Republic of Indonesia
|Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)|
Unity in Diversity
National ideology: Pancasila
|Anthem: Indonesia Raya|
(and largest city)
|-||President||Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono|
|-||Vice President||Jusuf Kalla|
|-||Declared||17 August 1945|
(formerly Dutch East Indies)
|-||Total||1,919,440 (land) km² (16th)|
735,355 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||4. The national flag of Indonesia, which is known as Sang Merah Putih ("The Red and White" in Indonesian, is based on the flag of the 13th The Coat of Arms of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila. The main part of the coat of arms is the Garuda with a shield on its chest and A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The official national Motto of Indonesia is Bhinneka Tunggal Ika which is Old Javanese and is often loosely translated as 'Unity in Diversity' but literally Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Pancasila, (pronounced panʧaˈsila is the official philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Indonesia Raya (composed in 1924 "Indonesia Raja" in old Indonesian spelling is the National anthem of the Republic of Indonesia Indonesia 's 238 million people make it the world's fourth-most populous nation Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Indonesia 's 238 million people make it the world's fourth-most populous nation For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature This is the list of the presidents of Indonesia. Key General (Ret Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (born September 9, 1949) is an Indonesian retired military general and the sixth President of Indonesia This is a list of Vice Presidents of Indonesia. The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the second most powerful person Jusuf Kalla (born Watampone, South Sulawesi; May 15, 1942) is the current Vice President of Indonesia and Chairman of the Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 85|
|-||July 2007 est. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology estimate||234,693,997 (4th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$1,038 billion (15th)|
|-||Per capita||$4,356 (114th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$408 billion (21st)|
|-||Per capita||$1,812 (114th)|
|Gini (2002)||34. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 3|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 728 (medium) (107th)|
|Time zone||various (UTC+7 to +9)|
The Republic of Indonesia (IPA: /ˌɪndoʊˈniːziːə/, /ˌɪndəˈniːziːə/, /ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/) (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a nation in Southeast Asia. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The rupiah ( sign: Rp; code: IDR) is the official Currency of Indonesia. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Comprising 17,508 islands, it is the world's largest archipelagic state. Indonesia comprises 17508 Islands (based from " Seminar Nasional Penetapan Nama Pulau-pulau Kecil Dalam Presektif Sejarah or "National Seminary An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian With a population of 222 million people in 2006, it is the world's fourth most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority nation, although officially it is not an Islamic state. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Islamic Republic is the name given to several states in the Muslim world including the Islamic Republics of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Mauritania Indonesia is a republic, with an elected parliament and president. A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its The President of the Republic of Indonesia ( Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the Head of State as well as the Head of the Government of the Republic The nation's capital city is Jakarta. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Singapore The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Andaman & Nicobar Islands is a Union territory of India. Informally the territory's name is often abbreviated to A & N Islands, or ANI
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the seventh century, when the Srivijaya Kingdom formed trade links with China. Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra, Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Under Indian influence, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished from the early centuries CE. Hinduism in Southeast Asia influenced the former Champa civilization in southern parts of Central Vietnam, Funan in Cambodia, the Khmer Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. This article covers the historical role of the Maluku Islands as a source of spices since early history when the islands where known as the Spice Islands The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10 Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.
Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest and most politically dominant ethnic group. The Javanese are an Ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. As a unitary state and a nation, Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language, a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Islam is Indonesia's dominant Religion with approximately 88% over 200 million of its population identifying as Muslims, making it the most Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka tunggal ika" ("Unity in Diversity" lit. The official national Motto of Indonesia is Bhinneka Tunggal Ika which is Old Javanese and is often loosely translated as 'Unity in Diversity' but literally "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. However, sectarian tensions and separatism have led to violent confrontations that have undermined political and economic stability. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. The country is richly endowed with natural resources, yet poverty is a defining feature of contemporary Indonesia.
The name Indonesia derives from the Latin Indus, meaning "India", and the Greek nesos, meaning "island".  The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.  In 1850, George Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians — and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "habit custom convention" is the branch of Anthropology that compares and  In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.  However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and even Insulinde. 
From 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.  Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. Adolf Bastian ( 26 June 1826 – 2 February 1905) was a 19th century Polymath best remembered for his contributions to the development The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau in 1913. Ki Hajar Dewantara ( 2 May 1889 - 28 April 1959) born Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat in Yogyakarta, was a pioneer 
Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Homo erectus ( Latin: "upright man" is an extinct species of the genus Homo, believed to have been the first hominin  Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. The Austronesian people or Austronesian-speaking people, are a population group present in Oceania and Southeast Asia who speak or had ancestors who spoke They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they expanded. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people"  Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. A paddy field is a flooded parcel of Arable land used for growing Rice and other semiaquatic crops. Indonesia's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade. For example, trade links with both Indian kingdoms and China were established several centuries BCE.  Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. 
From the seventh century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it. Srivijaya or Sriwijaya was an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra, Southeast Asia which influenced much of the Malay Archipelago.  Between the eighth and 10th centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. Sailendra (Sanskrit Lord of the Mountain) is the name of an influential Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java. Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries AD and was established by king Sanjaya, he was also known as Borobudur is a ninth-century Mahayana Buddhist monument in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia; this period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history. Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Gajah Mada (d circa 1364 was according to Javanese old manuscripts poems and Mythology, a famous military leader and Prime minister 
Although Muslim traders first traveled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Islam is thought to have first been adopted by peoples of the Indonesia n archipelago sometime during the Eleventh century, although Muslims had Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two  Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam which became the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.  The first Europeans arrived in Indonesia in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolize the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku. Francisco Serrão ( Francisco Serrano) (died 1521 was a Portuguese explorer, and a cousin or personal friend of Ferdinand Magellan. The nutmegs Myristica are a Genus of Evergreen Trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia This article is about the Spice; for other meanings see Clove (disambiguation. Cubeb ( Piper cubeba) or tailed pepper, is a plant in Genus Piper, cultivated for its Fruit and Essential oil The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago  Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. The Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in old-spelling Dutch, literally "United East Indian Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below 
For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over these territories was tenuous; only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. See also Timeline of Indonesian history Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17508 islands (6000 inhabited stretching along the Equator  The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. The Netherlands East Indies campaign of 1941 - 42 was the short-lived defence of the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia by Allied forces against Imperial Japan occupied Indonesia during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of War in 1945 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed president. Sukarno ( June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia.  The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, and an armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence (with the exception of The Dutch territory of West New Guinea, which was incorporated following the 1962 New York Agreement, and UN—mandated Act of Free Choice). Timeline of the Indonesian National RevolutionThe Indonesian National Revolution or Indonesian War of Independence was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between The New York Agreement is a document brokered by the United States on behalf of the Indonesian government in 1962 to transfer sovereignty of Western The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Act of Free Choice ( Indonesian: Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat, PEPERA) was the title of an Indonesian military presentation in 1969
Sukarno moved from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the Military, Islam, and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Sukarno ( June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. The Armed Forces of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI, formerly Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, best known by The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was the largest non-ruling Communist party in the world prior  An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 was countered by the army, who led a violent anti-communist purge, during which the PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed. Indonesia's transition to the " New Order " in the mid-1960s ousted the country's first president Sukarno after 22 years in the position Events 1399 - Henry IV is proclaimed King of England. 1744 - France and Spain defeat the Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar.  Between 500,000 and one million people were killed.  The head of the military, General Suharto, out-maneuvered the politically weakened Sukarno, and was formally appointed president in March 1968. Suharto, also spelled Soeharto (June 8 1921 &ndash January 27 2008 was an Indonesian military leader and the second President of Indonesia, holding His New Order administration was supported by the US government, and encouraged foreign direct investment in Indonesia, which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. The New Order ( Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966 Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country  However, the authoritarian "New Order" was widely accused of corruption and suppression of political opposition.
In 1997 and 1998, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the Asian Financial Crisis. The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown (  This increased popular discontent with the New Order and led to popular protests. Suharto retired in May 1998 following collapse of support for his three-decade long Presidency of Indonesia. Suharto resigned on 21 May 1998. Events 878 - Syracuse Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar)  In 1999, East Timor voted to secede from Indonesia, after a twenty-five-year military occupation that was marked by international condemnation of often brutal repression of the East Timorese.  The Reformasi era following Suharto's resignation, has led to a strengthening of democratic processes, including a regional autonomy program, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Presidential elections were held in Indonesia on Monday July 5, and Monday September 20, 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, and terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas.  A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005. See also Sultanate of Aceh Aceh (ʔaˈtɕɛh generally anglicized as ˈɑːtʃeɪ is a special territory ( daerah istimewa) of Indonesia 
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. The politics of Indonesia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of Indonesia A republic is a State or Country that is not led by a hereditary Monarch, but in which the people (or at least a part of its people have impact on its A presidential system is a System of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term separately from the Legislature As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the national government. A unitary state is a State whose three Organs of state are governed Constitutionally as one single unit with one Constitutionally created Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Suharto retired in May 1998 following collapse of support for his three-decade long Presidency of Indonesia. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. The Constitution of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of the Indonesia In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation  The president of Indonesia is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state A commander-in-chief is the Commander of a nation's Military forces or significant element of those forces The Armed Forces of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI, formerly Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, best known by The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president. Presidential elections were held in Indonesia on Monday July 5, and Monday September 20, 2004.  The president serves a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. 
The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR). The People's Consultative Assembly ( Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat /MPR is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political sytem. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president.  The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (DPR), with 550 members, and the Regional Representatives Council (DPD), with 168 members. The People's Representative Council ( Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat / DPR) is the Lower house of the legislature of Indonesia. The Regional Representatives Council, or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, abbr The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes  Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPR's role in national governance.  The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. 
Most civil disputes appear before a State Court; appeals are heard before the High Court. The Supreme Court is the country's highest court, and hears final cassation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and a Religious Court to deal with specific religious cases. 
In contrast to Sukarno's anti-imperialistic antipathy to western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Indonesia's foreign relations since the Suharto "New Order" have been based on economic and political cooperation with Western nations. Since independence Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its The Armed Forces of Indonesia ( Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI, formerly Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, best known by Since independence Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its  Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly referred to as ASEAN, ˈɑːsiːɑːn AH-see-ahn in English (the Official language The East Asia Summit (EAS is a forum held annually by leaders of 16 countries in the East Asian region  The nation restored relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist purges early in the Suharto era. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES  Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC). The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Non-Aligned Movement ( NAM) is an International organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations.  Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, and a member of OPEC, the Cairns Group and the WTO. ASEAN Free Trade Area ( AFTA) is a Trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador The Cairns Group is an interest group of 19 agricultural exporting countries composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada Indonesia has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan. Humanitarian aid (also called succour) is material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes typically in response to humanitarian crises Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid 
The Indonesian Government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda. The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The  The deadliest killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002. The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to Kuta is a town in southern Bali, Indonesia. A former fishing village it was one of the first towns on Bali to see substantial Tourist development and  The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects. Tourism in Indonesia is an important component of the Indonesian economy and an important source of foreign exchange revenues 
Indonesia's 300,000-member armed forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, which includes marines), and Air Force (TNI-AU).  The army has about 233,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.  In the post-Suharto period since 1998, formal TNI representation in parliament has been removed; though curtailed, its political influence remains extensive.  Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua have led to armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.  Following a sporadic thirty year guerrilla war between the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005. The Free Aceh Movement ( Indonesian: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM) also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front ( ASNLF  In Papua, there has been a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses, since the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. This is a partial listing of alleged Human rights violations in Western New Guinea under Indonesian rule (currently comprising the provinces of West Papua 
Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. ||-||-||}The Province ( Indonesian: provinsi or propinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. The Republic of Indonesia is divided into provinces (Provinsi ||-||-||}The Province ( Indonesian: provinsi or propinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. Each province has its own political legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are further subdivided into subdistricts (kecamatan), and again into village groupings (either desa or kelurahan). This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia, one step lower hierarchy of the Indonesia administrative division below the provincial government (sometimes This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia, one step lower hierarchy of the Indonesia administrative division below the provincial government (sometimes A Subdistrict ( kecamatan) is a subdivision of a regency ( kabupaten) or city ( kota) in Indonesia. The village (desa is the lowest level of government administration in Indonesia. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief).
Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua provinces have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. See also Sultanate of Aceh Aceh (ʔaˈtɕɛh generally anglicized as ˈɑːtʃeɪ is a special territory ( daerah istimewa) of Indonesia Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The Special Region of Yogyakarta ( Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY) is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding Papua is the largest province of Indonesia, comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law). Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law.  Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution.  Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001. Papua is the largest province of Indonesia, comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also  Jakarta is the country's special capital region.
(Indonesian name in brackets where different from English)
† indicates provinces with Special Status
Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two See also Sultanate of Aceh Aceh (ʔaˈtɕɛh generally anglicized as ˈɑːtʃeɪ is a special territory ( daerah istimewa) of Indonesia Banda Aceh is the provincial capital and largest city of Aceh, Indonesia, located on the island of Sumatra, with an Elevation of 21 m North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Medan is the capital of the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. West Sumatra ( Indonesian: Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar) is a province of Indonesia. Padang (means field) is the capital and largest city of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra Island along the Strait of Malacca. Pekanbaru is the capital of Riau a province in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra. Riau Islands ( Indonesian: Kepulauan Riau ( Kepri or Riau Kepulauan) is a province of Indonesia, consisting of Riau Archipelago Tanjung Pinang or Tanjungpinang is the capital and largest town of the Indonesian province of Riau Islands. Jambi is a province of Indonesia located on the east coast of central Sumatra. Jambi is a city in Indonesia, capital of Jambi province, on the island of Sumatra. South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. Palembang is a city of 1286000 in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Bangka-Belitung Islands is a province of Indonesia, which includes two main islands Bangka and Belitung, and several smaller ones that lie from Pangkal Pinang is the largest town on the Indonesian island of Bangka and the capital of the province of Bangka-Belitung. Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. It is on the southwest coast of the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of West Sumatra, Bengkulu is a city on the west coast of Sumatra island The city is capital of the Bengkulu province of Indonesia. Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. Bandar Lampung is the capital province of Lampung, Indonesia. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. Banten is a province of Indonesia located at the western end of Java Island. Serang is the capital of Banten Province and the administrative center of Serang Regency in Indonesia. West Java (Jawa Barat with population around 3572 million is the most populous province of Indonesia, located on Java Island. Bandung (bʌndʊŋ is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, and the country's fourth largest city Central Java ( Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. The Special Region of Yogyakarta ( Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY) is the smallest province of Indonesia (excluding Yogyakarta (also Jogja, Yogya, Jogjakarta) is a city in the Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. East Java (Jawa Timur is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura Surabaya (formerly spelled as Soerabaja) is Indonesia 's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. The Nusa Tenggara (lit Southeast Islands or Lesser Sunda Islands, are a group of Islands in the middle-south part of the Malay Archipelago. Bali is an Indonesian Island located at, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. West Nusa Tenggara ( Nusa Tenggara Barat) is a province in south-central Indonesia. East Nusa Tenggara ( Nusa Tenggara Timur) is a province of Indonesia, located in the eastern portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands, including Kupang is the provincial capital of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. In most languages in the world the term Kalimantan refers to the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo, while for Indonesians the name "Kalimantan" West Kalimantan ( Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. Pontianak is the capital of the Indonesia province of West Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan ( Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan Palangkaraya is the Capital city of the Indonesian province Central Kalimantan. South Kalimantan ( Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is located at, on a delta island near the junction of the Barito and Martapura East Kalimantan ( Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv Kaltim) is the second largest Indonesian province, located on the Kalimantan Samarinda is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan ( Kalimantan Timur) on the island of Borneo. Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sulawesi, and borders the province of Gorontalo to the Manado is the capital of the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia. Gorontalo city is the capital of the Gorontalo province, Indonesia. Central Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located in the heart of Sulawesi. Palu is a City on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, located 1650 km northeast of Jakarta, at. West Sulawesi or Sulawesi Barat (short form Sulbar) is a province of Indonesia, created in 2004. Mamuju is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Sulawesi. South Sulawesi ( Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island Makassar, ( Macassar, Mangkasar) is the provincial capital of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and the largest city on Sulawesi Island South East Sulawesi ( Indonesian: Sulawesi Tenggara) is a province of Indonesia on the island of Sulawesi. Kendari is the capital of the Indonesian province of South East Sulawesi. The Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, the Spice Islands or simply Maluku) are an Archipelago Maluku is a province of Indonesia, comprising broadly the southern part of the Maluku Islands (also known as the Moluccas Molucca Islands or Moluccan Ambon (1990 pop 275888 is the main city and seaport of Ambon Island, and is the capital of Maluku province of Indonesia. North Maluku ( Maluku Utara) is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands, which are split between it and Ternate is an island and town in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas of eastern Indonesia, located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. West Papua ( Papua Barat; formerly West Irian Jaya or Irian Jaya Barat) with population around 800000 is the least populous province of Manokwari is a city and regency in the Indonesian province of West Papua, at the western end of New Guinea. Papua is the largest province of Indonesia, comprising a majority part of the western half of the island of New Guinea and nearby islands (see also Jayapura City (Kota Jayapura (West Papuan - Port Numbai is the capital of Papua province Indonesia, on the island of New Guinea. Indonesia is an archipelagic Island country in Southeast Asia, lying between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean  These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The equator (sometimes referred to colloquially as "the Line") is the intersection of the Earth 's surface with the plane perpendicular to the The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta. Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470000 km² and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two In most languages in the world the term Kalimantan refers to the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo, while for Indonesians the name "Kalimantan" Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on the islands of Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. Sebatik Island ( Pulau Sebatik) is an island off the eastern coast of Borneo, partly within Indonesia and partly within Malaysia. Papua New Guinea (or ˈpæpjuːə in Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini) officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania New Guinea, located just north of Australia, is the world's second largest island, having become separated from the Australian mainland when the area now known East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. Timor is an Island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, north of the Timor Sea. Indonesia also shares borders with Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines to the north and Australia to the south across narrow straits of water. Singapore The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. Surabaya (formerly spelled as Soerabaja) is Indonesia 's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. Bandung (bʌndʊŋ is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, and the country's fourth largest city Medan is the capital of the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Semarang is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia. 
At 1,919,440 square kilometers (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest country in terms of land area.  Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometer (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world, although Java, the world's most populous island, has a population density of 940 people per square kilometer (2,435 per sq mi). At 4,884 meters (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometers (442 sq mi). Puncak Jaya (ˈpʊntʃak ˈdʒaja sometimes called Mount Carstensz or the Carstensz Pyramid, is a mountain in the Sudirman Range, the western central Lake Toba ( Danau Toba) is a Lake and Supervolcano, 100 km long and 30 km wide and 505 m The country's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements. The Mahakam River flows 980 km from the highlands of Borneo, district Long Apari to its mouth in Makassar Strait. Barito is a river in South Kalimantan, Indonesia which passes through the city of Banjarmasin. 
Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. The Pacific Plate is an oceanic Tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. The Eurasian Plate is a Tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional Continents of Europe The Indo-Australian Plate is a major Tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding Ocean, and extends northwest to include the Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> The Geography of Indonesia Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes, including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below --> The Geography of Indonesia Krakatoa ( Indonesian: Krakatau) also spelled Krakatao or Krakatowa, is a volcanic island in the Sunda Strait Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active Stratovolcano, also known as a Composite volcano, on Sumbawa island Indonesia. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Lake Toba ( Danau Toba) is a Lake and Supervolcano, 100 km long and 30 km wide and 505 m A supervolcano or super volcanic eruption is a Volcanic eruption which is Orders of magnitude greater than any volcano in historic times (generally accepted to be According to the Toba catastrophe theory, 70000 to 75000 years ago a supervolcanic event at Lake Toba, on Sumatra, reduced the world's human population Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra, and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea Earthquake that occurred at 005853 UTC on December 26 2004 with an Epicentre off the west coast of The May 2006 Java Earthquake occurred at 0554 local time on 27 May 2006 (2254 GMT 26 May) in the Indian Ocean However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali. Volcanic ash consists of small Tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions less than in diameter 
Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. A tropical climate is a kind of Climate typical in the Tropics. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months A wet season or rainy season is a Season in which the average Rainfall in a region is significantly increased The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the Tropics. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from 1,780–3,175 millimeters (70–125 in), and up to 6,100 millimeters (240 in) in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas—particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua—receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is 26–30 °C (79–86 °F). Temperature range is the numerical difference between the minimum and maximum values of temperature observed in a system such as Atmospheric temperature in a given location 
Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil), and its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. The Fauna of Indonesia consists of a high level of Biodiversity due to its vast-size and Tropical Archipelago make-up The flora of Indonesia consists of many unique varieties of tropical plants An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation The Sumatran Orangutan ( Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of Orangutans Living and endemic to Sumatra island of Indonesia, they are Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Australasia is a Region of Oceania: New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and neighbouring Islands in the Pacific  Once linked to the Asian mainland, the islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) have a wealth of Asian fauna. Geologically, the Sunda Shelf is an extension of the Continental shelf of Southeast Asia, covered during Interglacials by the South China Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. The Sumatran tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) is a subspecies of Tiger found on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The Javan Rhinoceros ( Sunda Rhinoceros to be more precise or Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros sondaicus) is a member of the family Rhinocerotidae The orangutans are two Species of great apes known for their intelligence long arms and reddish-brown hair Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. The leopard (lɛpɚd Panthera pardus) is an Old World Mammal of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four roaring
Forests cover approximately 60% of the country.  In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku—having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna.  Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species. The fauna of New Guinea comprises a large number of species of Mammals Reptiles Birds Fish, Invertebrates and Amphibians 
Indonesia is second only to Australia in its degree of endemism, with 26% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic. For the Brachiopod Genus, see Cymbidium (brachiopod. Cymbidium, or boat orchids, is a genus 
Indonesia's 80,000 kilometers (50,000 mi) of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to the country's high level of biodiversity. Indonesia has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, sand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics. Coral reefs are Aragonite structures produced by living organisms found in marine waters with little to no nutrients in the water Seagrasses (or sea-grasses in British English) are Flowering plants from one of four plant families ( Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Mudflats (also tidal flats, tide flats, etc are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers 
The British naturalist, Alfred Wallace, described a dividing line between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species. Alfred Russel Wallace OM, FRS (8 January 1823 &ndash 7 November 1913 was an British naturalist, Explorer, Geographer  Known as the Wallace Line, it runs roughly north-south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. The Wallace Line (or Wallace's Line) is a boundary that separates the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australia. The Lombok Strait is a Strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean, located between the Islands of Bali and Lombok Lombok (population 2950105 in 2005) is an Island in West Nusa Tenggara province Indonesia. West of the line the flora and fauna are more Asian; moving east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the surrounding area, which is now termed Wallacea. The Malay Archipelago is a book by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace that chronicles his scientific exploration during the eight year period 1854 Wallacea is a biogeographical designation for a group of Indonesian islands separated by deep water Straits from the Asian and Australian 
Indonesia's high population and rapid industrialization present serious environmental issues, which are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a Pre-industrial society into an industrial one  Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services. Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Illegal logging is the harvest transportation purchase or sale of timber in violation of national Laws The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal including Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky Urbanizationn (also spelled urbanisation) is the physical growth of Urban areas into rural or natural land as a result of population in-migration to an existing Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Distinguish from Wastwater (a lake in the Lake District in northwest England  Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as threatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Sumatran Orangutan. Habitat destruction is the process in which natural Habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species originally present Endemism is the Ecological state of being unique to a place Endemic species are not naturally found elsewhere Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation The Sumatran Orangutan ( Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of Orangutans Living and endemic to Sumatra island of Indonesia, they are 
Indonesia's estimated Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2007 is US$408 billion (US$1,038 bn PPP). The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power.  In 2007, estimated nominal per capita GDP is US$1,812, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,616 (International Dollars). The Geary-Khamis dollar, also known as the international dollar, is a hypothetical unit of Currency that has the same Purchasing power that the U  The services sector is the economy's largest and accounts for 45. 3% of GDP (2005). This is followed by industry (40. 7%) and agriculture (14. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture 0%).  However, agriculture employs more people than other sectors, accounting for 44. 3% of the 95 million-strong workforce. This is followed by the services sector (36. 9%) and industry (18. 8%).  Major industries include petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, and mining. Major agricultural products include palm oil, rice, tea, coffee, spices, and rubber.
Indonesia's main export markets (2005) are Japan (22. 3%), the United States (13. 9%), China (9. 1%), and Singapore (8. 9%). The major suppliers of imports to Indonesia are Japan (18. 0%), China (16. 1%), and Singapore (12. 8%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83. The balance of trade (or net exports, sometimes symbolized as NX) is the difference between the monetary value of Exports and imports in an In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion 64 billion and import expenditure of US$62. In Economics, an import is any good (eg a Commodity) or Service brought into one country from another country in a legitimate fashion 02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia's major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs. 
In the 1960s, the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability, a young and inexperienced government, and ill-disciplined economic nationalism, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger. Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia.  Following President Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly brought inflation down, stabilized the currency, rescheduled foreign debt, and attracted foreign aid and investment. The Berkeley Mafia was term given to a group of US -educated Indonesian economists whose efforts brought Indonesia back from dire economic conditions and External debt (or foreign debt) is that part of the total debt in a country that is owed to Creditors outside the country  Indonesia is Southeast Asia's only member of OPEC, and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC) is a Cartel of thirteen countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador  Following further reforms in the late 1980s, foreign investment flowed into Indonesia, particularly into the rapidly developing export-oriented manufacturing sector, and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%. 
Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown ( Against the US dollar, the currency dropped from about Rp. 2,000 to Rp. 18,000, and the economy shrunk by 13. 7%.  The rupiah has since stabilized at around Rp. The rupiah ( sign: Rp; code: IDR) is the official Currency of Indonesia. 10,000, and there has been a slow but significant economic recovery. Political instability since 1998, slow economic reform, and corruption at all levels of government and business, have contributed to the patchy nature of the recovery.  (Transparency International, for example, ranked Indonesia 143rd out of 180 countries in its 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index). Transparency International ( TI) is a leading international Non-governmental organization addressing corruption Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI ordering the countries of the world according to "the degree  GDP growth, however, exceeded 5% in both 2004 and 2005, and is forecast to increase further.  This growth rate, however, is not enough to make a significant impact on unemployment, and stagnant wages growth, and increases in fuel and rice prices have worsened poverty levels.  As of 2006, an estimated 17. 8% of the population live below the poverty line, 49. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country 0% of the population live on less than US$2 per day, and unemployment rate at 9. 75%. 
The national population from the 2000 national census is 206 million, and the Indonesian Central Statistics Bureau and Statistics Indonesia estimate a population of 222 million for 2006. Indonesia 's 238 million people make it the world's fourth-most populous nation The number of Languages of Indonesia is 742 Of those 737 are living languages 2 are second language without mother-tongue speakers and 3 are extinct Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. It is stated in the first principle of the state ideology Pancasila: "belief in the one and only God"  130 million people live on the island of Java, the world's most populous island. Java (Jawa is an Island of Indonesia and the site of its Capital city Jakarta.  Despite a fairly effective family planning program, which has been in place since the 1960s, the population is expected to grow to around 315 million in 2035, based on the current estimated annual growth rate of 1. Family planning is frequently used to mean that people plan when to have children using Birth control, preconceptional counseling. 25%. 
Most Indonesians are descendant from Austronesian-speaking peoples, who originated from Taiwan. The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. The other major grouping are Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia. Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people"  There are around 300 distinct native ethnicities in Indonesia, and 742 different languages and dialects.  The largest is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant.  The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups. Not to be confused with Sudanese people The Sundanese are an ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast The Madurese are an Ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic  A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strongly maintained regional identities.  Society is largely harmonious, although social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence.  Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising less than 2% of the population. Chinese Indonesians ( Hakka: Thong ngin Min: Teng lang Indonesian: Tionghoa Indonesia, or (derisively Cina totok) are ethnically Much of the country's privately-owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-controlled, which has contributed to considerable resentment, and even anti-Chinese violence. 
The official national language, Indonesian, is universally taught in schools, and is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of It is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was originally a lingua franca for most of the region, including present-day Malaysia, and is thus closely related to Malay. A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the Indonesian was first promoted by nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the official language on independence in 1945. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages (bahasa daerah), often as their first language. The number of Languages of Indonesia is 742 Of those 737 are living languages 2 are second language without mother-tongue speakers and 3 are extinct A first language (also mother tongue, native language, arterial language, or L1) is the language a human being learns from birth Of these, Javanese is the most widely-spoken, the language of the largest ethnic group. Javanese is the language of the people in the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.  On the other hand, Papua has 500 or more indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages, in a region of just 2. The term Papuan languages refers to those Languages of the western Pacific which are neither Austronesian nor Australian. 7 million people. Much of the older population can still speak a level of Dutch. 
Although religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution, the government officially recognizes only six religions: Islam; Protestantism; Roman Catholicism; Hinduism; Buddhism; and Confucianism. Islam is Indonesia's dominant Religion with approximately 88% over 200 million of its population identifying as Muslims, making it the most Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Hinduism in Indonesia, also known by its formal Indonesian name Agama Hindu Dharma, refers to Hinduism as practised in Indonesia. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B  Although it is not an Islamic state, Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation, with almost 86% of Indonesians declared Muslim according to the 2000 census. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population  11% of the population is Christian, 2% are Hindu, and 1% Buddhist. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese, and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese. The Balinese population of 30 million (15% of Indonesia 's population live mostly on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population  Though now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Indonesian culture has been shaped by long Interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences Islam was first adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th century, through the influence of traders, and became the country's dominant religion by the 16th century.  Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries, and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the country's colonial period. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther  A large proportion of Indonesians—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practice a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs. The Abangan are the population of Javanese Muslims who practice a more syncretic version of Islam than the more orthodox Santri. The Dayak or Dyak (ˈdaɪək are the peoples indigenous to Borneo. Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought 
Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, Malay, and European sources. Indonesian culture has been shaped by long Interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences Wayang is an Indonesian and Malay word for Theatre. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater sometimes the puppet itself is referred Cultural identity is the (feeling of identity of a group or Culture, or of an Individual as far as he or she is influenced by her belonging to a group The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Wayang is an Indonesian and Malay word for Theatre. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater sometimes the puppet itself is referred Textiles such as batik, ikat and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. Batik ( pronunciation:, but often in English is or) is a wax-resist Dyeing technique used on Textile. Ikat, or Ikkat, is a style of Weaving that uses a Resist dyeing process similar to Tie-dye on either the warp or Weft Songket is a fabric that belongs to the Brocade family of Textiles. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant. Indonesian architecture reflects the diversity of cultural, historical and geographic influences that have shaped Indonesia as a whole The most popular sports in Indonesia are badminton and football; Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league. Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles or two opposing pairs (doubles who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Liga Indonesia is the main competition for Indonesian football clubs Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. Sepak takraw ( Indonesian / Malay: "kick" Thai: ตะกร้อ "takraw" Lao: ກະຕໍ້ "ka-taw" In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as, caci in Flores, and pasola in Sumba. Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an Island arc with an estimated area of 14300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia Pasola is a Game played by the Western Sumbanese to celebrate the Rice planting season Sumba is an island in Indonesia, and is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art. Pencak Silat is the official name used to indicate more than 800 martial arts schools and styles spread across more than 13000 islands in Indonesia Sports in Indonesia are generally male-orientated and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling. 
Indonesian cuisine varies by region and is based on Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. See also List of Indonesian cuisine Indonesian cuisine reflects the vast variety of people that live on the 6000 populated islands that make up Indonesia Satay or sate is a dish consisting of chunks or slices of dice-sized Meat ( Chicken, Goat, Mutton, Beef, Pork See also List of Indonesian cuisine Indonesian cuisine reflects the vast variety of people that live on the 6000 populated islands that make up Indonesia The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.  Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. A staple food is a Food that forms the basis of a Traditional diet. A side dish, sometimes referred to as a side order or simply a side, is a food item that accompanies the Entrée or Main course at a Meal Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Coconut milk is a sweet milky white cooking base derived from the meat of a mature Coconut.  Indonesian traditional music includes gamelan and keroncong. A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones xylophones drums and gongs bamboo flutes bowed and Dangdut is a popular contemporary genre of pop music that draws influence from Arabic, Indian, and Malay folk music. Dangdut is a genre of Indonesian Popular music that is partly derived from Arabic, Indian, and Malay folk music The Indonesian film industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia, although it declined significantly in the early 1990s. The cinema of Indonesia has a long history but at present is a small struggling industry The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999  Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased. 
The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century CE. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticized treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians; and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Eduard Douwes Dekker ( 2 March 1820 &ndash 19 February 1887) better known by his Pen name Multatuli, was a Dutch Muhammad Yamin (1903-1962 was born in Talawi Sawahlunto, in the heartland of the Minangkabau on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah, known as Hamka (born in Maninjau, West Sumatra February 17 1908 - July 24 1981 Pramoedya Ananta Toer (6 February 1925 – 30 April 2006 was an Indonesian author of novels short stories essays polemics and histories of his homeland and its people  Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly-rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges  Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media. Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto 's rule during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic Suharto, also spelled Soeharto (June 8 1921 &ndash January 27 2008 was an Indonesian military leader and the second President of Indonesia, holding  The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic For the international Romanian language channel TVR Internaţional see TVRi Televisi Republik Indonesia ( TVRI) is the oldest television station Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. This article is about radio broadcasting for other uses see Radio (disambiguation. At a reported 20 million users in 2007, Internet usage is limited to a minority of the population, approximately 8. 5%.
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