristics have been known since ancient times and are attributed to Celsus. Aulus Cornelius Celsus (ca 25 BC—ca 50 was a Roman encyclopedist and Physician. Loss of function was added to the definition of inflammation by Virchow in the 19th century (1870). Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow ( 13 October 1821 &ndash 5 September 1902) was a German doctor, anthropologist, public health 
The process of acute inflammation is initiated by the blood vessels local to the injured tissue, which alter to allow the exudation of plasma proteins and leukocytes into the surrounding tissue. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended The increased flow of fluid into the tissue causes the characteristic swelling associated with inflammation since the lymphatic system doesn't have the capacity to compensate for it, and the increased blood flow to the area causes the reddened colour and increased heat. The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. The blood vessels also alter to permit the extravasation of leukocytes through the endothelium and basement membrane constituting the blood vessel. The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that line the interior surface of Blood vessels forming an interface between circulating Blood in the The basement membrane is a structure that supports overlying Epithelial or Endothelial cells. Once in the tissue, the cells migrate along a chemotactic gradient to reach the site of injury, where they can attempt to remove the stimulus and repair the tissue. Chemotaxis, a kind of Taxis, is the phenomenon in which bodily cells bacteria, and other single-cell or Multicellular organisms direct their movements
Meanwhile, several biochemical cascade systems, consisting of chemicals known as plasma-derived inflammatory mediators, act in parallel to propagate and mature the inflammatory response. These include the complement system, coagulation system and fibrinolysis system. The complement system is a Biochemical cascade that helps clear Pathogens from an organism Coagulation is a complex process by which Blood forms Clots It is an important part of Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel whereby Fibrinolysis is the process wherein a Fibrin clot, the product of Coagulation, is broken down
Finally, down-regulation of the inflammatory response concludes acute inflammation. Removal of the injurious stimuli halts the response of the inflammatory mechanisms, which require constant stimulation to propagate the process. Additionally, many inflammatory mediators have short half lives and are quickly degraded in the tissue, helping to quickly cease the inflammatory response once the stimulus has been removed. 
Chronic inflammation is a pathological condition characterised by concurrent active inflammation, tissue destruction, and attempts at repair. Chronic inflammation is not characterised by the classic signs of acute inflammation listed above. Instead, chronically inflamed tissue is characterised by the infiltration of mononuclear immune cells (monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells), tissue destruction, and attempts at healing, which include angiogenesis and fibrosis. Monocyte is a type of Leukocyte, part of the Human body 's Immune system. Macrophages ( Greek: "big eaters" from makros "large" + phagein "eat" ( Mø) are cells within the tissues that A lymphocyte is a type of White blood cell in the Vertebrate Immune system. Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the Immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. Angiogenesis is a physiological process involving the growth of new Blood vessels from pre-existing vessels Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous Connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process as opposed to a formation of Fibrous
Endogenous causes include persistent acute inflammation. Exogenous causes are varied and include bacterial infection, especially by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, prolonged exposure to chemical agents such as silica, tobacco smoke, or autoimmune reactions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the Bacterium that causes most cases of Tuberculosis. The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder that causes the Immune system to attack the Joints, where
In acute inflammation, removal of the stimulus halts the recruitment of monocytes (which become macrophages under appropriate activation) into the inflamed tissue, and existing macrophages exit the tissue via lymphatics. However in chronically inflamed tissue the stimulus is persistent, and therefore recruitment of monocytes is maintained, existing macrophages are tethered in place, and proliferation of macrophages is stimulated (especially in atheromatous plaques). In Pathology, an atheroma (plural atheromata is an accumulation and swelling (-oma in Artery walls that is made up of cells (mostly Macrophage cells 
The exudative component involves the movement of plasma fluid, containing important proteins such as fibrin and immunoglobulins (antibodies), into inflamed tissue. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a Protein involved in the clotting of blood Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily This movement is achieved via the chemically-induced dilation and increased permeability of blood vessels, which results in a net loss of blood plasma. The blood vessels are part of the Circulatory system and function to transport Blood throughout the body Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended The increased collection of fluid into the tissue causes it to swell (edema). Oedema (or Edema in American English formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is the increase of Interstitial fluid in any organ &mdash swelling
Acute inflammation is characterised by marked vascular changes, including vasodilation, increased permeability, and the slowing of blood flow, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. Vasodilation occurs first at the arteriole level, progressing to the capillary level, and brings about a net increase in the amount of blood present, causing the redness and heat of inflammation. An arteriole is a small diameter Blood vessel that extends and branches out from an Artery and leads to capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest of a body's Blood vessels measuring 5-10 μm in diameter which connect Arterioles and Venules and enable the interchange Increased permeability of the vessels results in the movement of plasma into the tissues, with resultant stasis due to the increase in the concentration of the cells within blood - a condition characterised by enlarged vessels packed with cells. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended Stasis allows leukocytes to marginate along the endothelium, a process critical to their recruitment into the tissues. Normal flowing blood prevents this, as the shearing force along the periphery of the vessels moves cells in the blood into the middle of the vessel. A shear stress, denoted \tau\ ( Tau) is defined as a stress which is applied Parallel or tangential to a face of a material
* non-exhaustive list
|Bradykinin||Kinin system||A vasoactive protein which is able to induce vasodilation, increase vascular permeability, cause smooth muscle contraction, and induce pain. Bradykinin is a Peptide that causes blood vessels to enlarge (dilate and therefore causes blood pressure to lower The kinin-kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly delineated system of Blood Proteins that plays a role in Inflammation, Blood|
|C3||Complement system||Cleaves to produce C3a and C3b. Complement component 3, often simply called C3, is a Protein of the Immune system. The complement system is a Biochemical cascade that helps clear Pathogens from an organism C3a stimulates histamine release by mast cells, thereby producing vasodilation. C3b is able to bind to bacterial cell walls and act as an opsonin, which marks the invader as a target for phagocytosis. An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding Enhancer for the process of Phagocytosis, for example by coating the negatively-charged molecules on the membrane Phagocytosis is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the Cell membrane to form an internal Phagosome, or "food vacuole|
|C5a||Complement system||Stimulates histamine release by mast cells, thereby producing vasodilation. C5a is a protein fragment released from complement component C5. The complement system is a Biochemical cascade that helps clear Pathogens from an organism It is also able to act as a chemoattractant to direct cells via chemotaxis to the site of inflammation. Inorganic or organic substances possessing Chemotaxis inducer effect in motile cells|
|Factor XII (Hageman Factor)||Liver||A protein which circulates inactively, until activated by collagen, platelets, or exposed basement membranes via conformational change. Hageman factor is a plasma protein now usually known as factor XII. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals The basement membrane is a structure that supports overlying Epithelial or Endothelial cells. A macromolecule is usually flexible and dynamic It can change its shape in response to changes in its environment or other factors each possible shape is called a conformation and a transition When activated, it in turn is able to activate three plasma systems involved in inflammation: the kinin system, fibrinolysis system, and coagulation system.|
|Membrane attack complex||Complement system||A complex of the complement proteins C5b, C6, C7, C8, and multiple units of C9. membrane attack complex ( MAC) is typically formed on the surface of intruding Pathogenic Bacterial cells as a result of the activation of the The complement system is a Biochemical cascade that helps clear Pathogens from an organism Complement component 5 is a protein involved in the Complement system. Complement component 6 is a protein involved in the Complement system. Complement component 7 is a protein involved in the Complement system. Complement component 8 is a protein involved in the Complement system. Complement component 9 is a protein involved in the Complement system. The combination and activation of this range of complement proteins forms the membrane attack complex, which is able to insert into bacterial cell walls and causes cell lysis with ensuing death.|
|Plasmin||Fibrinolysis system||Able to break down fibrin clots, cleave complement protein C3, and activate Factor XII. Plasmin is an important Enzyme ( present in Blood that degrades many Blood plasma proteins most notable Fibrin clots The degradation Fibrinolysis is the process wherein a Fibrin clot, the product of Coagulation, is broken down|
|Thrombin||Coagulation system||Cleaves the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen to produce insoluble fibrin, which aggregates to form a blood clot. Thrombin (activated Factor II ') is a Coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. Coagulation is a complex process by which Blood forms Clots It is an important part of Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel whereby Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a Protein involved in the clotting of blood Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a Protein involved in the clotting of blood A thrombus, or blood clot, is the final product of the Blood coagulation step in Hemostasis. Thrombin can also bind to cells via the PAR1 receptor to trigger several other inflammatory responses, such as production of chemokines and nitric oxide. Protease-activated receptor s are a subfamily of related G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by cleavage of part of their extracellular domain Chemokines are a family of small Cytokines, or Proteins secreted by cells Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics Nitric oxide or nitrogen monoxide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula N[[Oxygen O]]|
The cellular component involves leukocytes, which normally reside in blood and must move into the inflamed tissue via extravasation to aid in inflammation. Some act as phagocytes, ingesting bacteria, viruses, and cellular debris. Phagocytes are cells that are found in the blood bone marrow and other tissues of Vertebrates. The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Others release enzymatic granules which damage pathogenic invaders. In cell biology, a granule can be any structure barely visible by light microscopy Leukocytes also release inflammatory mediators which develop and maintain the inflammatory response. Generally speaking, acute inflammation is mediated by granulocytes, while chronic inflammation is mediated by mononuclear cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes. Granulocytes are a category of White blood cells characterised by Monocyte is a type of Leukocyte, part of the Human body 's Immune system. A lymphocyte is a type of White blood cell in the Vertebrate Immune system.
Various leukocytes are critically involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. Leukocyte extravasation is the movement of Leukocytes out of the Circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection These cells must be able to get to the site of injury from their usual location in the blood, therefore mechanisms exist to recruit and direct leukocytes to the appropriate place. The process of leukocyte movement from the blood to the tissues through the blood vessels is known as extravasation, and can be divided up into a number of broad steps:
* non-exhaustive list
|Lysosome granules||Enzymes||Granulocytes||These cells contain a large variety of enzymes which perform a number of functions. In cell biology, a granule can be any structure barely visible by light microscopy Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Granulocytes are a category of White blood cells characterised by Granules can be classified as either specific or azurophilic depending upon the contents, and are able to break down a number of substances, some of which may be plasma-derived proteins which allow these enzymes to act as inflammatory mediators. Azurophil is the term used to refer to objects that are readily Staining with an azure Dye.|
|Histamine||Vasoactive amine||Mast cells, basophils, platelets||Stored in preformed granules, histamine is released in response to a number of stimuli. Histamine is a Biogenic amine involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a Neurotransmitter Amines are Organic compounds and Functional groups that contain a basic Nitrogen Atom with a Lone pair. It causes arteriole dilation and increased venous permeability. An arteriole is a small diameter Blood vessel that extends and branches out from an Artery and leads to capillaries. In the Circulatory system, a vein is a Blood vessel that carries Blood back toward the Heart (as opposed to Artery, a blood vessel|
|IFN-γ||Cytokine||T-cells, NK cells||Antiviral, immunoregulatory, and anti-tumour properties. Interferon-gamma ( IFN-γ) is a Dimerized soluble Cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of Interferons This interferon was originally Cytokines are a category of signalling Proteins and Glycoproteins that like Hormones and Neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular This interferon was originally called macrophage-activating factor, and is especially important in the maintenance of chronic inflammation.|
|IL-8||Chemokine||Primarily macrophages||Activation and chemoattraction of neutrophils, with a weak effect on monocytes and eosinophils. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 is a Chemokine produced by Macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells Chemokines are a family of small Cytokines, or Proteins secreted by cells Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics Macrophages ( Greek: "big eaters" from makros "large" + phagein "eat" ( Mø) are cells within the tissues that|
|Leukotriene B4||Eicosanoid||Leukocytes||Able to mediate leukocyte adhesion and activation, allowing them to bind to the endothelium and migrate across it. Leukotriene B4 is a Leukotriene involved in Inflammation. It is produced from Leukocytes in response to inflammatory mediators and is able to induce the In biochemistry eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by Oxygenation of twenty-carbon Essential fatty acids (EFAs In neutrophils, it is also a potent chemoattractant, and is able to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species and the release of lysosome enzymes by these cells.|
|Nitric oxide||Soluble gas||Macrophages, endothelial cells, some neurons||Potent vasodilator, relaxes smooth muscle, reduces platelet aggregation, aids in leukocyte recruitment, direct antimicrobial activity in high concentrations. Nitric oxide or nitrogen monoxide is a Chemical compound with Chemical formula N[[Oxygen O]]|
|Prostaglandins||Eicosanoid||Mast cells||A group of lipids which can cause vasodilation, fever, and pain. A prostaglandin is any member of a group of Lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from Fatty acids and have important functions in the Animal body In biochemistry eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by Oxygenation of twenty-carbon Essential fatty acids (EFAs|
|TNF-α and IL-1||Cytokines||Primarily macrophages||Both affect a wide variety of cells to induce many similar inflammatory reactions: fever, production of cytokines, endothelial gene regulation, chemotaxis, leukocyte adherence, activation of fibroblasts. Tumor necrosis factor ( TNF, cachexin or cachectin and formally known as Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) is a Cytokine involved in systemic Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is one of the first Cytokines ever described Cytokines are a category of signalling Proteins and Glycoproteins that like Hormones and Neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the Extracellular matrix of many Animal tissues Responsible for the systemic effects of inflammation, such as loss of appetite and increased heart rate.|
Specific patterns of acute and chronic inflammation are seen during particular situations that arise in the body, such as when inflammation occurs on an epithelial surface, or pyogenic bacteria are involved. In biology and medicine epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body Pyogenic refers to Bacterial Infections that make Pus or form Abscesses The pus is mostly composed of dead Neutrophils that are
Abnormalities associated with inflammation comprise a large, unrelated group of disorders which underly a variety of human diseases. The immune system is often involved with inflammatory disorders, demonstrated in both allergic reactions and some myopathies, with many immune system disorders resulting in abnormal inflammation. Allergy is a disorder of the Immune system often also referred to as Atopy. In Medicine, a myopathy is a neuromuscular Disease in which the Muscle fibers do not function for any one of many reasons resulting in Muscular weakness Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues Non-immune diseases with aetiological origins in inflammatory processes are thought to include cancer, atherosclerosis, and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis is a Disease affecting arterial Blood vessels It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries in large part due to the accumulation Ischaemic or ischemic heart disease (IHD or myocardial ischaemia, is a Disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle 
A large variety of proteins are involved in inflammation, and any one of them is open to a genetic mutation which impairs or otherwise dysregulates the normal function and expression of that protein.
Examples of disorders associated with inflammation include:
An allergic reaction, formally known as type 1 hypersensitivity, is the result of an inappropriate immune response triggering inflammation. Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive Immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body Inflammation ( Latin, inflamatio, to set on fire is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as Pathogens Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS should be distinguished from other forms of Prostatitis such as Chronic bacterial prostatitis and acute Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis, abbreviated GN, is a renal disease characterized by Inflammation of the glomeruli Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction refers to undesirable (damaging discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal reactions produced by the normal immune system In Medicine, inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and Small intestine Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) ( PID) is a generic term for Inflammation of the female Uterus, Fallopian tubes, and/or Reperfusion injury refers to damage to tissue caused when Blood supply returns to the tissue after a period of Ischemia. Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder that causes the Immune system to attack the Joints, where Transplant rejection occurs when a transplanted organ or tissue fails to be accepted by the body of the transplant recipient Vasculitis (plural vasculitides) a group of diseases featuring Inflammation of the wall of Blood vessels including veins ( Phlebitis) arteries Allergy is a disorder of the Immune system often also referred to as Atopy. A common example is hay fever, which is caused by a hypersensitive response by skin mast cells to allergens. Hay Fever is a comic play written by Noel Coward in 1924 and first produced in 1925 with Marie Tempest as the first Judith Bliss A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in Histamine and Heparin An allergen is a nonparasitic Antigen capable of stimulating a Type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals Pre-sensitised mast cells respond by degranulating, releasing vasoactive chemicals such as histamine. Degranulation is a cellular process that releases Antimicrobial Cytotoxic molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside A hormone drug or chemical which is capable of eliciting Vasoconstrictive or Vasodilative action on the Vasculature. These chemicals propagate an excessive inflammatory response characterised by blood vessel dilation, production of pro-inflammatory molecules, cytokine release, and recruitment of leukocytes.  Severe inflammatory response may mature into a systemic response known as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other Mammals
Other hypersensitivity reactions (type 2 and type 3) are mediated by antibody reactions and induce inflammation by attracting leukocytes which damage surrounding tissue. Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction refers to undesirable (damaging discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal reactions produced by the normal immune system 
Inflammatory myopathies are caused by the immune system inappropriately attacking components of muscle, leading to signs of muscle inflammation. They may occur in conjunction with other immune disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, and include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and inclusion body myositis. Scleroderma is a chronic Autoimmune disease characterized by a hardening or Sclerosis in the Skin or other organs Dermatomyositis (DM is a connective-tissue disease related to Polymyositis (PM that is characterized by Inflammation of the muscles and the skin Polymyositis is a type of Inflammatory myopathy, related to Dermatomyositis and Inclusion body myositis. Sporadic inclusion body myositis ( sIBM) is an inflammatory Muscle Disease, characterized by slowly progressive weakness and wasting of the 
Due to the central role of leukocytes in the development and propagation of inflammation, defects in leukocyte function often result in a decreased capacity for inflammatory defence with subsequent vulnerability to infection.  Dysfunctional leukocytes may be unable to correctly bind to blood vessels due to surface receptor mutations, digest bacteria (Chediak-Higashi syndrome), or produce microbicides (chronic granulomatous disease). A microbicide is any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes such as Viruses or bacteria. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a diverse group of hereditary diseases in which certain cells of the Immune system have difficulty forming the reactive Additionally, diseases affecting the bone marrow may result in abnormal or few leukocytes. Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of Bones In adults marrow in large bones produces new Blood cells It constitutes 4% of
Certain drugs or chemical compounds are known to affect inflammation. Vitamin A deficiency causes an increase in inflammatory responses, and anti-inflammatory drugs work specifically by inhibiting normal inflammatory components. Vitamin A refers to a family of similarly shaped molecules the Retinoids. Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces Inflammation.
Inflammation orchestrates the microenvironment around tumours, contributing to proliferation, survival and migration. Cancer cells use selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. Selectins are a family of cell adhesion Molecules (or CAMs. All selectins are single-chain transmembrane Glycoproteins that share similar properties Chemokines are a family of small Cytokines, or Proteins secreted by cells Proteins are classified as chemokines according to shared structural characteristics  On the other hand, many cells of the immune system contribute to cancer immunology, suppressing cancer. Cancer immunology is the study of interactions between the Immune system and Cancer cells (also called tumors or malignancies
The inflammatory response must be actively terminated when no longer needed to prevent unnecessary "bystander" damage to tissues.  Failure to do so results in chronic inflammation, cellular destruction, and attempts to heal the inflamed tissue. One intrinsic mechanism employed to terminate inflammation is the short half-life of inflammatory mediators in vivo. They have a limited time frame to affect their target before breaking down into non-functional components, therefore constant inflammatory stimulation is needed to propagate their effects.
Active mechanisms which serve to terminate inflammation include:
|“||Acute inflammation normally resolves by mechanisms that have remained somewhat elusive. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β controls proliferation, Cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells Lipoxins are a series of anti-inflammatory mediators Lipoxins Emerging evidence now suggests that an active, coordinated program of resolution initiates in the first few hours after an inflammatory response begins. After entering tissues, granulocytes promote the switch of arachidonic acid–derived prostaglandins and leukotrienes to lipoxins, which initiate the termination sequence. Granulocytes are a category of White blood cells characterised by Arachidonic acid (AA sometimes ARA is an Omega-6 fatty acid 204(ω-6 A prostaglandin is any member of a group of Lipid compounds that are derived enzymatically from Fatty acids and have important functions in the Animal body Leukotrienes are naturally produced Eicosanoid lipid mediators, which may be responsible for the effects of an inflammatory response Neutrophil recruitment thus ceases and programmed death by apoptosis is engaged. Neutrophil granulocytes, generally referred to as neutrophils, are the most abundant type of White blood cells in humans and form an essential part of the These events coincide with the biosynthesis, from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, of resolvins and protectins, which critically shorten the period of neutrophil infiltration by initiating apoptosis. n −3 fatty acids (popularly referred to as ω−3 fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids) are a family of unsaturated Fatty acids that Resolvins are compounds that are made by the human body from the omega-3 fatty acids Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA Neuroprotectins are Hormones which protect the Central nervous system from injury Consequently, apoptotic neutrophils undergo phagocytosis by macrophages, leading to neutrophil clearance and release of anti-inflammatory and reparative cytokines such as transforming growth factor-Β1. Phagocytosis is the cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the Cell membrane to form an internal Phagosome, or "food vacuole Macrophages ( Greek: "big eaters" from makros "large" + phagein "eat" ( Mø) are cells within the tissues that Cytokines are a category of signalling Proteins and Glycoproteins that like Hormones and Neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular The anti-inflammatory program ends with the departure of macrophages through the lymphatics. The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. ||”|
An organism can escape the confines of the immediate tissue via the circulatory system or lymphatic system, where it may spread to other parts of the body. This is an article about the rock music band "Circulatory System" The lymphatic system in Vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called Lymph. If an organism is not contained by the actions of acute inflammation it may gain access to the lymphatic system via nearby lymph vessels. In Anatomy, lymph vessels are thin walled Valved structures that carry Lymph. An infection of the lymph vessels is known as lymphangitis, and infection of a lymph node is known as lymphadenitis. Lymphangitis is an Inflammation of the Lymphatic channels that occurs as a result of infection at a site distal to the channel Lymphadenopathy is a term meaning "disease of the Lymph nodes. A pathogen can gain access to the bloodstream through lymphatic drainage into the circulatory system.
When inflammation overwhelms the host, systemic inflammatory response syndrome is diagnosed. In Medicine, systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS) is an inflammatory state of the whole body (the "system" without a proven source When it is due to infection, the term sepsis is applied, with bacteremia being applied specifically for bacterial sepsis and viremia specifically to viral sepsis. An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a Systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS caused Bacteremia ( Bacteræmia in British English is the presence of bacteria in the Blood. Viremia (UK viraemia) is a medical condition where Viruses enter the Bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body Vasodilation and organ dysfunction are serious problems associated with widespread infection that may lead to septic shock and death. Septic shock is a very serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of Infection and Sepsis, though the
Inflammation also induces high systemic levels of acute-phase proteins. In acute inflammation, these proteins prove beneficial, however in chronic inflammation they can contribute to amyloidosis These proteins include C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, serum amyloid P, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, which cause a range of systemic effects including:
Inflammation often affects the numbers of leukocytes present in the body:
With the discovery of interleukins (IL), the concept of systemic inflammation developed. Interleukins are a group of Cytokines (secreted Signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by White blood cells ( Leukocytes hence Although the processes involved are identical to tissue inflammation, systemic inflammation is not confined to a particular tissue but involves the endothelium and other organ systems. The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that line the interior surface of Blood vessels forming an interface between circulating Blood in the
High levels of several inflammation-related markers such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α are associated with obesity. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 is a Chemokine produced by Macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells Tumor necrosis factor ( TNF, cachexin or cachectin and formally known as Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) is a Cytokine involved in systemic Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected  During clinical studies, inflammatory-related molecule levels were reduced and increased levels of anti-inflammatory molecules were seen within four weeks after patients began a very low calorie diet.  The association of systemic inflammation with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is the subject of intense research. Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of Insulin are inadequate to produce a normal Insulin response from Fat, Muscle Atherosclerosis is a Disease affecting arterial Blood vessels It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries in large part due to the accumulation 
The outcome in a particular circumstance will be determined by the tissue in which the injury has occurred and the injurious agent that is causing it. There are three possible outcomes to inflammation:
Inflammation is usually indicated by adding the suffix "-itis", as shown below. However, some conditions such as asthma and pneumonia do not follow this convention. Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal More examples are available at list of types of inflammation.
Acute infective meningitis