Industrialization or Industrialisation (in British spelling) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society into an industrial one. Ilmenau is a town located in the district of Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. British English or UK English ( BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the Pre-industrial society refers to specific social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" It is a part of a wider modernisation process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large-scale energy and metallurgy production. The idea of modernization comes from a view of societies as having a standard Evolutionary pattern as described in the Social evolutionism theories Social development redirects here For the aspect of Human biological development, see Psychosocial development Social change is a general term which Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations The use of energy has been a key in the development of the human society by helping it to control and adapt to the environment. Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their Industrialization also introduces a form of philosophical change, where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception of nature. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe.
There is a considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development.  Key positive factors identified by researchers have ranged from favourable political-legal environments for industry and commerce, through abundant natural resources of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labour. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form
One survey of countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America and the Caribbean in the late 20th century found that high levels of structural differentiation, functional specialisation, and autonomy of economic systems from government were likely to contribute greatly to industrial-commercial growth and prosperity. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Amongst other things, relatively open trading systems with zero or low duties on goods imports tended to stimulate industrial cost-efficiency and innovation across the board. International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations Free and flexible labour and other markets also helped raise general business-economic performance levels, as did rapid popular learning capabilities. Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information Positive work ethics in populations at large combined with skills in quickly utilising new technologies and scientific discoveries were likely to boost production and income levels – and as the latter rose, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tended to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial investment and economic growth. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time By the end of the century, East Asia was one of the most economically successful regions of the world – with free market countries such as Hong Kong being widely seen as models for other, less developed countries around the world to emulate. A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders 
According to the original sector classification of Jean Fourastié, an economy consists of a "Primary sector" of commodity production (farming, livestock breeding, exploitation of mineral resources), a "secondary sector" of manufacturing and processing, and a "Tertiary Sector" of service industries. The three-sector hypothesis is an economic theory which divides economies into three sectors of activity extraction of raw materials ( primary) manufacturing ( Jean Fourastié ( April 15, 1907, in Saint-Benin-d'Azy, France - July 25, 1990, in Douelle, France The industrialisation process is historically based on the expansion of the secondary sector in an economy dominated by primary activities.
The first ever transformation to an industrial economy from an agrarian one was called the Industrial Revolution and this took place in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in a few countries of Western Europe and North America, beginning in Great Britain. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands This was the first industrialisation in the world's history.
The Second Industrial Revolution describes a later, somewhat less dramatic change which came about in the late 19th century with the widespread availability of electric power, internal-combustion engines, and assembly lines to the already industrialised nations. The Second Industrial Revolution, typically dated between 1870 and 1914 was a second phase of the Industrial Revolution, involving several developments within the chemical Electric power is defined as the rate at which Electrical energy is transferred by an Electric circuit. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a An assembly line is a Manufacturing process in which parts (usually Interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned
The lack of an industrial sector in a country is widely seen as a major handicap in improving a country's economy, and power, pushing many governments to encourage or enforce industrialisation. For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious"
Most pre-industrial economies had standards of living not much above subsistence, meaning that the majority of the population were focused on producing their means of survival. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Subsistence is the food necessary to sustain life The following is a list of subsistence techniques: Hunting and Gathering For example, in medieval Europe, 80% of the labour force was employed in subsistence agriculture.
Some pre-industrial economies, such as Ancient Athens, have had trade and commerce as significant factors, enjoying wealth far beyond a sustenance standard of living. The city of Athens during Classical antiquity was a notable Polis ( City-state) of Attica, Greece, leading the Famines were frequent in most pre-industrial societies, although some, such as the Netherlands and England of the 17th and 18th centuries, the Italian city states of the 15th century and the ancient Greek and Roman civilisations were able to escape the famine cycle through increasing trade and commercialisation of the agricultural sector. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Communes in Europe in the Middle Ages were sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms among community members of a town or city The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Commercialization is the process of introducing a new product into the market Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture It is estimated that during the 17th century Netherlands imported nearly 70% of its grain supply and in the 5th century BC Athens imported 75% of its total food supply. In Economics, an import is any good (eg a Commodity) or Service brought into one country from another country in a legitimate fashion
Industrialisation through innovation in manufacturing processes first started with the Industrial Revolution in the northwest and in the Midlands of England, around the 18th century. The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland  It spread first to Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, and it later spread to the rest of the world. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain experienced a massive increase in agricultural productivity known as the British Agricultural Revolution, which enabled an unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce from farming, and helping to drive the Industrial Revolution. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of development in Britain between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century which saw a massive increase in agricultural Population growth is the change in Population over time and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population using "per unit time" for The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the
The new manpower couldn't dedicate to agriculture due to the lack of land; besides, this was not needed either because the higher productivity mechanised farming granted allowed a single peasant to feed a bigger number of otherwise employed workers. Mechanization or mechanisation ( BE) is providing human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground On the other hand, new agriculture techniques increased the demand for machines and other hardware, traditionally provided by the urban artisans. A machine is any device that uses Energy to perform some activity Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a Technology. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing Artisans, collectively called bourgeoisie, employed rural exodus' workers to increase their output and meet the country's needs. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or The growth of their business coupled with the lack of experience of the new workers pushed to a rationalisation and standardisation of the duties the in workshops, thus leading to a division of work, that is, a primitive form of Fordism. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to In Economics, rationalization is an attempt to change a pre-existing Ad hoc Workflow into one that is based on a set of published rules Standardization (or standardisation) is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. A workshop is a room or Building which provides both the area and Tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair Division of labour or specialization is the specialization of cooperative labour in specific circumscribed tasks and roles intended to increase the Productivity Fordism, named after Henry Ford, refers to various social theories. The process of creating a good was divided into simple tasks, each one of them being gradually mechanised in order to boost the productivity, therefore the income. Productivity in Economics refers to measures of output from production processes per unit of input Income, refers to consumption opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame which is generally expressed in monetary terms The accumulation of capital allowed investments in the conception and application of new technologies, enabling the industrialisation process to self-sustain. In Economics, capital or capital Goods or real capital refers to items of extensive value Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena
The industrialisation process formed a class of industrial workers who had more money in their pockets to spend than their agricultural cousins. They spent this on items such as tobacco and sugar and created new mass markets which stimulated more investment as merchants sought to exploit these. 
The mechanisation of production spread to the countries surrounding England in western and northern Europe and to British settling colonies, making those areas the wealthiest since, and shaping what is now know as the Western world. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' Northern Europe is a term for the northern part of Europe. The United Nations defines Northern Europe as (Finland Settler Colonialism is a policy of conquering a land to send Settlers in order to shape its demographic similarly as in the Metropole. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings
Incidentally, the possession of exploitation colonies eased the accumulation of capital to the countries that possessed them, speeding up their development. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants The consequence was that the subject country integrated a bigger economic system in a subaltern position, emulating the countryside who demands manufactured goods and offers raw materials, while the metropole stressed its urban posture, providing goods and importing food. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. An economic system is a System that involves the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services between The metropole, from the Greek Metropolis 'mother city' (polis being a city state hence also used for any colonizing 'mother country' in ecclesiastical languages an archbishopric having A classical example of this mechanism is the triangular trade, who involved England, southern United States and western Africa. Triangular trade is a historical term indicating Trade between three ports or regions This polarity still affects the world, and deeply retarded the industrialisation of what is now known as the Third World. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically
Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history It has been pointed out, however, that slave trade and the West Indian plantations provided less than 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting 
After the Convention of Kanagawa, which was issued by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, had forced Japan to open the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade, the Japanese government realised that drastic reforms were necessary in order to stave off Western influence. On March 31, 1854, the or was concluded between Commodore Matthew Perry of the U Matthew Calbraith Perry ( April 10, 1794 &ndash March 4, 1858) was the Commodore of the U The Tokugawa shogunate abolished the feudal system. are the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate came to an end Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed The government instituted military reforms to modernize the Japanese army and also constructed the base for industrialisation. The government vigorously promoted technological and industrial development which eventually brought Japan to become a powerful modern country. In International relations, a regional power is a State that has power within a geographic Region.
In a similar way, Russia suffered during the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched in 1918 during the Russian Civil War and World War I The Soviet Union's centrally controlled economy decided to invest a big part of its resources to enhance its industrial production and infrastructures in order to assure its own survival, thus becoming a world superpower. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids A superpower is a State with a leading position in the international system and the ability to Influence events and project power on a worldwide scale 
The other European communist countries followed the same developing scheme, albeit with a less emphasis on heavy industry. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to Light industry.
Southern European countries saw a moderate industrialisation during the 1850s-1870s, caused by a healthy integration of the European economy, though their level of development, as well as those of eastern countries, doesn't match the western standards. The term Southern Europe can have four definitions geographical political climatic phytogeographic Economic development Pre-1945 Industrial growth Prior to World War II, Europe's major financial and industrial states were the United Kingdom,
Except for Japan where a moderate industrialisation took place in the 1870s, a different pattern of industrialisation followed in East Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. One of the fastest rates of industrialisation occurred in the late 20th century across four countries known as the Asian tigers thanks to the existence of stable governments and well structured societies, strategic locations, heavy foreign investments, a low cost skilled and motivated workforce, a competitive exchange rate, and low custom duties. The term Four Asian Tigers or East Asian Tigers refers to the Economies of South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving Workforce (Voyager episode The workforce is the labour pool in Employment. In Finance, the exchange rates (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two currencies specifies how In the case of South Korea, the largest of the four Asian tigers, a very fast paced industrialization took place as it quickly moved away from the manufacturing of value added goods in the 1950s and 60s into the more advanced steel, shipbuilding and automobile industry in the 1970s and 80s, focusing on the high-tech and service industry in the 1990s and 2000s. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea and often referred to as Korea ( Korean: 대한민국 tɛː As a result, South Korea became a major global economic power today and is one of the wealthiest countries in Asia. The G20 ( Group of 20) is a group consisting of 19 of the world's largest economies together with the European Union.
This starting model was afterwards successfully copied in other larger Eastern and Southern Asian countries, including communist ones. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The success of this phenomenon led to a huge wave of offshoring – i. Offshore may refer to oil and Natural gas production at sea see Oil platform. e. , Western factories or tertiary corporations choosing to move their activities to countries where the workforce was less expensive and less collectively organised. The chuprichondira geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non- avian Dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately
China and India, while roughly following this development pattern, made adaptations in line with their own histories and cultures, their major size and importance in the world, and the geopolitical ambitions of their governments (etc. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Geopolitics is the study that analyzes Geography, History and Social science with reference to Spatial politics and patterns at various scales ).
Currently, China's government is actively investing in expanding its own infrastructures and securing the required energy and raw materials supply channels, is supporting its exports by financing the United States balance payment deficit through the purchase of US treasury bonds, and is strengthening its military in order to endorse a major geopolitical role. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Treasury securities are Government bonds issued by the United States Department of the Treasury through the Bureau of the Public Debt.
Meanwhile, India's government is investing in specific vanguard economic sectors such as bioengineering, nuclear technology, pharmaceutics, informatics, and technologically-oriented higher education, openly overpassing its needs, with the goal of creating several specialisation poles able to conquer foreign markets. Bioengineering (also known as Biological Engineering is the application of Engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of Biology and Medicine Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. Pharmaceutics is the discipline of Pharmacy that deals with all facets of the process of turning a New chemical entity (NCE into a medication able to be safely and Informatics is the science of Information, the practice of Information processing, and the engineering of Information systems. Higher education is Education that is provided by universities, vocational universities, Community colleges Liberal arts colleges
Both Chinese and Indian corporations have also started to make huge investments in Third World countries, making them significant players in today's world economy.
A similar state-led developing programme was pursued in virtually all the Third World countries during the Cold War, including the socialist ones, but especially in Sub-Saharan Africa after the decolonisation period. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction The primary scope of those projects was to achieve self-sufficiency through the local production of previously imported goods, the mechanisation of agriculture and the spread of education and health care. Self-sufficiency refers to the state of not requiring any outside aid support or interaction for survival it is therefore a type of personal or collective autonomy. In Economics, an import is any good (eg a Commodity) or Service brought into one country from another country in a legitimate fashion Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing However, all those experiences failed bitterly due to lack of realism: most countries didn't have a pre-industrial bourgeoisie able to carry on a capitalistic development or even a stable and peaceful state. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Those aborted experiences left huge debts toward western countries and fueled public corruption. Developing countries' debt is External debt incurred by the governments of Third World countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' political Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain
Oil-rich countries saw similar failures in their economic choices. Because oil is both important and expensive, regions that had big reserves of oil had huge liquidity incomes. Market liquidity is a Business, Economics or Investment term that refers to an Asset 's ability to be easily converted through an act of buying However, this was rarely followed by economic development. Experience shows that local elites were unable to re-invest the petrodollars obtained through oil export, and currency is wasted in luxury goods. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" A petrodollar is a US dollar earned by a country through the sale of petroleum In Economics, a luxury good is a good for which Demand increases more than proportionally as income rises in contrast to a "necessity good" This is particularly evident in the Persian Gulf states, where the per capita income is comparable to those of western nations, but where no industrialisation has started. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are made of the kingdoms of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, the Sultanate of Oman, the States Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country Apart from two little countries (Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates), Arab states have not diversified their economies, and no replacement for the upcoming end of oil reserves is envisaged. According to the 2007 Index of Economic Freedom published by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal, Bahrain has the second most free economy The United Arab Emirates (UAE is one of the most developed countries in the world based on various socioeconomic indicators such as GDP per capita, energy consumption per capita The "business case for diversity " theorizes that in a global marketplace, a company that employs a diverse workforce (both men and women people of many generations Oil depletion occurs in the second half of the production curve of an Oil well, Oil field, or the average of total world oil production
In recent years, countries like Mexico, Brazil, and Turkey Balkanian states have experienced moderate industrial growth, fuelled by exportations going to countries that have bigger economies: the United States, China, and the European Union, respectively. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in They are sometimes called newly-industrialised countries. The category of newly industrialized country ( NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by Political scientists Most African and Latin American nations seem to follow a similar scheme. Despite this trend being artificially influenced by the oil price increases since 2003, the phenomenon is not entirely new nor totally speculative (for instance see: Maquiladora). In Investing, Financial markets are commonly believed to have market trends that can be classified as primary trends secondary trends (short-term and secular trends A maquiladora or maquila is a Factory that imports materials and equipment on a Duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing Most analysts conclude in the next few decades the whole world will experience industrialisation, and international inequality will be replaced with social inequality. A decade is a period of 10 Years (since 1594 a factor of 10 difference between two numbers, or sometimes a set or a group of ten (since 1451 International inequality is inequality between countries (cf Milanovic 2002 Social inequality refers to a lack of Social equality, where individuals in a society do not have equal Social status.
The concentration of labor into factories has brought about the rise of large towns to serve and house the working population. A conurbation is an Urban area or Agglomeration comprising a number of Cities, large Towns and larger urban areas that through Population
The family structure changes with industrialisation. The sociologist Talcott Parsons noted that in pre-industrial societies there is an extended family structure spanning many generations who have probably remained in the same location for generations. Talcott Parsons ( December 13, 1902 - May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist, who served on the faculty of Harvard University Extended family (or Joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings In industrialised societies the nuclear family, consisting of only of parents and their growing children, predominates. The term nuclear family developed in the Western world to distinguish the Family group consisting of parents most commonly a Father and Mother Families and children reaching adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist. Extended family bonds become more tenuous. 
The concentration of industry in cities, with its increased scale degrades the environment around industrial areas.
Industrialisation has spawned its own health problems. Modern stressors include noise, air, water pollution, poor nutrition, dangerous machinery, impersonal work, isolation, poverty, homelessness, and substance abuse. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw Ingredients into Food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by An accident at work is defined as an external sudden unexpected unintended and violent event during the execution of work or arising out of it which causes damage to the Health In Sociology and Critical social theory, alienation refers to an individual's estrangement from traditional community and others in general Solitude is a state of Seclusion or Isolation, ie lack of contact with people or love Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing because they cannot afford or are otherwise unable to maintain regular safe and adequate shelter Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a Psychoactive drug or Performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect Health problems in industrial nations are as much caused by economic, social, political, and cultural factors as by pathogens. Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity The term developed country, or advanced country, is used to categorize countries with developed Economies in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious Industrialisation has become a major medical issue world wide.
In 2005, the USA was the largest producer of industrial output followed by Japan and China, according to International Monetary Fund. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic
Currently the "international development community" (World Bank, OECD, many United Nations departments, and some other organisations) endorses development policies based on merely poverty reduction, and giving poor populations access to basic services like water purification or primary education. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Water purification is the process of removing contaminants and other harmful microorganisms from a raw water source Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. The community does not recognise traditional industrialisation policies as being adecuated to the Third World or beneficial in the longer term, with the perception that it could only create inefficient local industries unable to compete in a free-trade dominated world. The term inefficiency has several meanings depending on the context in which its used Allocative inefficiency - Allocative efficiency theory Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions